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Acquired weakness

Yaroslav V Kartashov, Victor A Vysloukh
We address dissipative soliton formation in modulated parity-time (PT)-symmetric continuous waveguide arrays composed from waveguides with amplifying and absorbing sections, whose density gradually increases (due to decreasing waveguide separation) either towards the center of the array or towards its edges. In such a structure, the level of gain/loss at which PT-symmetry gets broken depends on the direction of increase of waveguide density. Breakup of PT-symmetry occurs when eigenvalues of modes localized in the region where waveguide density is largest collide and move into a complex plane...
February 15, 2019: Optics Letters
Jingpei Liu, Peng Liu, Zikun Ma, Jianhui Mou, Zhaolin Wang, Dong Sun, Jie Cheng, Dengwei Zhang, Jianlin Xiao
The study aims to investigate the effects of aging on the cervical spine.Outpatients in the study were grouped by age. The cervical spine image in the sagittal plane from participants in the supine position was acquired with MRI. Thoracic inlet angle (TIA), T1 slope (T1S), neck tilt (NT), and cervical angle (CC2-7) were measured.NT and TIA measured 41.84 ± 9.26 and 64.15 ± 10.72 in participants younger than 40, and 53.02 ± 9.52 and 72.09 ± 10.49 in participants older than 40 (P < ...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hossein-Ali Fakher
The main objective of this study is to evaluate 22 explanatory variables on ecological footprints and rank each of them by using the two approaches of Bayesian model averaging and weighted averaging least square in developing countries. The data is in a 20-year period of 1996-2016. According to the negative weighted averaging coefficient of square of gross domestic production (GDP), the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis can be confirmed with a high degree of certainty. The probability of the effect of this variable is 95% and is part of the components of all five optimal models...
February 13, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jean Deschamps, Jordan Webber, Robin Featherstone, Meghan Sebastianski, Ben Vandermeer, Janek Senaratne, Sean M Bagshaw
INTRODUCTION: Predicting successful liberation from mechanical ventilation (MV) among critically ill patients receiving MV can be challenging. The current parameters used to predict successful extubation have shown variable predictive value. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been proposed as a novel biomarker to help guide decision-making in readiness for liberation of MV following a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). Current evidence on the predictive ability of BNP has been uncertain, and BNP has not been integrated into clinical practice guidelines...
February 12, 2019: BMJ Open
Robert Patejdl, Uwe Walter, Sarah Rosener, Martin Sauer, Daniel A Reuter, Johannes Ehler
BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) is associated with poorer outcome of critically ill patients. Microcirculatory changes and altered vascular permeability of skeletal muscles might contribute to the pathogenesis of ICU-AW. Muscular ultrasound (MUS) displays increased muscle echogenicity, although its pathogenesis is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the combined measurement of serum and ultrasound markers to assess ICU-AW and clinical patient outcome...
February 11, 2019: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Han Sang Lee, Jangsup Moon, Hye-Rim Shin, Seon Jae Ahn, Tae-Joon Kim, Jin-Sun Jun, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
Background: Bed-ridden state, dysphagia, altered mental state, or respiratory muscle weakness are common in neurologic patients and increase the risk of pneumonia. The major causes of pneumonia in neurologic patients may differ from those in the general population, resulting in a different pathogen distribution. We investigated the trends of pathogen distribution in culture-positive pneumonia in hospitalized neurologic patients and the related antibiotic resistance in those with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Ke Shang, Hui Li, Xiang Luo
RATIONALE: Risk factors of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) are usually divided into acquired risks (e.g., trauma and pregnancy) and genetic risks (inherited thrombophilia). It is essential but not easy to identify the exact one for each patient. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 14-year-old male patient was admitted in our hospital because of progressively exacerbated severe headache and vomiting for 3 days, accompanied by transient weakness once in his right leg. DIAGNOSIS: CVST due to hyperhomocysteinemia with cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) gene mutation...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Snehal Surana, Ratna Kumar, Matthew Pitt, Patricia Hafner, Ailsa Mclellan, Joyce Davidson, Prab Prabakhar, Angela Vincent, Yael Hacohen, Sukhvir Wright
Acquired neuromyotonia is a form of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. In adults, pathogenic antibodies that target the extracellular domains of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) have been reported. We describe three paediatric patients with acquired neuromyotonia and CASPR2 and LGI1 serum antibodies. They all presented with acute-onset myokymia and pain in the lower limbs; one patient also had muscle weakness. Electromyography was suggestive of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability...
February 6, 2019: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Adriana van Buijtene, Dona Foster
Background: Over 4 million patients acquire a healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) in Europe every year, indicating possible shortcomings in hospitals converting evidence-based infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies into universal adherence. We present a literature review exploring whether insufficient adherence could be culturally based. Aim: To find empirical evidence if and how specific traits of organisational culture improve adherence to IPC strategies utilising HCAI rates as the marker of system failures or successes...
January 2019: Journal of Infection Prevention
H N Beadnall, C Wang, W Van Hecke, A Ribbens, T Billiet, M H Barnett
Background: Whole brain atrophy (WBA) estimates in multiple sclerosis (MS) correlate more robustly with clinical disability than traditional, lesion-based metrics. We compare Structural Image Evaluation using Normalisation of Atrophy (SIENA) with the icobrain longitudinal pipeline (icobrain long), for assessment of longitudinal WBA in MS patients. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan pairs [1.05 (±0.15) year separation] from 102 MS patients were acquired on the same 3T scanner...
2019: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Shanthini Mahendrasingam, David N Furness
Transmembrane channel like protein 1 (TMC1) is likely to be a pore-forming subunit of the transduction channel of cochlear hair cells that is mechanically gated by tension on tip links in the stereocilia bundle. To localise TMC1 precisely, we labelled mice cochleae of different ages using custom-made polyclonal antibodies to TMC1 for light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Immunofluorescence revealed stereocilia labelling at P9 but not at P3 in apical hair cells. Immunogold labelling for TEM confirmed that labelling was absent at P3, and showed weak labelling at P6 with no stereocilia tip labelling, increasing at P9, with specific tip labelling on shorter stereocilia and some throughout the bundle...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Omar Nafi, Bashar Ramadan, Olaf Riess, Rebecca Buchert, Tawfiq Froukh
BACKGROUND: Late infantile ceroid lipofuscinosis is a rare neurodegenerative disorder that appears between the ages of 2 and 4 years and is difficult to diagnose. In this report we present two sisters with this condition, and the clinical course consisted of delayed developmental skills initially and later regression of previously acquired skills. The cases were initially considered as childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD); however, when whole exome sequencing (WES) genetic testing was done, they proved to be variant late infantile ceroid lipofuscinosis...
January 26, 2019: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Xinran Wu, Hong He, Liang Shi, Yunman Xia, Kaixiang Zuang, Qiuyang Feng, Yao Zhang, Zhiting Ren, Dongtao Wei, Jiang Qiu
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most well-known psychiatric disorders, which can be destructive for its damage to people's normal cognitive, emotional and social functions. Personality refers to the unique and stable character of thinking and behavior style of an individual, which has long been thought as a key influence factor for MDD. Although some knowledge about the common neural basic between MDD and personality traits has been acquired, there are few studies exploring dynamic neural mechanism behind them, which changes brain connectivity pattern rapidly to adapt to the environment over time...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Peng Jiang, Boyuan Huang, Liyu Wei, Fei Yan, Xiaowei Huang, Yuhao Li, Shuhong Xie, Kai Pan, Yunya Liu, Jiangyu Li
Collagen is the main protein in extracellular matrix that is found in many connective tissues, and it exhibits piezoelectricity that is expected to correlate with its hierarchical microstructure. Resolving fine electromechanical structure of collagen, however, is challenging, due to its weak piezoresponse, rough topography, and microstructural hierarchy. Here we adopt the newly developed sequential excitation (SE) strategy in combination with piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) to overcome these difficulties...
January 30, 2019: Nanotechnology
Madhu Nagappa, Anita Mahadevan, Gangadhar Yashwanth, Shripad A Patil, Suresh Bokolia, Parayil S Bindu, Sanjib Sinha, Arun B Taly
BACKGROUND: Data on antibody profile in myasthenia gravis (MG) from India are limited. OBJECTIVES: To investigate antibody profile in patients with MG and their clinical correlates. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients of MG (n=85, M:F::1.1:1, mean age: 39.29±17.3 years, mean symptom-duration: 72.94±91.8 months) were evaluated for clinical features, MG foundation of America (MGFA) score, response to treatment and outcome at last follow-up. Antibodies to acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle-specific kinase (MUSK), titin and ryanodine-receptor (RYR) were analysed using ELISA...
January 28, 2019: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Kang Liu, Gang Chen, Shu-Yao Ren, Yuan-Qiang Zhu, Tian-Lei Yu, Ping Tian, Chen Li, Yi-Bin Xi, Zheng-Yu Wang, Jian-Jun Ye, Guo-Hong Han, Hong Yin
Hepatic myelopathy is a complication seen in patients with chronic liver failure with physiologic or iatrogenic portosystemic shunting. The main symptom is progressive lower limb dyskinesia. The role of the brain motor control center in hepatic myelopathy is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the gray matter changes in patients with hepatic myelopathy secondary to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and to examine their clinical relevance. This was a cross-sectional study. Twenty-three liver failure patients with hepatic myelopathy (hepatic myelopathy group), 23 liver failure patients without hepatic myelopathy (non-hepatic myelopathy group) after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and 23 demographically matched healthy volunteers were enrolled from March 2014 to November 2016 at Xijing Hospital, Air Force Military Medical University (Fourth Military Medical University), China...
May 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Andrea Perren, Patrick Zürcher, Joerg C Schefold
Swallowing disorders and respective consequences (including aspiration-induced pneumonia) are often observed in extubated ICU patients with data indicating that a large number of patients are affected. We recently demonstrated in a large-scale analysis that the incidence of post-extubation dysphagia (PED) is 12.4% in a general ICU population and about 18% in emergency admissions to the ICU. Importantly, PED was mostly sustained until hospital discharge and independently predicted 28- and 90-day mortality. Although oropharyngeal/laryngeal trauma, neuromuscular ICU-acquired weakness, reduced sensation/sensorium, dyssynchronous breathing, and gastrointestinal reflux, are all considered to contribute to PED, little is known about the underlying pathomechanisms and risk factors leading to PED in critically ill patients...
January 25, 2019: Dysphagia
Pavel E Volynsky, Dmitry E Nolde, Galina S Zakharova, Rex A Palmer, Alexander G Tonevitsky, Roman G Efremov
How is a water-soluble globular protein able to spontaneously cross a cellular membrane? It is commonly accepted that it undergoes significant structural rearrangements on the lipid-water interface, thus acquiring membrane binding and penetration ability. In this study molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to explore large-scale conformational changes of the globular viscumin A chain in a complex environment - comprising urea and chloroform/methanol (CHCl3 /MeOH) mixture. Being well-packed in aqueous solution, viscumin A undergoes global structural rearrangements in both organic media...
January 23, 2019: Scientific Reports
Rory Pijnenburg, Lianne H Scholtens, Dante Mantini, Wim Vanduffel, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Martijn P van den Heuvel
Functional connectivity is defined as the statistical dependency of neurophysiological activity between 2 separate brain areas. To investigate the biological characteristics of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC)-and in particular the significance of connection-wise variation in time-series correlations-rsFC was compared with strychnine-based connectivity measured in the macaque. Strychnine neuronography is a historical technique that induces activity in cortical areas through means of local administration of the substance strychnine...
January 21, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Knut Müller-Caspary, Florian F Krause, Florian Winkler, Armand Béché, Johan Verbeeck, Sandra Van Aert, Andreas Rosenauer
This study addresses the comparison of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) measurements of momentum transfers using the first moment approach and the established method that uses segmented annular detectors. Using an ultrafast pixelated detector to acquire four-dimensional, momentum-resolved STEM signals, both the first moment calculation and the calculation of the differential phase contrast (DPC) signals are done for the same experimental data. In particular, we investigate the ability to correct the segment-based signal to yield a suitable approximation of the first moment for cases beyond the weak phase object approximation...
December 30, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
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