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dorsal raphe nucleus

James E Hassell, Victoria E Collins, Hao Li, Joshua T Rogers, Ryan C Austin, Ciprian Visceau, Kadi T Nguyen, Miles Orchinik, Christopher A Lowry, Kenneth J Renner
Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) is a corticosterone-sensitive, low-affinity, high-capacity transporter. This transporter functions, in part, to clear monoamines, including serotonin (5-HT), from the extracellular space. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is an important structure controlling fear- and anxiety-related behaviors. The CeA has reciprocal connections with brainstem nuclei containing monoaminergic systems, including serotonergic systems arising from the dorsal raphe nucleus, which are thought to play an important role in modulation of CeA-mediated behavioral responses...
February 15, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Peter Karel, Annette Van der Toorn, Louk Vanderschuren, Chao Guo, Mina Sadighi Alvandi, Liesbeth Reneman, Rick Dijkhuizen, Michel M M Verheij, Judith R Homberg
Excessive use of cocaine is known to induce changes in brain white and gray matter. It is unknown whether the extent of these changes is related to individual differences in vulnerability to cocaine addiction. One factor increasing vulnerability involves reduced expression of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). Human studies have shown that inherited 5-HTT downregulation is associated with structural changes in the brain. These genotype-related structural changes may contribute to risk for cocaine addiction...
February 12, 2019: Addiction Biology
Hwa Chul Shin, Byung Gon Jo, Chan-Yong Lee, Kang-Woo Lee, Uk Namgung
A growing body of evidence shows that the electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can improve mental illness including depression. Here we investigated whether the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is involved in regulating the responsiveness of hippocampal neurons in rats under chronic restraint stress (CRS). c-Fos protein signals were detected 2 h after VNS in 5-HT1A receptor-positive neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) as well as in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Chronic VNS was performed on a daily basis for 2 weeks using an implanted microelectrode in rats that had undergone CRS for 2 weeks...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Madoka Noriuchi, Yoshiaki Kikuchi, Kumiko Mori, Yoko Kamio
Many mothers are adaptive, deploying successful coping strategies that mitigate the deleterious effects of parenting stress on caregiving, nevertheless, the neural mechanisms underlying these adaptive responses remain unclear. We utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activity in 28 healthy mothers of typically developing, 2-to-3-year-old children in response to the feeding behavior of their own children versus that of other children. We then examined the correlation between maternal brain activation and subjective feelings of parenting stress...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Gemma Huguet, Yasin Temel, Elisabet Kádár, Sylvana Pol, Joao Casaca-Carreira, Pilar Segura-Torres, Ali Jahanshahi
Hyperactivity of the dopaminergic pathway is thought to contribute to clinical symptoms in the early stages of Huntington's disease (HD). It is suggested to be result of a reduced dopaminergic inhibition by degeneration of medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Previously, we have shown that the number of dopaminergic cells is increased in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of HD patients and transgenic HD (tgHD) rats during the manifestation phase of the disease; as well as in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of tgHD rats...
January 31, 2019: Brain Research
Hui-Ling Wang, Shiliang Zhang, Jia Qi, Huikun Wang, Roger Cachope, Carlos A Mejias-Aponte, Jorge A Gomez, Gabriel E Mateo-Semidey, Gerard M J Beaudoin, Carlos A Paladini, Joseph F Cheer, Marisela Morales
Dorsal raphe (DR) serotonin neurons provide a major input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Here, we show that DR serotonin transporter (SERT) neurons establish both asymmetric and symmetric synapses on VTA dopamine neurons, but most of these synapses are asymmetric. Moreover, the DR-SERT terminals making asymmetric synapses on VTA dopamine neurons coexpress vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGluT3; transporter for accumulation of glutamate for its synaptic release), suggesting the excitatory nature of these synapses...
January 29, 2019: Cell Reports
Eric W Prouty, Daniel J Chandler, Wen-Jun Gao, Barry D Waterhouse
Glucocorticoid hormones and serotonin (5-HT) are strongly associated with the development and treatment of depression, respectively. Glucocorticoids regulate the function of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), which are the major source of 5-HT to the forebrain. DR 5-HT neurons are electrophysiologically heterogeneous, though whether this phenotypic variation aligns with specific brain functions or neuropsychiatric disease states is largely unknown. The goal of this work was to determine if chronic exogenous glucocorticoid administration differentially affects the electrophysiological profile of DR neurons implicated in the regulation of emotion versus visual sensation by comparing properties of cells projecting to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) vs...
January 28, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Tara Georgina Bautista, Jennifer Leech, Stuart Mazzone, Michael John Farrell
Coughing is an airway protective behaviour elicited by airway irritation. Animal studies show that airway sensory information is relayed via vagal sensory fibers to termination sites within dorsal caudal brainstem and thereafter relayed to more rostral sites. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans, we previously reported that inhalation of the tussigenic stimulus capsaicin evokes a perception of airway irritation ('urge-to-cough') accompanied by activations in a widely distributed brain network including the primary sensorimotor, insular, prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
Rhyomi C Sellnow, Jordan H Newman, Nicole Chambers, Anthony R West, Kathy Steece-Collier, Ivette M Sandoval, Matthew J Benskey, Christopher Bishop, Fredric P Manfredsson
Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) are a prevalent side effect of chronic treatment with levodopa (L-DOPA) for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). It has long been hypothesized that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are capable of L-DOPA uptake and dysregulated release of dopamine (DA), and that this "false neurotransmission" phenomenon is a main contributor to LID development. Indeed, many preclinical studies have demonstrated LID management with serotonin receptor agonist treatment, but unfortunately, promising preclinical data has not been translated in large-scale clinical trials...
January 15, 2019: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Eugenia Saiz-Bianco, Jessika Urbanavicius, Giselle Prunell, Patricia Lagos
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide present in neurons located in the hypothalamus that densely innervate serotonergic cells in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). MCH administration into the DRN induces a depressive-like effect through a serotonergic mechanism. To further understand the interaction between MCH and serotonin, we used primary cultured serotonergic neurons to evaluate the effect of MCH on serotonergic release and metabolism by HPLC-ED measurement of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels...
January 3, 2019: Neuropeptides
Yue Li, Chun-Yue Li, Wang Xi, Sen Jin, Zuo-Hang Wu, Ping Jiang, Ping Dong, Xiao-Bin He, Fu-Qiang Xu, Shumin Duan, Yu-Dong Zhou, Xiao-Ming Li
Both the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are involved in affective control and reward-related behaviors. Moreover, the neuronal activities of the VTA and DRN are modulated by opioids. However, the precise circuits from the VTA to DRN and how opioids modulate these circuits remain unknown. Here, we found that neurons projecting from the VTA to DRN are primarily GABAergic. Rostral VTA (rVTA) GABAergic neurons preferentially innervate DRN GABAergic neurons, thus disinhibiting DRN serotonergic neurons...
December 28, 2018: Neuron
M Neus Fullana, Esther Ruiz-Bronchal, Albert Ferrés-Coy, Elena Juárez-Escoto, Francesc Artigas, Analia Bortolozzi
Elevation of energy metabolism and disturbance of astrocyte number/function in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) contributes to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Functional hyperactivity of vACC may result from reduced astrocytic glutamate uptake and increased neuronal excitation. Here we tested this hypothesis by knocking-down astrocytic glutamate transporter GLAST/GLT-1 expression in mouse infralimbic (IL, rodent equivalent of vACC) or prelimbic (PrL) cortices using RNAi strategies...
January 11, 2019: Glia
Abdellatif Abbaoui, Halima Gamrani
Copper (Cu) is a transition metal and an essential trace element, but excessive levels of Cu might disturb vital functions and systems including the Central Nervous System (CNS). Curcumin has numerous beneficial effects including protective potential on the CNS toxicity. Previous studies have revealed solid evidence showing metal elements implication in the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders, principally anxiety, as well as association between stressful conditions and the inception of anxiety. In addition, it was stated that stressful condition strengthens memory...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Yoshikage Muroi, Toshiaki Ishii
Lactating female mice nurture their pups and attack intruders in their territory. When an intruder invades a dam's territory, she needs to switch her behavior from care to aggression to protect her pups and territory. Although the neuronal mechanisms underlying each distinct behavior have been studied, it is unclear how these behaviors are displayed alternatively. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) regulates both nurturing and aggressive behaviors. In the present study, we examined whether the DRN is involved in regulating alternative display of maternal care and aggression...
December 31, 2018: Neuroscience
Alma Vázquez-Luna, Fabio García-García, Diana I Caudillo Contreras, Eduardo Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Rafael Díaz-Sobac
Recent reports have shown that commercial orange juice is rich in biogenic amines. Consumption of foods containing large amounts of biogenic amines increase hypertensive crisis and high levels of histamine and tyramine, which have been implicated as causative agents in a number of food poisoning episodes. In addition, accumulation of tryptamine in plasma may be associated with mood disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether chronic administration of orange juice extract and tryptamine affects the behavior and c-fos expression in the rat...
January 2, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
Pollyana C Leal, José Marcos M Bispo, Rovena C G J Engelberth, Kayo Diogenes de A Silva, Ywlliane R Meurer, Alessandra M Ribeiro, Regina H Silva, Murilo Marchioro, José R Santos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is mainly characterized by a dopamine deficiency accompanied by structural and functional changes in striatal neuronal projections. However, studies have considered PD as a multi-systemic disease in which the neurodegenerative process extends beyond the dopaminergic system. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the time-course of serotonergic neuron damage in a progressive model of parkinsonism induced by a low dose of reserpine. Thus, male Wistar rats received 4 (ST, short-treatment of reserpine) or 10 (MT, middle-term treatment of reserpine) subcutaneous injections of vehicle or reserpine (0...
December 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Qi-Gang Zhou, Xian-Hui Zhu, Ashley D Nemes, Dong-Ya Zhu
Affective disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BPD), and general anxiety affect more than 10% of population in the world. Notably, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), a downstream signal molecule of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) activation, is abundant in many regions of the brain such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), locus coeruleus (LC), and hypothalamus, which are closely associated with the pathophysiology of affective disorders...
December 2018: IBRO Reports
M R Arnold, P H Williams, J A McArthur, A R Archuleta, C E O'Neill, J E Hassell, D G Smith, R K Bachtell, C A Lowry
Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world. However, animal studies suggest that chronic consumption of caffeine during adolescence can result in enhanced anxiety-like behavioral responses during adulthood. One mechanism through which chronic caffeine administration may influence subsequent anxiety-like responses is through actions on brainstem serotonergic systems. In order to explore potential effects of chronic caffeine consumption on brainstem serotonergic systems, we evaluated the effects of a 28-day exposure to chronic caffeine (0...
December 20, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Lauren Jacobson
Abnormal glucocorticoid levels can cause psychiatric symptoms ranging from depression to euphoria that have been implicated in mood disorders. My overarching hypothesis is that these opposing effects are mediated by glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in different brain regions. My laboratory has shown that GR in the serotonergic dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN) promote depression-like social and behavioral withdrawal in mice. We have also shown that GR in the DRN and noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) exhibit divergent regulation by antidepressants that have differential efficacy for depression subtypes with opposing abnormalities in glucocorticoids...
December 18, 2018: Brain Research
Feng Zhai, Fang Shi, Jing Wang, Chun-Fu Dai, Chunsun Fan
This study aims to explore the anxiety-related behavioral changes and the concentration alterations of monoamine neurotransmitters in balance/anxiety-related nuclei of intratympanic gentamicin (GT)-induced balance disorder models. GT was administrated intratympanically in the adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to establish the vestibular impaired animal model. Rotarod was applied to test the vestibular function, and elevated plus maze and open field test were harnessed to evaluate the anxiety level. Monoamines and their metabolites were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography...
January 16, 2019: Neuroreport
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