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Alzheimer Diabetes

Georgios Liakakis
Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder that has been fully described in clinical, neuropathological and imaging aspects. It is considered as the most prevalent ischemic CNS disorder and has been associated to arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and obstructive sleep apnea. The hallmark of SSVD is the ischemic white matter lesions which can be presented as lacunar infracts and global brain hypoperfusion in a common and homogeneous subtype of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) which is often unrecognized...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
George P Paraskevas
Hereditary types of ischemic cerebral subcortical small vessel disease (SSVD) are rare, usually autosomal dominant, diseases, due to an abnormality in vessel wall synthesis. They may present with various combinations of migraine with aura, ischemic events (transient ischemic attacks, lacunar strokes) and progressively worsening ischemic lesion load in brain imaging. Eventually, vascular cognitive impairment (usually of the frontal-subcortical type) develops, frequently accompanied by behavioral-psychiatric symptoms and bilateral pyramidal and pseudobulbar signs leading to severe disability and premature death...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Anne H S Martinelli, Fernanda C Lopes, Elisa B O John, Célia R Carlini, Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) do not have rigid 3D structures, showing changes in their folding depending on the environment or ligands. Intrinsically disordered proteins are widely spread in eukaryotic genomes, and these proteins participate in many cell regulatory metabolism processes. Some IDPs, when aberrantly folded, can be the cause of some diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and prionic, among others. In these diseases, there are modifications in parts of the protein or in its entirety...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bahare Salehi, Alessandro Venditti, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Dorota Kręgiel, Javad Sharifi-Rad, Alessandra Durazzo, Massimo Lucarini, Antonello Santini, Eliana B Souto, Ettore Novellino, Hubert Antolak, Elena Azzini, William N Setzer, Natália Martins
Several plant bioactive compounds have exhibited functional activities that suggest they could play a remarkable role in preventing a wide range of chronic diseases. The largest group of naturally-occurring polyphenols are the flavonoids, including apigenin. The present work is an updated overview of apigenin, focusing on its health-promoting effects/therapeutic functions and, in particular, results of in vivo research. In addition to an introduction to its chemistry, nutraceutical features have also been described...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michael Annear, Peter Lucas, Tim Wilkinson, Yasuo Shimizu
Dementia is increasing in Australia in line with population ageing and is expected to peak by mid-century. The development of common forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, is associated with lifestyle-related risk factors that are prevalent among middle-aged Australians, including obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes and depression. These risk factors can be significantly ameliorated through regular participation in moderate aerobic physical activity (PA). Current national and international guidelines recommend at least 150 min of aerobic PA per week for achieving health protective effects...
March 15, 2019: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Jacqueline Rosenthal, William Tyor
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to affect a large proportion of persons living with HIV despite effective viral suppression with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Importantly, milder versions of HAND have become more prevalent. The pathogenesis of HAND in the era of cART appears to be multifactorial with contributions from central nervous system (CNS) damage that occur prior to starting cART, chronic immune activation, cART neurotoxicity, and various age-related comorbidities (i...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Hannah Seok, Minyoung Lee, Eugene Shin, Mi Ra Yun, Yong-Ho Lee, Jae Hoon Moon, Eosu Kim, Phil Hyu Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain is a pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and enhancing Aβ clearance is a potential therapeutic strategy. Pioglitazone is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist and is widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. We previously reported that low-dose pioglitazone increased the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), which upregulates the clearance of Aβ, using human brain microvascular endothelial cells...
March 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
C J Carter
Prenatal and early childhood infections have been implicated in autism. Many autism susceptibility genes (206 Autworks genes) are localised in the immune system and are related to immune/infection pathways. They are enriched in the host/pathogen interactomes of 18 separate microbes (bacteria/viruses and fungi) and to the genes regulated by bacterial toxins, mycotoxins and Toll-like receptor ligands. This enrichment was also observed for misregulated genes from a microarray study of leukocytes from autistic toddlers...
March 9, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Talisa Silzer, Robert Barber, Jie Sun, Gita Pathak, Leigh Johnson, Sid O'Bryant, Nicole Phillips
Mitochondrial function has been implicated and studied in numerous complex age-related diseases. Understanding the potential role of mitochondria in disease pathophysiology is of importance due to the rise in prevalence of complex age-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). These two diseases specifically share common pathophysiological characteristics which potentially point to a common root cause or factors for disease exacerbation. Studying the shared phenomena in Mexican Americans is of particular importance due to the disproportionate prevalence of both T2D and AD in this population...
2019: PloS One
Tsering Stobdan, Debashis Sahoo, Priti Azad, Iain Hartley, Erilynn Heinrichsen, Dan Zhou, Gabriel G Haddad
Currently about 2 billion adults globally are estimated to be overweight and ~13% of them are obese. High fat diet (HFD) is one of the major contributing factor to obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Recent findings on the role of HFD in inducing abnormalities in neurocognition and susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease are highly intriguing. Since fundamental molecular pathways are often conserved across species, studies involving Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism can provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involving human disease...
2019: PloS One
Dongjian Chen, Chao Huang, Jie Jin, Yue Wu, Zhuo Chen
Sulforaphane (SFN) is an active component extracted from vegetables like cauliflower and broccoli. Activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling is a common mechanism for the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity of some herb-derived compounds, such as icariin and berberine. However, due to its peculiar ability in Nrf2 activation, SFN is recognized as an activator of Nrf2 and recommended as a supplementation for prevention and/or treatment of disorders like neoplasm and heart failure...
March 8, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Erin L Abner, Peter T Nelson, Gregory A Jicha, Gregory E Cooper, David W Fardo, Frederick A Schmitt, Richard J Kryscio
Tobacco smoking was examined as a risk for dementia and neuropathological burden in 531 initially cognitively normal older adults followed longitudinally at the University of Kentucky's Alzheimer's Disease Center. The cohort was followed for an average of 11.5 years; 111 (20.9% ) participants were diagnosed with dementia, while 242 (45.6% ) died without dementia. At baseline, 49 (9.2% ) participants reported current smoking (median pack-years = 47.3) and 231 (43.5% ) former smoking (median pack-years = 24...
March 2, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Dong Cui, Xinfeng Liu, Minmin Liu, Weifang Cao, Yazhuo Xue, Yongxin Guo, Yancheng Guo, Aixia Lu, Qing Jiao
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and potentially Alzheimer's disease. However, the precise mechanism underlying the effects of glucose on brain abnormalities is not fully understood. The differential effects of glucose alteration on brain changes in patients with T2D and those with prediabetes are also unclear. MRI data were collected from 21 patients with T2D (male/female, 7/14); 21 patients with prediabetes (male/female, 8/13); and 21 age-matched, sex-matched, and education-matched normal controls (male/female, 7/14)...
March 6, 2019: Neuroreport
Paula Domenech-Cebrián, Omar Cauli
BACKGROUND: Many neurological disorders lead to institutionalization and can be accompanied in their advanced stages by functional impairment, and progressive loss of mobility, and cognitive alterations. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the relationship between functional impairment and cognitive performance and its related subdomains in individuals with Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease accompanied by motor dysfunction, and with other neurological disorders characterized by both motor and cognitive problems...
March 10, 2019: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Vincenzo Fiore, Antonia De Rosa, Paolo Falasca, Massimo Marci, Edoardo Guastamacchia, Brunella Licchelli, Vito Angelo Giagulli, Giovanni De Pergola, Antonella Poggi, Vincenzo Triggiani
Background In the last decades both diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease are constantly increasing. Affected individuals, therefore, represent an enormous problem for society, governments and global organizations. These diseases are usually considered as independent conditions, but increasing evidence shows that there are links between these two disorders. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we analyzed common features present in Alzheimer's disease and diabetes mellitus, showing how these two diseases are strictly correlated each other...
March 11, 2019: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Rongyuan Chen, Chunsik Lee, Xianchai Lin, Chen Zhao, Xuri Li
Oxidative stress, due to insufficiency of antioxidants or over-production of oxidants, can lead to severe cell and tissue damage. Oxidative stress occurs constantly and has been shown to be involved in innumerable diseases, such as degenerative, cardiovascular, neurological, and metabolic disorders, cancer, and aging, thus highlighting the vital need of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) was discovered a long time ago, and is abundantly expressed in most types of cells and tissues...
March 6, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Lipika Mirdha, Hirak Chakraborty
The intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) belong to an important class of proteins due to their higher structural flexibility and diverse functions. IDPs lack stable three-dimensional structure and exist as structural ensemble in solution. Furthermore, IDPs have been found to be associated with various neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, diabetes and spinocerebellar ataxia. Several spectroscopic techniques are being employed to predict the structure of IDPs as the X-ray crystallography is immensely challenging due to their structural dynamism...
March 6, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Laura Caberlotto, T-Phuong Nguyen, Mario Lauria, Corrado Priami, Roberto Rimondini, Silvia Maioli, Angel Cedazo-Minguez, Giulia Sita, Fabiana Morroni, Mauro Corsi, Lucia Carboni
Evidence is accumulating that the main chronic diseases of aging Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) share common pathophysiological mechanisms. This study aimed at applying systems biology approaches to increase the knowledge of the shared molecular pathways underpinnings of AD and T2DM. We analysed transcriptomic data of post-mortem AD and T2DM human brains to obtain disease signatures of AD and T2DM and combined them with protein-protein interaction information to construct two disease-specific networks...
March 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
Noriko Ogama, Takashi Sakurai, Shuji Kawashima, Takahisa Tanikawa, Haruhiko Tokuda, Shosuke Satake, Hisayuki Miura, Atsuya Shimizu, Manabu Kokubo, Shumpei Niida, Kenji Toba, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Masafumi Kuzuya
Type 2 diabetes mellitus accelerates loss of muscle mass and strength. Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) also show these conditions, even in the early stages of AD. The mechanism linking glucose management with these muscle changes has not been elucidated but has implications for clarifying these associations and developing preventive strategies to maintain functional capacity. This study included 69 type 2 diabetes patients with a diagnosis of cognitive impairment ( n = 32) and patients with normal cognition ( n = 37)...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Yoichi Yamada, Sayaka Nakamura-Yamada, Kaoru Kusano, Shunsuke Baba
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that have multipotent differentiation and a self-renewal ability. They have been useful not only for dental diseases, but also for systemic diseases. Extensive studies have suggested that DPSCs are effective for various diseases, such as spinal cord injuries, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cerebral ischemia, myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy, diabetes, liver diseases, eye diseases, immune diseases, and oral diseases. DPSCs have the potential for use in a cell-therapeutic paradigm shift to treat these diseases...
March 6, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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