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Newborn infant

Giovanni Barone, Vito D'Andrea, Giovanni Vento, Mauro Pittiruti
BACKGROUND: In adults and children, current guidelines recommend measuring the diameter of the vein before the insertion of central catheters, in order to match vein diameter with catheter caliber and thus reduce the risk of venous thrombosis. In the neonatal intensive care unit, central catheters are often used but the vein diameter is usually not considered. METHOD: We assessed the diameter of the most relevant deep veins in 100 newborns, using a strict protocol of ultrasound evaluation...
March 15, 2019: Neonatology
Florian D Grill, Andrea Rau, Franz X Bauer, Fiona Hellmundt, Bettina Hilmer, Maximilian Roth, Alexandra V Behr, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Denys J Loeffelbein, Lucas M Ritschl
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the efficiency of nasoalveolar moulding (NAM) in patients presenting with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP). It focused explicitly on nasal outcome and therefore made comparisons with healthy age-matched infants with normal nasal development. METHODS: Nasal impressions from 19 BCLP patients were analysed at the beginning and at the end of NAM treatment. In addition, nasal impressions from 32 healthy newborns were taken monthly for 4 months...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Damon Klebe, Mahima Tibrewal, Deep R Sharma, Rachna Vanaparthy, Sunil Krishna, Merina Varghese, Bokun Cheng, Peter R Mouton, Jana Velíšková, Kostantin Dobrenis, Patrick R Hof, Praveen Ballabh
Preterm-born children suffer from neurological and behavioral disorders. Herein, we hypothesized that premature birth and non-maternal care of preterm newborns might disrupt neurobehavioral function, hippocampal dendritic arborization, and dendritic spine density. Additionally, we assessed whether 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement or the TrkB receptor agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF), would reverse compromised dendritic development and cognitive function in preterm newborns. These hypotheses were tested by comparing preterm (E28...
March 16, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Jing Li, Xiaoxia Li, Xianmei Huang, Zhiqun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (nHFOV), a relatively new modality, is gaining popularity despite scarce evidence. This meta-analysis was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nHFOV as respiratory support in premature infants. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception of the database to January 2019. All published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of nHFOV therapy with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) or biphasic nCPAP (BP-CPAP) in newborns for respiratory support were included...
March 15, 2019: Respiratory Research
Emily C Keats, Batool A Haider, Emily Tam, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) deficiencies often coexist among women of reproductive age in low- and middle-income countries. They are exacerbated in pregnancy due to the increased demands of the developing fetus, leading to potentially adverse effects on the mother and baby. A consensus is yet to be reached regarding the replacement of iron and folic acid supplementation with MMNs. Since the last update of this Cochrane Review in 2017, evidence from several trials has become available...
March 14, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
C P Macias, I Monedero-Recuero
We present the case of a pregnant woman who died from disseminated tuberculosis (TB), and the difficulties encountered in diagnosing TB disease in her newborn. We discuss the burden of maternal and neonatal TB and the need for a different approach, one that is not solely based on bacteriologic evidence which, in most cases, tends to be inconclusive. We also explore the difficulties physicians and national TB programs face in managing and developing effective policies for these two highly vulnerable and neglected populations...
March 1, 2019: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Asres Bedaso, Emnet Kebede, Tariku Adamu
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed at assessing skin-to-skin contact (SSC) during the postpartum stay and its determinant factors among mothers at public health institutions in Ethiopia. RESULT: A total of 384 mothers-indexed newborns admitted in postnatal wards were interviewed. The prevalence of mothers' SSC practice to their newborns with in the first 1 h during the postpartum stay was 28.1%. Mothers education (AOR = 18.23 [95% CI 5.26, 63.52]), and number of ANC visits (AOR = 8...
March 14, 2019: BMC Research Notes
Lisa Masucci, Richard A Schreiber, Janusz Kaczorowski, J P Collet, Stirling Bryan
OBJECTIVE: Biliary atresia, a rare newborn liver disease, is the most common cause of liver-related death in children and the main indication for paediatric liver transplantation. Early detection and surgical intervention with a Kasai portoenterostomy offers the best chance for long-term patient survival. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare no universal screening with screening using either a home-based infant stool colour card with passive card distribution strategy, or conjugated bilirubin testing...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Medical Screening
Anja Thiede, Paula Virtala, Iina Ala-Kurikka, Eino Partanen, Minna Huotilainen, Kaija Mikkola, Paavo H T Leppänen, Teija Kujala
OBJECTIVE: Identifying early signs of developmental dyslexia, associated with deficient speech-sound processing, is paramount to establish early interventions. We aimed to find early speech-sound processing deficiencies in dyslexia, expecting diminished and atypically lateralized event-related potentials (ERP) and mismatch responses (MMR) in newborns at dyslexia risk. METHODS: ERPs were recorded to a pseudoword and its variants (vowel-duration, vowel-identity, and syllable-frequency changes) from 88 newborns at high or no familial risk...
February 12, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Vibeke Ramsgaard Eriksen, Simon Trautner, Gitte Holst Hahn, Gorm Greisen
AIM: We hypothesized that compromised cardiac output in asphyxiated infants may influence on the rate of disappearance of lactate due to insufficient perfusion. METHODS: The study was a prospective, observational study, where infants with perinatal asphyxia who met the criteria for therapeutic hypothermia were included. Cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate were measured by electrical velocimetry in 15 newborn infants with perinatal asphyxia during the first six hours of active therapeutic hypothermia...
2019: PloS One
André Chays, Marc Labrousse, Xavier Dubernard
Epidemiology and newborns universal hearing screening, The value and benefits of newborns' systematic hearing screening is no longer debated; one in a thousand children is born deaf. France, being behind in this field, made this screening mandatory in April 2012, giving to the Regional Health Agencies the duty and care to organise this screening within a period of two years. Therefore, theoretically, in all French maternities, hearing signs are sought in all newborns using the detection of otoacoustic emissions or the recording of auditory evoked potentials...
October 2018: La Revue du Praticien
Kexin Lu, Junzhi Huang, Yandong Yang, Dongli Lu
Compared with normal neonates, preterm infants have an immature immune system which causes them to have a higher morbidity rate and even death. In order to reduce the mortality of newborns, we need to find the target genes which affect the preterm and understand their mechanism. It has been verified that microRNA (miRNA)-200 and miRNA-182 are closely related to the incidence of preterm. Therefore, it is significant to predict the target genes which are regulated by them for further understanding the mechanism of preterm...
March 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Brian Komtenza, Srinath Satyanarayana, Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Solomon H Mukungunugwa, Owen Mugurungi, Prosper Chonzi, Ngwarai Sithole, Talent Bvochora, Angela Mushavi
BACKGROUND: Despite high antiretroviral (ARV) treatment coverage among pregnant women for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Zimbabwe, the MTCT rate is still high. Therefore in 2016, the country adopted World Health Organization recommendations of stratifying pregnant women into "High" or"Low" MTCT risk for subsequent provision of HIV exposed infant (HEI) with appropriate follow-up care according to risk status...
2019: PloS One
Teck Guan Ong, Morris Gordon, Shel Sc Banks, Megan R Thomas, Anthony K Akobeng
BACKGROUND: Infantile colic is typically defined as full-force crying for at least three hours per day, on at least three days per week, for at least three weeks. Infantile colic affects a large number of infants and their families worldwide. Its symptoms are broad and general, and while not indicative of disease, may represent a serious underlying condition in a small percentage of infants who may need a medical assessment. Probiotics are live microorganisms that alter the microflora of the host and provide beneficial health effects...
March 13, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Naomi Pode-Shakked, Ayala Blau, Ben Pode-Shakked, Dov Tiosano, Naomi Weintrob, Ori Eyal, Amnon Zung, Floris Levy-Khademi, Yardena Tenenbaum-Rakover, David Zangen, David Gillis, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel, Neta Loewenthal, Liat de Vries, Zohar Landau, Mariana Rachmiel, Abdulsalam Abu-Libdeh, Alon Eliakim, David Strich, Ilana Koren, Alina German, Joseph Sack, Shlomo Almashanu
CONTEXT: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) was among the first genetic disorders included in newborn screening (NBS) programs worldwide, based on 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) levels in dried blood spots. However, the success of NBS for CAH is hampered by high rates of false positive (FP) rates, especially in preterm and low birth-weight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish a set of cutoff values adjusting for both gestational-age (GA) and birth-weight (BW), with the aim of reducing FP rates...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Samantha M Garay, Katrina A Savory, Lorna Sumption, Richard Penketh, Anna B Janssen, Rosalind M John
OBJECTIVES: Maternal lifestyles, including diet, have been linked to infant birthweight. However, customised birthweight centiles (CBWC), which more accurately identify small babies that have increased fetal growth restriction and are at higher risk of newborn morbidity and later life health complications, are rarely considered when studying maternal diet. This study investigated maternal dietary patterns and their impact on infant CBWC within a cohort of women living in South Wales. METHODS: This study utilised cross-sectional data from the longitudinal Grown in Wales (GiW) cohort...
2019: PloS One
Archana B Patel, Kunal Kurhe, Amber Prakash, Savita Bhargav, Suchita Parepalli, Elizabeth V Fogleman, Janet L Moore, Dennis D Wallace, Hemant Kulkarni, Patricia L Hibberd
BACKGROUND: Although rates of preterm birth continue to increase globally, identification of preterm from low birth weight infants remains a challenge. The burden of low birth weight vs preterm is greatest in resource-limited settings, where gestational age (GA) prior to delivery is frequently not known because ultrasound in early pregnancy is not available and estimates of the date of the mother's last menstrual period (LMP) may not be reliable. An alternative option is to assess GA at birth to optimize referral and care of preterm newborns...
March 12, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Haejin Kim, Alexandra R Sitarik, Kimberley Woodcroft, Christine Cole Johnson, Edward Zoratti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The infant gut microbiota has become a focus of multiple epidemiologic and cohort studies. This microbiome is derived from the mother (via the vaginal canal, maternal skin contact, breastfeeding, and possibly in utero microbial transfer) and is likely influenced by multiple external factors. It is now believed by some experts that colonization and formation of the newborn and alterations of gut microbiota in children are dependent on earlier alterations of the microbiota of mothers during or perhaps even before pregnancy...
March 11, 2019: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Sema Arayici, Gulsum Kadioglu Şimşek, Fuat Emre Canpolat, Mehmet Yekta Oncel, Nurdan Uras, Serife Suna Oguz
Background: Neonatal sepsis remains an important and potentially life-threatening clinical syndrome and a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study to investigate whether values of base excess before the onset of clinical signs and symptoms of sepsis indicate infection in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Methods: In this study, a total of 118 infants were enrolled. The infants were classified into two groups: group 1 (sepsis, n=49) and group 2 (control, n=69)...
2019: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Stella Verkhnyatskaya, Michela Ferrari, Paul de Vos, Marthe T C Walvoort
Natural polysaccharides with health benefits are characterized by a large structural diversity and differ in building blocks, linkages, and lengths. They contribute to human health by functioning as anti-adhesives preventing pathogen adhesion, stimulate immune maturation and gut barrier function, and serve as fermentable substrates for gut bacteria. Examples of such beneficial carbohydrates include the human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). Also, specific non-digestible carbohydrates (NDCs), such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are being produced with this purpose in mind, and are currently added to infant formula to stimulate the healthy development of the newborn...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
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