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Prefrontal cortex, obesity, appetite

Cassandra J Lowe, Amy C Reichelt, Peter A Hall
In the modern obesogenic environment, limiting calorie-dense food consumption is partially dependent on the capacity of individuals to override visceral reactions to hyperpalatable and rewarding food cues. In the current review, we employ a health neuroscience framework to outline: (i) how individual variations in prefrontal cortical structure and functionality, and by extension, executive functions, may predispose an individual to the overconsumption of appetitive calorie-dense foods via differences in dietary self-regulation; (ii) how obesity may result in changes to cortical structure and functionality; and (iii) how the relationship between the structure and function of the prefrontal cortex and obesity may be best described as reciprocal in nature...
February 1, 2019: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Burkhard Pleger
Accumulating evidence suggests that non-invasive and invasive brain stimulation may reduce food craving and calorie consumption rendering these techniques potential treatment options for obesity. Non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) or repetitive transcranial magnet stimulation (rTMS) are used to modulate activity in superficially located executive control regions, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Modulation of the DLPFC's activity may alter executive functioning and food reward processing in interconnected dopamine-rich regions such as the striatum or orbitofrontal cortex...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Elena M Marron, Raquel Viejo-Sobera, Guillem Cuatrecasas, Diego Redolar-Ripoll, Pilar García Lorda, Abhishek Datta, Marom Bikson, Greta Magerowski, Miguel Alonso-Alonso
Human neuroimaging studies have consistently reported changes in cerebellar function and integrity in association with obesity. To date, however, the nature of this link has not been studied directly. Emerging evidence suggests a role for the cerebellum in higher cognitive functions through reciprocal connections with the prefrontal cortex. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine appetite changes associated with noninvasive prefronto-cerebellar neuromodulation in obesity. Totally, 12 subjects with class I obesity (mean body mass index 32...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Guanya Li, Gang Ji, Yang Hu, Li Liu, Qingchao Jin, Wenchao Zhang, Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Jizheng Zhao, Karen M von Deneen, Antao Chen, Guangbin Cui, Yu Han, Huaning Wang, Qingchuan Zhao, Kaichun Wu, Corinde E Wiers, Dardo Tomasi, Lorenzo Leggio, Nora D Volkow, Yongzhan Nie, Yi Zhang, Gene-Jack Wang
The "hunger" hormone ghrelin regulates food-intake and preference for high-calorie (HC) food through modulation of the mesocortico-limbic dopaminergic pathway. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric surgery to treat morbid obesity. We tested the hypothesis that LSG-induced reductions in appetite and total ghrelin levels in blood are associated with reduced prefrontal brain reactivity to food cues. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) cue-reactivity task with HC and low-calorie (LC) food pictures was used to investigate brain reactivity in 22 obese participants tested before and one month after bariatric surgery (BS)...
February 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Yi Zhang, Gang Ji, Guanya Li, Yang Hu, Li Liu, Qingchao Jin, Qianqian Meng, Jizheng Zhao, Kai Yuan, Jixn Liu, Karen M von Deneen, Antao Chen, Guangbin Cui, Huaning Wang, Qingchuan Zhao, Kaichun Wu, Jie Tian, Peter Manza, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow, Yongzhan Nie, Gene-Jack Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity, and involves removal of the gastric fundus where ghrelin is mainly produced. Ghrelin stimulates appetite and regulates food intake through its effect on the hypothalamus and hippocampus (HIPP). While ghrelin's role on the hypothalamus has been explored, little is known about its role on HIPP. We tested the hypothesis that LSG-induced reductions in ghrelin levels would be associated with changes in HIPP activity...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Liane Schmidt, Anita Tusche, Nicolas Manoharan, Cendri Hutcherson, Todd Hare, Hilke Plassmann
Making healthy food choices is challenging for many people. Individuals differ greatly in their ability to follow health goals in the face of temptation, but it is unclear what underlies such differences. Using voxel-based morphometry, we investigated in healthy humans (i.e., men and women) the links between structural variation in gray matter volume and individuals' level of success in shifting toward healthier food choices. We combined MRI and choice data into a joint dataset by pooling across three independent studies that used a task prompting participants to explicitly focus on the healthiness of food items before making their food choices...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Franziska J Vettermann, Michael Rullmann, Georg A Becker, Julia Luthardt, Franziska Zientek, Marianne Patt, Philipp M Meyer, Anke McLeod, Matthias Brendel, Matthias Blüher, Michael Stumvoll, Anja Hilbert, Yu-Shin Ding, Osama Sabri, Swen Hesse
PURPOSE: Although the mechanisms by which the central noradrenaline (NA) system influences appetite and controls energy balance are quite well understood, its relationship to changes in body weight remains largely unknown. The main goal of this study was to further clarify whether the brain NA system is a stable trait or whether it can be altered by dietary intervention. METHODS: We aimed to compare central NA transporter (NAT) availability in ten obese, otherwise healthy individuals with a body mass index (BMI) of 42...
July 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Jodi R Godfrey, Maylen Perez Diaz, Melanie Pincus, Zsofia Kovacs-Balint, Eric Feczko, Eric Earl, Oscar Miranda-Dominguez, Damien Fair, Mar M Sanchez, Mark E Wilson, Vasiliki Michopoulos
Exposure to psychosocial stressors increases consumption of palatable, calorically dense diets (CDD) and the risk for obesity, especially in females. While consumption of an obesogenic diet and chronic stress have both been shown to decrease dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) binding and alter functional connectivity (FC) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), it remains uncertain how social experience and dietary environment interact to affect reward pathways critical for the regulation of motivated behavior...
May 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jennifer E Dumaine, Noah T Ashley
Obesity and sleep fragmentation (SF) are often co-occurring pro-inflammatory conditions in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Leptin is a peptide hormone produced by adipocytes that has anorexigenic effects upon appetite while regulating immunity. The role of leptin in mediating inflammatory responses to SF is incompletely understood. Male C57BL/6j (lean) and ob/ob mice (leptin-deficient mice exhibiting obese phenotype) were subjected to SF or control conditions for 24 h using an automated SF chamber. Trunk blood and tissue samples from the periphery (liver, spleen, fat, and heart) and brain (hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus) were collected...
2018: PeerJ
Ruth Percik, Jenny Cina, Batel Even, Asaf Gitler, Diklah Geva, Lior Seluk, Abigail Livny
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite the thorough mapping of brain pathways involved in eating behavior, no treatment aimed at modulating eating dysregulation from its neurocognitive root has been established yet. We aimed to evaluate the effect of N.I.R. H.E.G. (Near Infra-Red Hemoencephalography) neurofeedback training on appetite control, weight and food-related brain activity. METHODS: Six healthy male participants with overweight or mild obesity went through 10 N...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Artur D Surowka, Agata Ziomber, Mateusz Czyzycki, Alessandro Migliori, Kaja Kasper, Magdalena Szczerbowska-Boruchowska
Recent studies highlight that obesity may alter the electric activity in brain areas triggering appetite and craving. Transcranial direct current brain stimulation (tDCS) has recently emerged as a safe alternative for treating food addiction via modulating cortical excitability without any high-risk surgical procedure to be utilized. As for anodal-type tDCS (atDCS), we observe increased excitability and spontaneous firing of the cortical neurons, whilst for the cathodal-type tDCS (ctDCS) a significant decrease is induced...
April 15, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Lauren C Anderson, Gorica D Petrovich
Contemporary environments are saturated with food cues that stimulate appetites in the absence of hunger, which leads to maladaptive eating. These settings can induce persistent drive to eat, as learned behaviors can reappear after extinction. Behavioral paradigms of responding renewal provide a valuable framework to study how food cues contribute to the inability to resist palatable foods and change maladaptive eating habits. Using a rat model for this persistent food motivation, we determined sex differences in the causal function for the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during context-mediated renewal of responding to food cues...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Se-Hong Kim, Ju-Hye Chung, Tae-Hong Kim, Seong Hoon Lim, Youngkook Kim, Yun-Ah Lee, Sang-Wook Song
BACKGROUND: Although some studies have reported significant reductions in food cravings following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), none have examined changes in body weight. OBJECTIVE: We conducted 2-week randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial to examine the effect of rTMS on body weight in obese patients. METHODS: Sixty obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2 ) aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited...
May 2018: Brain Stimulation
Marci E Gluck, Pooja Viswanath, Emma J Stinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a chronic illness and its prevalence is growing worldwide and numerous factors play a role in the regulation of food intake. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in high-order executive function, regulation of limbic reward regions, and the inhibition of impulsive behaviors. Understanding the role of the PFC in the control of appetite regulation may contribute to a greater understanding of the etiology of obesity and could improve weight loss outcomes...
December 2017: Current Obesity Reports
Sascha Heinitz, Martin Reinhardt, Paolo Piaggi, Christopher M Weise, Enrique Diaz, Emma J Stinson, Colleen Venti, Susanne B Votruba, Eric M Wassermann, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, Jonathan Krakoff, Marci E Gluck
Background: Obesity is associated with reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region of the brain that plays a key role in the support of self-regulatory aspects of eating behavior and inhibitory control. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity. Objectives: We tested whether repeated anodal tDCS targeted at the left DLPFC (compared with sham tDCS) has an immediate effect on eating behavior during ad libitum food intake, resulting in weight change, and whether it might influence longer-term food intake-related appetite ratings in individuals with obesity...
December 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Mary Katherine Ray, Maria D Sylvester, Lauren Osborn, Joel Helms, Bulent Turan, Emilee E Burgess, Mary M Boggiano
Obesity remains a major public health concern and novel treatments are needed. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique shown to reduce food craving and consumption, especially when targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) with a right anode/left cathode electrode montage. Despite the implications to treat frank (non-bingeeating) obesity, no study has tested the right anode/left cathode montage in this population. Additionally, most tDCS appetite studies have not controlled for differences in traits under DLPFC control that may influence how well one responds to tDCS...
September 1, 2017: Appetite
David F Marks
When eating control is overridden by hedonic reward, a condition of obesity dyshomeostasis occurs. Appetitive hedonic reward is a natural response to an obesogenic environment containing endemic stress and easily accessible and palatable high-energy foods and beverages. Obesity dyshomeostasis is mediated by the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The ghrelin axis provides the perfect signalling system for feeding dyshomeostasis, affect control and hedonic reward. Dyshomeostasis plays a central role in obesity causation, the addictions and chronic conditions and in persons with diverse bodies...
January 2016: Health Psychology Open
Hayley A Young, Heather Watkins
Reducing the glycemic load (GL) of the diet may benefit appetite control but its utility is complicated by psychological influences on eating. Disinhibited behaviour, a risk factor for overconsumption, is characterized by reduced prefrontal cortex activity, which in turn modulates vagal tone; a phenomenon associated with glucoregulation. This double blind randomised controlled trial explored for the first time the influence of disinhibited eating and vagal tone (heart rate variability (HRV)) on hunger and the postprandial response to GL...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ania M Jastreboff, Rajita Sinha, Jagriti Arora, Cosimo Giannini, Jessica Kubat, Saima Malik, Michelle A Van Name, Nicola Santoro, Mary Savoye, Elvira J Duran, Bridget Pierpont, Gary Cline, R Todd Constable, Robert S Sherwin, Sonia Caprio
Increased sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to higher rates of obesity. Using functional MRI, we assessed brain perfusion responses to drinking two commonly consumed monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, in obese and lean adolescents. Marked differences were observed. In response to drinking glucose, obese adolescents exhibited decreased brain perfusion in brain regions involved in executive function (prefrontal cortex [PFC]) and increased perfusion in homeostatic appetite regions of the brain (hypothalamus)...
July 2016: Diabetes
M Reinhardt, A D Parigi, K Chen, E M Reiman, P Thiyyagura, J Krakoff, M G Hohenadel, D S N T Le, C M Weise
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a type of human genetic obesity that may give us information regarding the physiology of non-syndromic obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the functional correlates of hunger and satiety in individuals with PWS in comparison with healthy controls with obesity, hypothesizing that we would see significant differences in activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) based on prior findings. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study compared the central effects of food consumption in nine individuals with PWS (7 men, 2 women; body fat 35...
September 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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