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Medial hypothalamus

Suwarna Chakraborty, Sunil Jamuna Tripathi, B N Srikumar, T R Raju, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a multifactorial disease which often coexists with cognitive deficits. Depression-induced cognitive deficits are known to be associated with aberrant reward processing, neurochemical and structural alterations. Recent studies have shown that chronic electrical stimulation of brain reward areas induces a robust antidepressant effect. However, the effects of repeated electrical self-stimulation of lateral hypothalamus - medial forebrain bundle (LH-MFB) on depression-induced cognitive deficits and associated neurochemical and structural alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are unknown...
January 31, 2019: Brain Stimulation
Takashi Yamaguchi, Dayu Lin
Aggression is a crucial survival behavior: it is employed to defend territory, compete for food and mating opportunities, protect kin, and resolve disputes. Although widely differing in its behavioral expression, aggression is observed across many species. The neural substrates of aggression have been investigated for nearly a century and two highly conserved circuitries emerge as critical substrates for generating and modulating aggression. One circuitry centers on the medial hypothalamus. Activity of the medial hypothalamic cells closely correlates with attacks and can bi-directionally modulate aggressive behaviors...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Cristina Martín-Pérez, Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Raquel Vilar-López, Antonio Verdejo-García
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents with excess weight are particularly sensitive to stress, which may contribute to the presence of emotional eating behaviors. It is proposed that this may be due to alterations in the connectivity between hypothalamic networks and regions of the "emotional nervous system," involved in the regulation of energy balance and stress processing. However, this remains to be clarified in adolescents with excess weight. METHOD: We investigated whole-brain differences in the functional connectivity of the medial and lateral hypothalamus (MH and LH) between adolescents with excess weight (EW, n = 53; mean age = 14...
February 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Leqiang Sun, Yajie Tang, Keji Yan, Jinsong Yu, Yanyan Zou, Weize Xu, Ke Xiao, Zhihui Zhang, Weiming Li, Beili Wu, Zhe Hu, Kening Chen, Zhen F Fu, Jinxia Dai, Gang Cao
BACKGROUND: Neurotropic virus-based tracers have been extensively applied in mapping and manipulation of neural circuits. However, their neurotropic and neurotoxic properties remain to be fully characterized. METHODS: Through neural circuit tracing, we systematically compared the neurotropism discrepancy among different multi-trans-synaptic and mono-synaptic retrograde viral tracers including pseudorabies virus (PRV), rabies virus (RV), and the newly engineered retro adeno-associated virus (rAAV2-retro) tracers...
February 8, 2019: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Anita Mikołajczyk, Dagmara Złotkowska
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can contribute to the pathogenesis and the clinical symptoms of many diseases such as cancer, mental disorders, neurodegenerative as well as metabolic diseases. The asymptomatic carrier state of Salmonella spp. is a very important public health problem. A subclinical single dose of LPS obtained from S. Enteritidis (5 μg/kg, i.v.) was administered to discern the consequences of changes of various brain peptides such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), galanin (GAL), neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SOM), substance P (SP), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in selected clinically important brain sections and endocrine glands of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), -thyroid (HPT), -ovarian (HPO) axes...
February 2, 2019: Toxins
David F Barnard, Kristin M Gabella, Adam C Kulp, Austin D Parker, Patrick B Dugan, John D Johnson
Elevations in brain interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) during chronic stress exposure have been implicated in behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with depression and anxiety. Two critical regulators of brain IL-1β production during times of stress are glucocorticoids and catecholamines. These hormones work in opposition to one another to inhibit (via glucocorticoid receptors) or stimulate (via beta-adrenergic receptors: β-AR) IL-1β production. While chronic stress often heightens both corticosterone and catecholamine levels, it remains unknown as to how chronic stress may affect the "yin-yang" balance between adrenergic stimulation and glucocorticoid suppression of brain IL-1β...
January 25, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Alessandra Santillo, Luigi Rosati, Marina Prisco, Gabriella Chieffi Baccari, Piero Andreuccetti, Sara Falvo, Maria Maddalena Di Fiore
The purpose of the present study is to highlight the role of aromatase in the neuroendocrine control of the reproductive cycle of the male lizard Podarcis sicula during the three significant phases, i.e. the pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive stages. Using immunohistochemical, biochemical, and hormonal tools, we have determined the localization and the activity of P450 aromatase (P450 aro) in the lizard's brain together with the determination of hormonal profile of sex steroids, i.e. testosterone and 17β-estradiol...
January 29, 2019: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Silvana da Silva Pacheco, Tatiane Araujo Rondini, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carol Fuzeti Elias
The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) is a brainstem site involved in distinct autonomic and behavioral responses. Among them, the motor control of female sexual behavior, including lordosis, is well described. Lordosis reflex is highly dependent on increasing levels of estradiol that occur in the afternoon of the proestrus day in normally cycling females. This effect is thought to be mediated primarily via actions in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). By binding to estrogen receptor α (ERα), estradiol changes the activity of VMH neurons that project to the PAG...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Jesús M López, Ruth Morona, Agustín González
The Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri is the only extant species of the order Ceratodontiformes, which retained most of the primitive features of ancient lobe finned-fishes. Lungfishes are the closest living relatives of land vertebrates and their study is important for deducing the neural traits that were conserved, modified, or lost with the transition from fishes to land vertebrates. We have investigated the nitrergic system with neural nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunohistochemistry and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry, which yielded almost identical results except for the primary olfactory projections and the terminal and preoptic nerve fibers labeled only for NADPH-d...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Abdeslam Chagraoui, Sara Whitestone, Lynn Baassiri, Julien Manem, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
Serotonin2C receptor (5-HT2C ) agonists are promising drugs for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. However, their effect is not completely understood in part because they possibly affect several neurobiological networks simultaneously. We studied the effect of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist WAY-163909 (0.3 and 3 mg/kg; i.p.) on the tissue concentration of dopamine (DA), 5-HT and noradrenaline (NA) in 29 rat brain regions related to motor, cognitive, mood and vegetative networks. We found that WAY-163909, without altering the tissue concentration of NA, increased 5-HT concentrations in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the motor cortex M2 at 3 mg/kg and decreased it in the dorsolateral orbitofrontal cortex at 0...
March 2019: Neurochemistry International
Joseph D Monaco, Rose M De Guzman, Hugh T Blair, Kechen Zhang
During spatial navigation, the frequency and timing of spikes from spatial neurons including place cells in hippocampus and grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex are temporally organized by continuous theta oscillations (6-11 Hz). The theta rhythm is regulated by subcortical structures including the medial septum, but it is unclear how spatial information from place cells may reciprocally organize subcortical theta-rhythmic activity. Here we recorded single-unit spiking from a constellation of subcortical and hippocampal sites to study spatial modulation of rhythmic spike timing in rats freely exploring an open environment...
January 25, 2019: PLoS Computational Biology
Giuseppe Mirone, Carmela Russo, Pietro Spennato, Federica Mazio, Anna Nastro, Giuseppe Cinalli
BACKGROUND: Interhypothalamic adhesions (IHA) are horizontally oriented parenchymal bands of tissue connecting the medial hypothalamic regions across the third ventricle. They can be assessed with high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) techniques. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report MR and neuroendoscopic features of IHA in a 3-year old boy without symptoms referable to the hypothalamus. He presented with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to posterior fossa tumor. An endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) was attempted but was not performed because of the presence of a very thick IHA, that prevented approach to the floor of the third ventricle...
January 21, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Candice B Herber, William C Krause, Liping Wang, James R Bayrer, Alfred Li, Matthew Schmitz, Aaron Fields, Breanna Ford, Zhi Zhang, Michelle S Reid, Daniel K Nomura, Robert A Nissenson, Stephanie M Correa, Holly A Ingraham
Central estrogen signaling coordinates energy expenditure, reproduction, and in concert with peripheral estrogen impacts skeletal homeostasis in females. Here, we ablate estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the medial basal hypothalamus and find a robust bone phenotype only in female mice that results in exceptionally strong trabecular and cortical bones, whose density surpasses other reported mouse models. Stereotaxic guided deletion of ERα in the arcuate nucleus increases bone mass in intact and ovariectomized females, confirming the central role of estrogen signaling in this sex-dependent bone phenotype...
January 11, 2019: Nature Communications
Marie-Pierre de Bournonville, Laura M Vandries, Gregory F Ball, Jacques Balthazart, Charlotte A Cornil
Aromatization within the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) is essential for the expression of male copulatory behavior in Japanese quail. However, several nuclei within the social behavior network (SBN) also express aromatase. Whether aromatase in these loci participates in the behavioral activation is not known. Castrated male Japanese quail were implanted with 2 subcutaneous Silastic capsules filled with crystalline testosterone and with bilateral stereotaxic implants filled with the aromatase inhibitor Vorozole targeting the POM, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) or the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN)...
December 31, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Aminu Imam, Adhil Bhagwandin, Moyosore S Ajao, Paul R Manger
The diencephalon (dorsal thalamus, ventral thalamus and epithalamus) and the hypothalamus, plays central roles in the processing of the majority of neural information within the central nervous system. Given the interactions of the diencephalon and hypothalamus with virtually all portions of the central nervous system, the comparative analysis of these regions lend key insights into potential neural, evolutionary and behavioural specializations in different species. Here we continue our analysis of the brain of the tree pangolin by providing a comprehensive description of the organization of the diencephalon and hypothalamus using a range of standard and immunohistochemical staining methods...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Athineos Philippu
Use of the push-pull superfusing technique has shown that in the brain the release rates of endogenous catecholamines, GABA, glutamate and histamine are not constant but fluctuate temporally according to ultradian rhythms. Rhythmic fluctuations have been found in the posterior and anterior hypothalamus, the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the mammillary body and the medial amygdaloid nucleus of cats and rats. Similar fluctuations appear in the nitric oxide signal registered in the nucleus accumbens, as well as in the power of delta and theta waves of the EEG in the posterior hypothalamus...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Shane B Johnson, Eric B Emmons, Ryan T Lingg, Rachel M Anderson, Sara A Romig-Martin, Ryan T LaLumiere, Nandakumar S Narayanan, Victor Viau, Jason J Radley
One of the challenges facing neuroscience entails localization of circuits and mechanisms accounting for how multiple features of stress responses are organized to promote survival during adverse experiences. The rodent medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is generally regarded as a key site for cognitive and affective information processing, and the anteroventral bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (avBST) integrates homeostatic information from a variety of sources, including the mPFC. Thus, we propose that the mPFC is capable of generating multiple features (endocrine, behavioral) of adaptive responses via its influence over the avBST...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hugo Salais-López, Carmen Agustín-Pavón, Enrique Lanuza, Fernando Martínez-García
Research of the central actions of prolactin is highly focused on females, but this hormone has also documented roles in male physiology and behaviour. Here, we provide the first description of the pattern of prolactin-derived signalling in the male mouse brain, employing the immunostaining of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5) after exogenous prolactin administration. Next, we explore possible sexually dimorphic differences by comparing pSTAT5 immunoreactivity in prolactin-supplemented males and females...
2018: PloS One
Yuki Uchida, Koyuki Atsumi, Shinji Hirano, Nao Koyanagi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of estradiol (E2 ) on thermoregulatory responses induced by menthol in ovariectomized rats. Wistar rats were ovariectomized, and implanted with a silastic tube with or without E2 (E2 (+) and E2 (-) groups). L-menthol (10%) or vehicle was applied to the skin of the whole trunk in selected animals, which were then exposed to 27 °C or 16 °C for 2 h. Continuous body temperature (Tb ), tail skin temperature (Ttail ), and treatment-associated behaviors were measured...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Johannes W de Jong, Seyedeh Atiyeh Afjei, Iskra Pollak Dorocic, James R Peck, Christine Liu, Christina K Kim, Lin Tian, Karl Deisseroth, Stephan Lammel
Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in mediating motivated behaviors, but the circuitry through which they signal positive and negative motivational stimuli is incompletely understood. Using in vivo fiber photometry, we simultaneously recorded activity in DA terminals in different nucleus accumbens (NAc) subnuclei during an aversive and reward conditioning task. We find that DA terminals in the ventral NAc medial shell (vNAcMed) are excited by unexpected aversive outcomes and to cues that predict them, whereas DA terminals in other NAc subregions are persistently depressed...
November 19, 2018: Neuron
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