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Energy homeostasis

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782960/niacin-an-old-lipid-drug-in-a-new-nad-dress
#1
Mario Romani, Dina Carina Hofer, Elena Katsyuba, Johan Auwerx
Niacin, the first anti-dyslipidemic drug, has been at the centerstage of lipid research for many decades before the discovery of statins. However, to date, despite its remarkable effects on lipid profiles, the clinical outcomes of niacin treatment on cardiac events is still debated. In addition to its historically well-defined interactions with central players of lipid metabolism, niacin can be processed by eukaryotic cells to synthesize a crucial cofactor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). NAD+ acts as a cofactor in key cellular processes, including oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and DNA repair...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Lipid Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781833/a-convenient-rapid-sensitive-and-reliable-spectrophotometric-assay-for-adenylate-kinase-activity
#2
Kai Song, Yejing Wang, Yu Li, Chaoxiang Ding, Rui Cai, Gang Tao, Ping Zhao, Qingyou Xia, Huawei He
Enzymatic activity assays are essential and critical for the study of enzyme kinetics. Adenylate kinase (Adk) plays a fundamental role in cellular energy and nucleotide homeostasis. To date, assays based on different principles have been used for the determination of Adk activity. Here, we show a spectrophotometric analysis technique to determine Adk activity with bromothymol blue as a pH indicator. We analyzed the effects of substrates and the pH indicator on the assay using orthogonal design and then established the most optimal assay for Adk activity...
February 13, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779249/identification-of-micrornas-for-regulating-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-expression-in-immature-boar-sertoli-cells-in-vitro
#3
Jiao Jiao Zhang, Wei Rong Yang, Yi Wang, Liang Chen, Dong Kee Jeong, Xian Zhong Wang
Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in cellular energy homeostasis and cell proliferation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression in biological processes. It is unclear to whether miRNAs are involved in AMPK-regulated Sertoli cell (SC) proliferation. To further understand the regulation of miRNAs in the immature boar SC proliferation, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) was added to activate AMPK. By an Illumina small RNA deep sequencing, we obtained sequences and relative expression levels of 272 known mature miRNAs, among which 9 miRNAs were significantly upregulated whereas 16 miRNAs were downregulated following the AICAR treatment...
February 18, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778730/distribution-of-neuropeptide-f-in-the-ventral-nerve-cord-and-its-possible-role-on-testicular-development-and-germ-cell-proliferation-in-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#4
Sirorat Thongrod, Chaitip Wanichanon, Prasert Sobhon
Neuropeptide F in invertebrates is a homolog of neuropeptide Y in mammals and it is a member of FMRFamide-related peptides. In arthropods, such as insects, there are two types of neuropeptide F comprising long neuropeptide F (NPF) and short neuropeptide F (sNPF). Both NPFs are known to play a crucial role in the regulations of foraging, feeding-related behaviors, circadian rhythm, stress responses, aggression and reproduction in invertebrates. We have earlier found that in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, there are three isoforms of NPF and four isoforms of sNPF and that NPFs are expressed in the eyestalks and brain...
February 19, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777185/measurement-of-feeding-rates-respiration-and-ph-regulatory-processes-in-the-light-of-ocean-acidification-research
#5
Meike Stumpp, Sam Dupont, Marian Y Hu
The physiology of marine larvae has received considerable attention in the context of anthropogenic ocean acidification (OA). Many marine larvae including those of echinoderms, hemichordates, and mollusks are characterized by a developmental delay when exposed to reductions in seawater pH with the underlying mechanisms being largely unexplored. A key task in the frame of OA research lies in the identification of unifying physiological principles that may explain reductions in growth and development. The sea urchin larva has been identified as a good model organism, and energy allocations toward compensatory processes were found to be key factors affecting development...
2019: Methods in Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776001/therapeutic-potential-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Xin Wang, Helena R Zimmermann, Tao Ma
Currently there is no cure or effective disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia that is becoming a global threat to public health. It is important to develop novel therapeutic strategies targeting AD pathophysiology particularly synaptic failure and cognitive impairments. Recent studies revealed several molecular signaling pathways potentially linked to brain pathology and synaptic failure in AD, including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master kinase that plays a central role in the maintenance of cellular energy homeostasis...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774404/leptin-resistance-underlying-mechanisms-and-diagnosis
#7
REVIEW
Olga Gruzdeva, Daria Borodkina, Evgenya Uchasova, Yulia Dyleva, Olga Barbarash
Leptin and its receptors have been identified as key regulators of body weight and energy homeostasis. A decrease in tissue sensitivity to leptin leads to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Mechanisms underlying the development of leptin resistance include mutations in the genes encoding leptin and its receptors, as well as proteins involved in self-regulation of leptin synthesis and blood-brain barrier permeability. Leptin resistance encompasses a complex pathophysiological phenomenon with a number of potential research lines...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772465/chemical-genetic-screen-identifies-gapex-5-gapvd1-and-stbd1-as-novel-ampk-substrates
#8
Serge Ducommun, Maria Deak, Anja Zeigerer, Olga Göransson, Susanne Seitz, Caterina Collodet, Agnete B Madsen, Thomas E Jensen, Benoit Viollet, Marc Foretz, Philipp Gut, David Sumpton, Kei Sakamoto
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, acting as a sensor of energy and nutrient status. As such, AMPK is considered a promising drug target for treatment of medical conditions particularly associated with metabolic dysfunctions. To better understand the downstream effectors and physiological consequences of AMPK activation, we have employed a chemical genetic screen in mouse primary hepatocytes in an attempt to identify novel AMPK targets. Treatment of hepatocytes with a potent and specific AMPK activator 991 resulted in identification of 65 proteins phosphorylated upon AMPK activation, which are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as lipid/glycogen metabolism, vesicle trafficking, and cytoskeleton organization...
February 14, 2019: Cellular Signalling
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772257/the-brown-adipose-tissue-glucagon-receptor-is-functional-but-not-essential-for-control-of-energy-homeostasis-in-mice
#9
Jacqueline L Beaudry, Kiran Deep Kaur, Elodie M Varin, Laurie L Baggio, Xiemin Cao, Erin E Mulvihill, Jennifer H Stern, Jonathan E Campbell, Phillip E Scherer, Daniel J Drucker
OBJECTIVE: Administration of glucagon (GCG) or GCG-containing co-agonists reduces body weight and increases energy expenditure. These actions appear to be transduced by multiple direct and indirect GCG receptor (GCGR)-dependent mechanisms. Although the canonical GCGR is expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) the importance of BAT GCGR activity for the physiological control of body weight, or the response to GCG agonism, has not been defined. METHODS: We studied the mechanisms linking GCG action to acute increases in oxygen consumption using wildtype (WT), Ucp1-/- and Fgf21-/- mice...
February 5, 2019: Molecular Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772025/analysis-of-the-genetic-architecture-of-energy-balance-and-its-major-determinants-dry-matter-intake-and-energy-corrected-milk-yield-in-primiparous-holstein-cows
#10
N Krattenmacher, G Thaller, J Tetens
The focus of modern dairy cow breeding programs has shifted from being mainly yield based toward balanced goals that increasingly consider functional traits such as fertility, metabolic stability, and longevity. To improve these traits, a less pronounced energy deficit postpartum is considered a key challenge. On the other hand, feed efficiency and methane emissions are gaining importance, possibly leading to conflicts in the design of breeding goals. Dry matter intake (DMI) is one of the major determinants of energy balance (EB), and recently some efforts were undertaken to include DMI in genomic breeding programs...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770932/aging-alters-phenotypic-traits-of-thyroid-dysfunction-in-male-mice-with-divergent-effects-on-complex-systems-but-preserved-thyroid-hormone-action-in-target-organs
#11
Kathrin Engels, Helena Rakov, Georg Sebastian Hönes, Klaudia Brix, Josef Köhrle, Denise Zwanziger, Lars Christian Moeller, Dagmar Führer
Clinical manifestation of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism vary with age, with an attenuated, oligosymptomatic presentation of thyroid dysfunction (TD) in older patients. We asked, whether in rodents TD phenotypes are influenced by age and whether this involves changes in systemic and/or organ thyroid hormone (TH) signaling. Chronic hyper- or hypothyroidism was induced in male mice at different life stages (5, 12, 20 months). TH excess resulted in pronounced age-specific body weight changes (increase in youngest and decrease in old mice), neither explained by changes in food intake (similar increase at all ages), nor by thermogenic gene expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) or TH serum concentrations...
February 16, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770604/differential-responses-to-ocean-acidification-between-populations-of-balanophyllia-elegans-corals-from-high-and-low-upwelling-environments
#12
Joanna S Griffiths, Francis T-C Pan, Morgan W Kelly
Ocean acidification (OA), the global decrease in surface water pH from absorption of anthropogenic CO2 , may put many marine taxa at risk. However, populations that experience extreme localized conditions, and are adapted to these conditions predicted in the global ocean in 2100, may be more tolerant to future OA. By identifying locally adapted populations, researchers can examine the mechanisms used to cope with decreasing pH. One oceanographic process that influences pH, is wind driven upwelling. Here we compare two Californian populations of the coral Balanophyllia elegans from distinct upwelling regimes, and test their physiological and transcriptomic responses to experimental seawater acidification...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Ecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770154/binding-of-thiazolidinediones-to-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-protein-nutrient-deprivation-autophagy-factor-1
#13
Werner J Geldenhuys, Robert Skolik, Mary E Konkle, Michael A Menze, Timothy E Long, Aaron R Robart
Nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1, miner1; gene cisd2) is part of the [2Fe-2S]-containing protein family which includes mitoNEET (gene cisd1) and MiNT (miner2; gene cisd3). These proteins are redox active and are thought to play an important role in cellular energy homeostasis with NAF-1 playing a critical role in calcium regulation and aging. To date, no studies have investigated potential ligand interaction with NAF-1. Here we show that the thiazolidinediones pioglitazone and rosiglitazone along with the mitoNEET ligand, NL-1, bind to NAF-1 with low micromolar affinities...
February 1, 2019: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768855/bioluminescence-resonance-energy-transfer-2-bret2-based-ras-biosensors-to-characterize-ras-inhibitors
#14
Nicolas Bery, Terence H Rabbitts
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are principle biological processes that control normal cell growth, differentiation, and homeostasis but are also crucial in diseases such as malignancy, neuropathy, and infection. Despite the importance of PPIs in biology, this target class has been very challenging to convert to therapeutics. In the last decade, much progress has been made in the inhibition of PPIs involved in diseases, but many remain difficult such as RAS-effector interactions in cancers. We describe here a protocol for using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer 2 (BRET2)-based RAS biosensors to detect and characterize RAS PPI inhibition by macromolecules and small molecules...
February 15, 2019: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768368/paternal-high-fat-diet-transgenerationally-impacts-hepatic-immunometabolism
#15
Thais de Castro Barbosa, Petter S Alm, Anna Krook, Romain Barrès, Juleen R Zierath
Paternal preconceptional high-fat diet (HFD) alters whole-body glucose and energy homeostasis over several generations, which may be mediated by altered transcriptomic profiles of metabolic organs. We investigated the effect of paternal HFD on the hepatic transcriptomic and metabolic signatures of female grand-offspring. Paternal HFD strongly impacted the liver transcriptome of the second-generation offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed grandpaternal-HFD altered the TNF-α signaling via NFκB pathway, independent of the grand-offspring's diet...
February 15, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764771/co-expression-of-spsos1-and-spaha1-in-transgenic-arabidopsis-plants-improves-salinity-tolerance
#16
Yafei Fan, Xiaochang Yin, Qing Xie, Youquan Xia, Zhenyu Wang, Jie Song, Yang Zhou, Xingyu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Na+ extrusion from cells is important for plant growth in high saline environments. SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1), an Na+ /H+ antiporter located in the plasma membrane (PM), functions in toxic Na+ extrusion from cells using energy from an electrochemical proton gradient produced by a PM-localized H+ -ATPase (AHA). Therefore, SOS1 and AHA are involved in plant adaption to salt stress. RESULTS: In this study, the genes encoding SOS1 and AHA from the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum (SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, respectively) were introduced together or singly into Arabidopsis plants...
February 14, 2019: BMC Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761017/brown-and-brite-the-fat-soldiers-in-the-anti-obesity-fight
#17
REVIEW
Shireesh Srivastava, Richard L Veech
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is proposed to maintain thermal homeostasis through dissipation of chemical energy as heat by the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) present in their mitochondria. The recent demonstration of the presence of BAT in humans has invigorated research in this area. The research has provided many new insights into the biology and functioning of this tissue and the biological implications of its altered activities. Another finding of interest is browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) resulting in what is known as beige/brite cells, which have increased mitochondrial proteins and UCPs...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759876/the-importance-of-peripheral-nerves-in-adipose-tissue-for-the-regulation-of-energy-balance
#18
REVIEW
Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Jake W Willows, Cory P Johnson, Kristy L Townsend
Brown and white adipose tissues are essential for maintenance of proper energy balance and metabolic health. In order to function efficiently, these tissues require both endocrine and neural communication with the brain. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the inducible brown adipocytes that appear in white adipose tissue (WAT) after simulation, are thermogenic and energy expending. This uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated process requires input from sympathetic nerves releasing norepinephrine. In addition to sympathetic noradrenergic signaling, adipose tissue contains sensory nerves that may be important for relaying fuel status to the brain...
February 12, 2019: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759771/the-astrocytic-camp-pathway-in-health-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Zhiwen Zhou, Yuji Ikegaya, Ryuta Koyama
Astrocytes are major glial cells that play critical roles in brain homeostasis. Abnormalities in astrocytic functions can lead to brain disorders. Astrocytes also respond to injury and disease through gliosis and immune activation, which can be both protective and detrimental. Thus, it is essential to elucidate the function of astrocytes in order to understand the physiology of the brain to develop therapeutic strategies against brain diseases. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a major second messenger that triggers various downstream cellular machinery in a wide variety of cells...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759716/amp-activated-protein-kinase-signalling
#20
EDITORIAL
Dietbert Neumann, Benoit Viollet
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells and organisms [...].
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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