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Shweta Prasad, Apurva Shah, Ketaki Swapnil Bhalsing, Keshav J Kumar, Jitender Saini, Madhura Ingalhalikar, Pramod Kumar Pal
Multi-domain cognitive impairment (CI) has been frequently described in patients with essential tremor (ET). However, the exact neuroanatomical basis for this impairment is uncertain. This study aims to ascertain the role of the hippocampal formation in cognitive impairment in ET. Forty patients with ET and 40 age, gender and education matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. Cognition was assessed using a structured neuropsychological battery and patients were categorized as ET with CI (ETCI) and ET without CI (ETNCI)...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Kejun Chen, HuangJingWei Li, Yan Xu, Kang Liu, Hongmei Li, Xiaowen Xu, Xiaoqing Qiu, Min Liu
A steady sulfur cathode is central to realizing stable room temperature sodium-sulfur (RT Na-S) batteries. Here, sulfur atoms are incorporated into carbon to form thioether bond functionalized carbon (SC) as a cathode material for sodium storage, which is capable of the complete elimination or great suppression of the shuttle effect of soluble poly-sulfides by the generation of insoluble sulfides in RT Na-S batteries using an ordinary carbonate electrolyte. This thioether bond structure (C-S-C) in sulfur-doped carbon can be disassembled by the assistance of "voltage-scissors" in the low voltage range of 0...
March 19, 2019: Nanoscale
Jianhui Chen, Xiaojun He, Baisheng Sa, Jian Zhou, Chao Xu, Cuilian Wen, Zhimei Sun
van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures, achieved by binding various two-dimensional (2D) materials together via vdW interaction, expand the family of 2D materials and show fascinating possibilities. In this work, we have systematically investigated the geometrical structures, electronic structures, and optical properties of III-VI (MX, M = Ga, In and X = S, Se, Te) vdW heterostructures and their corresponding applications in sustainable energy related areas based on first principles calculations. It is highlighted that different heterostructure types can be achieved in spite of the similar electronic structures of MX monolayers...
March 19, 2019: Nanoscale
Guangzhao Qin, Kuan-Rong Hao, Qing-Bo Yan, Ming Hu, Gang Su
Seeking for next-generation energy sources that are economic, sustainable (renewable), clean (environment-friendly), and earth-abundant, is crucial when facing the challenges of the energy crisis. There have been numerous studies exploring the possibility of carbon-based materials to be utilized in future energy applications. In this paper, we introduce T-carbon, which is a theoretically predicted but also a recently experimentally synthesized carbon allotrope, as a promising material for next-generation energy applications...
March 19, 2019: Nanoscale
Sara E Espinoza, Nicolas Musi, Chen-Pin Wang, Joel Michalek, Beverly Orsak, Terry Romo, Becky Powers, Alicia Conde, Melody Moris, Darcy Bair-Kelps, Yan Li, Vinutha Ganapathy, Tyson E Jergensen, Lauri C Kelly, Rozmin Jiwani
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that leads to poor health outcomes with aging. Previous studies have demonstrated that insulin resistance and inflammation predict frailty onset. Metformin is a widely-used, well-tolerated drug that improves insulin sensitivity and displays anti-inflammatory properties. It is also known to prevent diabetes onset in adults with pre-diabetes. We hypothesize that metformin in older adults with pre-diabetes will promote healthy aging and prevent frailty...
March 19, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Wangda Li, Hooman Yaghoobnejad Asl, Qiang Xie, Arumugam Manthiram
Volume variation and the associated mechanical fracture of elec-trode materials upon Li extraction/insertion are a main cause limit-ing lifetime performance of lithium-ion batteries. For LiNi1-x-yCoxMnyO2 (NCM) cathodes, abrupt anisotropic collapse of the layered lattice structure at deep charge is generally considered char-acteristic to high Ni content and can be effectively suppressed by elemental substitution. Herein, we demonstrate the lattice collapse is a universal phenomenon almost entirely dependent on Li utilization, and not Ni content, of NCM cathodes upon delithiation...
March 19, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Sujong Chae, Seong-Hyeon Choi, Namhyung Kim, Jaekyung Sung, Jaephil Cho
Silicon (Si) has been considered as the most promising anode material for overcoming the theoretical capacity limit of a carbonaceous anode. Since the implementation of nanotechnology on Si anode, the significant progress has been made as addressing severe volume change during (de)lithiation. However, the practical application of Si anodes in commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been still stagnant. Nowadays, with the drastic increase in energy demands of diverse industries, co-utilization of Si and graphite has resurfaced as the commercially viable method for realizing high energy...
March 19, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Van Hiep Nguyen, Jaehwan Kim, Rassoul Tabassian, Moumita Kotal, Kiwoo Jun, Jung-Hwan Oh, Ji-Myeong Son, Muhammad Taha Manzoor, Kwang Jin Kim, Il-Kwon Oh
Electroactive ionic soft actuators, a type of artificial muscles containing a polymer electrolyte membrane sandwiched between two electrodes, have been intensively investigated owing to their potential applications to bioinspired soft robotics, wearable electronics, and active biomedical devices. However, the design and synthesis of an efficient polymer electrolyte suitable for ion migration have been major challenges in developing high-performance ionic soft actuators. Herein, a highly bendable ionic soft actuator based on an unprecedented block copolymer is reported, i...
March 6, 2019: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Hao Wu, Wenjun Liu, Lihua Zheng, Danfeng Zhu, Ning Du, Chengmao Xiao, Liwei Su, Lianbang Wang
In this work, we introduce Ni nanopyramid arrays (NPAs) supported amorphous Ge anode architecture and demonstrate its effective improvement in sodium storage properties. The Ni-Ge NPAs are prepared by facile electrodeposition and sputtering method, which eliminates the need for any binder or conductive additive when used as a Na-ion battery anode. The electrodes display stable cycling performance and enhanced rate capabilities in contrast with planar Ge electrodes, which can be owing to the rational design of the architectured electrodes and firm bonding between current collector and active material (i...
March 2019: ChemistryOpen
Mouna Ben Yahia, Jean Vergnet, Matthieu Saubanère, Marie-Liesse Doublet
Anionic redox in Li-rich and Na-rich transition metal oxides (A-rich-TMOs) has emerged as a new paradigm to increase the energy density of rechargeable batteries. Ever since, numerous electrodes delivering extra anionic capacity beyond the theoretical cationic capacity have been reported. Unfortunately, most often the anionic capacity achieved in charge is partly irreversible in discharge. A unified picture of anionic redox in A-rich-TMOs is designed here to identify the electronic origin of this irreversibility and to propose new directions to improve the cycling performance of the electrodes...
March 18, 2019: Nature Materials
David V Gauvin, Zachary J Zimmermann
There is a general sentiment in the nonclinical safety assessment literature and the proponents of the International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), that the "Modified Irwin" and the Functional Observation Battery are distinct and unique assays for the nonclinical assessment of the central nervous system (CNS). We identify and defend the position that the Irwin screen was developed as an FOB and both terms refer to a single, unitary functional assay...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Richard J Adams, Allison L Ellington, Kate Armstead, Kristen Sheffield, James T Patrie, Paul T Diamond
Hand motor control deficits following stroke can diminish the ability of patients to participate in daily activities. This study investigated the criterion validity of upper extremity (UE) performance measures automatically derived from sensor data during manual practice of simulated instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) within a virtual environment. A commercial glove orthosis was specially instrumented with motion tracking sensors to enable patients to interact, through functional UE movements, with a computer-generated virtual world using the SaeboVR software system...
April 2019: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Johanna Besler, Uzair Ansari, Volker Liebe, Rainer Schimpf, Erol Tülümen, Boris Rudic, Siegfried Lang, Katja Odening, Lukas Cyganek, Christian Wolpert, Xiaobo Zhou, Martin Borggrefe, Ibrahim Akin
BACKGROUND: Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is associated with sudden cardiac death and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation is recommended in this rare disease. However, only a few SQTS families have been reported in literature with limited follow-up data. OBJECTIVES: In the recent study, we describe the outcome data of 57 SQTS patients receiving ICD implantation. This includes seven SQTS families consecutively admitted to our hospital between 2002 and 2017 as well as patients reported in published literature...
March 16, 2019: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Richard A LaFountain, Vincent J Miller, Emily C Barnhart, Parker N Hyde, Christopher D Crabtree, Fionn T McSwiney, Mathew K Beeler, Alex Buga, Teryn N Sapper, Jay A Short, Madison L Bowling, William J Kraemer, Orlando P Simonetti, Carl M Maresh, Jeff S Volek
INTRODUCTION: Ketogenic diets (KDs) that elevate ketones into a range referred to as nutritional ketosis represent a possible nutrition approach to address the emerging physical readiness and obesity challenge in the military. An emerging body of evidence demonstrates broad-spectrum health benefits attributed to being in nutritional ketosis, but no studies have specifically explored the use of a KD in a military population using daily ketone monitoring to personalize the diet prescription...
March 16, 2019: Military Medicine
C Bortoluzzi, B S Vieira, C Hofacre, T J Applegate
The objective of this study was to evaluate performance, diversity, composition, and predicted function of the intestinal microbiota of broilers raised under 3 different methods to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). The chicks in Experiments 1 and 2 were vaccinated against coccidiosis on day 1. Experiment 1: non-challenged and challenged birds were raised in floor pens with new litter and 58 birds/pen. The challenge consisted of Eimeria maxima inoculation on day 14 and Clostridium perfringens via water on days 18 to 19...
March 16, 2019: Poultry Science
Lambros Messinis, Dimitris Apostolopoulos, Tryfon Spiridonidis, Grigorios Nasios, Aikaterini Giazkoulidou, Magda Tsolaki, Vasilis Panagiotopoulos
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment is present in up to 65% of Relapsing Remitting Multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and can be extremely debilitating. Although deficits in episodic memory and processing speed occur more frequently than executive deficits, executive dysfunction tends to have a significant impact on MS patients' ability to generate strategies, think divergently, solve and estimate problems, and reason in abstract terms with substantial negative impacts on activities of daily living...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Euphrosyni Koutsouraki, Thaleia Kalatha, Effrosyni Grosi, Theodoros Koukoulidis, Dimitrios Michmizos
Cognitive impairment is a common phenomenon in multiple sclerosis (MS), occurring at all stages of the disease, even at the earliest, and can be a major source of disability, social impairment, and impoverished quality of life. Cognitive dysfunction is mainly focused on working memory, conceptual reasoning, verbal fluency, speed of information processing, attention and executive function. Additional clinical factors, including disease course, fatigue and affective disturbance, can impact the degree of MS-related cognitive impairment...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Ioanna Katsouri, Loukas Athanasiadis, Evangelos Bekiaris, Magda Tsolaki
AIM: The study describes the driving habits of people with cognitive disorders and previous professional driving experience. A similar study has not been mentioned in the literature. METHOD: From a total of 639 drivers who participated in the research, 153 participants were selected based on their answer on an extensive driving questionnaire. They were asked whether they had a professional driving license. Forty-three participants (28.1%) said "Yes", 110 participants (71...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Effimia Triantafyllidou, Despina Moraitou, Eleni Kaklamanaki, Tamara Georgiadou, Marina Athanasaki, Eleftheria Malliopoulou, Christina Schina, Marika Hamoli, Smaro Moschou, Zoi Petropoulou, Paris Mpoulakis, Eleni Douli, Konstantina Pagoni, Sofia Nikolaidou, Chrysanthi Despoina Nouli, Elvira Masoura, Magda Tsolaki, Georgia Papantoniou
AIM: The aim of the present study was the qualitative comparison of working memory capacity of young children and older adults through the investigation of the latent structure stability or change in Working Memory capacity (WM) in childhood and aging, using Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA). METHOD: The sample consisted of 62 kindergarten and 56 elementary school students (age range: 4-8 years) and 52 young-old adults and 54 old-old adults (age range: 60-94 years)...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Lu Lu, Sheng Li, Jun Li, Lifang Lan, Yan Lu, Shuaijun Xu, Si Huang, Chunyang Pan, Fenghua Zhao
The FeF3 ·0.33H2 O cathode material can exhibit a high capacity and high energy density through transfer of multiple electrons in the conversion reaction and has attracted great attention from researchers. However, the low conductivity of FeF3 ·0.33H2 O greatly restricts its application. Generally, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene can be used as conductive networks to improve the conductivities of active materials. In this work, the FeF3 ·0.33H2 O cathode material was synthesized via a liquid-phase method, and the FeF3 ·0...
March 15, 2019: Nanoscale Research Letters
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