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Human fertilization

Wazir Muhammad, Matiulluh, Asad Ullah, Sajjad Tahir, Fawad Ullah, Matiulluh Khan
In our environment, various naturally occurring radionuclides are present (both underground and overground) in several places, which results in lifelong human exposure. The radiation dose received by human beings from the radiation emitted by these naturally occurring radionuclides is approximately 87%. Exposure to radiation poses radiological health hazards. To assess the human health hazards from radiation, the concentration of these naturally occurring radionuclides are measured in soil (used for cultivation), building materials (soil, bricks, sand, marble, etc...
February 12, 2019: Reviews on Environmental Health
Lijun Dai, Lingqing Wang, Tao Liang, Yongyong Zhang, Jing Li, Jun Xiao, Linlin Dong, Haidong Zhang
Due to increasing anthropogenic disturbance, various pollutants have been frequently detected in QingHai-Tibet Plateau, where the environment is extremely fragile and sensitive to human activities. In this study, 51 sampling sites with different land covers were selected in a sub-basin in the Huangshui watershed in eastern QingHai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 102 soil samples were collected at surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) depths for studying on heavy metal pollution in this region. The relationships between land cover types and spatial distribution of five heavy metals Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn were systematically analyzed combing field survey, remote-sensing database, and geostatistical methods...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Shuly Lim, Michelina Kierzek, Anne E O'Connor, Christoph Brenker, D Jo Merriner, Hidenobu Okuda, Marianna Volpert, Avinash Gaikwad, Deborah Bianco, David Potter, Ranganathan Prabhakar, Timo Strünker, Moira K O'Bryan
The Cysteine-RIch Secretory Proteins (CRISPs) are a group of proteins which show a pronounced expression biased to the male reproductive tract. While sperm encounter CRISPs at virtually all phases of sperm development and maturation, CRISP2 is the sole CRISP produced during spermatogenesis, wherein it is incorporated into the developing sperm head and tail. Within this study we test the necessity for CRISP2 in male fertility using Crisp2 loss-of-function mouse models. In doing so, we reveal a role for CRISP2 in establishing the ability of sperm to undergo the acrosome reaction, and in establishing a normal flagellum wave form...
February 13, 2019: Endocrinology
Marina Z Barbosa, Daniel S Zylbersztejn, Leandro A de Mattos, Luiz F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: 3D printing has wide application in medicine while it provides customizability and precision for anatomical model development. Our aims were to perform a systematic review and to explore the use of 3D printing applications on human reproduction and reproductive surgery. METHODS: We have performed a systematic review in PubMed database to assess previous publications within 3D printing in human reproduction and gynecology. We have developed 3D models according to patients' magnetic resonance images (MRI)...
February 12, 2019: Minerva Ginecologica
Angela J Crean, Alistair M Senior
Sperm counts have shown a progressive decline across the world since the mid-1900s. Global rates of obesity have been climbing at a similarly alarming rate, suggesting that these two factors may be linked. However, studies examining the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and male fertility have produced conflicting results. These discrepancies among studies are commonly attributed to limitations that are inherent in human studies such as correlational data and confounding factors-limitations that are absent from animal studies...
February 12, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Alexander W Pastuszak, Amin S Herati, Michael L Eisenberg, Cenk Cengiz, Peter H Langlois, Taylor P Kohn, Dolores J Lamb, Larry I Lipshultz
STUDY QUESTION: What is the relationship between semen parameters and birth defect (BD) rates in offspring of men evaluated for infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Among men undergoing infertility evaluation, there is no significant relationship between semen parameters and defect rates in live or still births, even when considering mode of conception. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Approximately 15% of couples have fertility difficulties, with up to a 50% male factor contribution...
February 12, 2019: Human Reproduction
E Ntemou, P Kadam, D Van Saen, J Wistuba, R T Mitchell, S Schlatt, E Goossens
STUDY QUESTION: Can full spermatogenesis be achieved after xenotransplantation of prepubertal primate testis tissue to the mouse, in testis or subcutaneously? SUMMARY ANSWER: Intratesticular xenotransplantation supported the differentiation of immature germ cells from marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) into spermatids and spermatozoa at 4 and 9 months post-transplantation, while in subcutaneous transplants, spermatogenic arrest was observed at 4 months and none of the transplants survived at 9 months...
February 12, 2019: Human Reproduction
Deborah Allouche-Fitoussi, Danit Bakhshi, Haim Breitbart
To fertilize the egg, sperm cells must reside in the female reproductive tract for several hours during which they undergo chemical and motility changes collectively called capacitation. During capacitation, the sperm develop a unique type of motility known as hyperactivated motility (HAM). The semen contains Zn2+ in millimolar concentrations, whereas in the female reproductive tract the concentration is around 1 µM. In this study, we characterize the role of Zn 2+ in human sperm capacitation focusing on its effect on HAM...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Mahnaz Heidari, Sara Darbandi, Mahsa Darbani, Naser Amirjanati, Mahmood Bozorgmehr, Hojjat Zeraati, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi
Background: The selection of sperm with good genomic integrity and surface antigens is suggested for improving assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcome. The aim of this study was evaluating the heat shock protein (HSPA2), Dj-1 and serum amyloid P compound (SAP) three sperm surface proteomes as biomarkers for this purpose. Methods: In this study, semen samples were obtained from 114 men who presented at Avicenna Fertility Clinic for their treatment. The semen characteristics, DNA fragmentation Index (DFI), chromatin maturation index (CMI), biomarker levels, and their embryo quality were considered...
October 2018: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
Zhong Xu, Hao Sun, Zhe Zhang, Cheng-Yue Zhang, Qing-Bo Zhao, Qian Xiao, Babatunde Shittu Olasege, Pei-Pei Ma, Xiang-Zhe Zhang, Qi-Shan Wang, Yu-Chun Pan
Background: Porcine respiratory disease is one of the most important health problems which causes significant economic losses. Objective: To understand the genetic basis for susceptibility to swine enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs, we detected 102,809 SNPs in a total of 249 individuals based on genome-wide sequencing data. Methods: Genome comparison of three susceptibility to swine EP pig breeds (Jinhua, Erhualian and Meishan) with two western lines that are considered more resistant (Duroc and Landrace) using XP-EHH and FST statistical approaches identified 691 positively selected genes...
February 7, 2019: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
M Moretti, S Van Passel, S Camposeo, F Pedrero, T Dogot, P Lebailly, G A Vivaldi
Wastewater reuse provides valuable solutions to solve the societal challenges of decreasing availability and limiting access to secure water resources. The present study quantifies the environmental performance of nectarine orchards irrigation using treated municipal wastewater (TMW) and surface water using a unique dataset based on field experimental data. Climate change, toxicity (for human and freshwater), eutrophication (marine and freshwater) and acidification impacts were analysed using the impact assessment method suggested by the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD)...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Ilje Pikaar, Jo de Vrieze, Korneel Rabaey, Mario Herrero, Pete Smith, Willy Verstraete
To adhere to the Paris Agreement of 2015, we need to store several Gigatonnes (Gt) of carbon annually. In the last years, a variety of technologies for carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon capture and usage (CCU) have been demonstrated. While conventional CCS and CCU are techno-economically feasible, their climate change mitigation potentials are limited, due to limited amount of CO2 that can be captured. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore other CCS and CCU routes. Here we discuss an interesting alternative route for capture of carbon dioxide from industrial point sources, using CO2 -binding, so-called autotrophic aerobic bacteria to produce microbial biomass as a C-storage product...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xin Yuan, Huimei Zheng, Yang Su, Pengfei Guo, Xiao Zhang, Qiang Zhao, Wanzhong Ge, Chen Li, Yongmei Xi, Xiaohang Yang
The dynamic process of spermatogenesis shows little variation between invertebrate models such as Drosophila, and vertebrate models such as mice and rats. In each case, germ stem cells undergo mitotic division to proliferate and then continue, via meiosis, through various stages of elongation and individualization from spermatogonia to spermatid to finally to form mature sperm. Mature sperm are then stored in the seminal vesicles for fertilization. Errors in any of these stages can lead to male infertility...
February 11, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
A Neis, F S Kremer, L S Pinto, P M M Leon
The prolactin hormone is involved in several biological functions, although its main role resides on reproduction. As it interferes on fertility changes, studies focused on human health have established a linkage of this hormone to fertility losses. Regarding animal research, there is still a lack of information about the structure of prolactin. In case of horse breeding, prolactin has a particular influence; once there is an individualization of these animals and equines are known for presenting several reproductive disorders...
February 10, 2019: Molecular Diversity
A Scott Emmert, Shawn M Vuong, Crystal Shula, Diana Lindquist, Weihong Yuan, Yueh-Chiang Hu, Francesco T Mangano, June Goto
OBJECTIVEEmergence of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing provides a robust method for gene targeting in a variety of cell types, including fertilized rat embryos. The authors used this method to generate a transgenic rat L1cam knockout model of X-linked hydrocephalus (XLH) with human genetic etiology. The object of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in studying perivascular white matter tract injury in the rat model and to characterize its pathological definition in histology.METHODSTwo guide RNAs designed to disrupt exon 4 of the L1cam gene on the X chromosome were injected into Sprague-Dawley rat embryos...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
Daniil Nikitin, Andrew Garazha, Maxim Sorokin, Dmitry Penzar, Victor Tkachev, Alexander Markov, Nurshat Gaifullin, Pieter Borger, Alexander Poltorak, Anton Buzdin
Retroelements (REs) are transposable elements occupying ~40% of the human genome that can regulate genes by providing transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). RE-linked TFBS profile can serve as a marker of gene transcriptional regulation evolution. This approach allows for interrogating the regulatory evolution of organisms with RE-rich genomes. We aimed to characterize the evolution of transcriptional regulation for human genes and molecular pathways using RE-linked TFBS accumulation as a metric. Methods: We characterized human genes and molecular pathways either enriched or deficient in RE-linked TFBS regulation...
February 6, 2019: Cells
Jianjun Hu, Carl Lessard, Charles Longstaff, Marilyn O'Brien, Kristina Palmer, Laura Reinholdt, John Eppig, John Schimenti, Mary Ann Handel
Given attention to both contraception and treatment of infertility, there is a need to identify genes and sequence variants required for mammalian fertility. Recent unbiased mutagenesis strategies have expanded horizons of genetic control of reproduction. Here we show that male mice homozygous for the ethyl-nitroso-urea-induced ferf1 (fertilization failure 1) mutation are infertile, producing apparently normal sperm that does not fertilize oocytes in standard fertilization in vitro fertilization assays. The ferf1 mutation is a single-base change in the Dnah1 gene, encoding an axoneme-associated dynein heavy chain, and previously associated with male infertility in both mice and humans...
February 8, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Johannes Niemeyer, Torben Mentrup, Ronny Heidasch, Stephan A Müller, Uddipta Biswas, Rieke Meyer, Alkmini A Papadopoulou, Verena Dederer, Martina Haug-Kröper, Vivian Adamski, Renate Lüllmann-Rauch, Martin Bergmann, Artur Mayerhofer, Paul Saftig, Gunther Wennemuth, Rolf Jessberger, Regina Fluhrer, Stefan F Lichtenthaler, Marius K Lemberg, Bernd Schröder
Signal peptide peptidase (SPP) and the four homologous SPP-like (SPPL) proteases constitute a family of intramembrane aspartyl proteases with selectivity for type II-oriented transmembrane segments. Here, we analyse the physiological function of the orphan protease SPPL2c, previously considered to represent a non-expressed pseudogene. We demonstrate proteolytic activity of SPPL2c towards selected tail-anchored proteins. Despite shared ER localisation, SPPL2c and SPP exhibit distinct, though partially overlapping substrate spectra and inhibitory profiles, and are organised in different high molecular weight complexes...
February 7, 2019: EMBO Reports
Hiromitsu Hattori, Hitoshi Hiura, Akane Kitamura, Naoko Miyauchi, Norio Kobayashi, Souta Takahashi, Hiroaki Okae, Koichi Kyono, Masayo Kagami, Tsutomu Ogata, Takahiro Arima
BACKGROUND: Human-assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are a widely accepted treatment for infertile couples. At the same time, many studies have suggested the correlation between ART and increased incidences of normally rare imprinting disorders such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), Angelman syndrome (AS), Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Major methylation dynamics take place during cell development and the preimplantation stages of embryonic development...
February 7, 2019: Clinical Epigenetics
Min Zheng, Gaoge Zuo, Jing Tong, Zi-Jiang Chen, Wei-Ping Li, Cong Zhang
PURPOSE: Melatonin is an important factor in regulating numerous processes in human female reproduction. The aim of the present study was to compare melatonin levels in the follicular fluid (FF) of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) women with those of non-OHSS women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer and to evaluate the relationship between FF melatonin levels and IVF outcomes in these women. METHODS: We determined FF melatonin levels in 20 OHSS women and 23 non-OHSS women on oocyte retrieval day...
February 6, 2019: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
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