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Jie Wei, Fenggang Yang, Chuanbao Gong, Xingyuan Shi, Guangliang Wang
Oxidative stress is performing an essential role in developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), and age-related disorder and other neurodegenerative diseases. In existing research, we have aimed at investigating the daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone) effect (10 and 20 mg/kg of body weight), as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant in streptozotocin (STZ) infused AD in rat model. Daidzein treatment led to significant improvement in intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced memory and learning impairments that was evaluated by Morris water maze test and spontaneous locomotor activity...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Xinghua Qin, Ziwei Chen
Cyclosporine A (CsA), a widely used immunosuppressant to prevent organ transplant rejection, is associated with an increased cancer risk following transplantation, particularly in the lung. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, using human non‑small cell lung cancer A549 cells, it was determined that CsA (0.1 or 1 µM) promoted cell proliferation with glucose alone as the energy source. CsA treatment increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and consequently the expression of Cyclin D1...
March 18, 2019: Oncology Reports
Daphne Lin, Sue-Hong Wang, Tuzz-Ying Song, Chang-Wei Hsieh, Ming-Shiun Tsai
INTRODUCTION: The development of tyrosinase inhibitors is a hot research topic. Recently, the Chinese herb Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews, commonly named as Cortex Moutan (CM), was reported as being capable of reducing melanogenesis. We developed an A2058 human melanoma cell model to test the safety and efficacy of tyrosinase inhibition. The aim was to further clarify the bioactivities of CM extracts and paeonol for the purpose of skin whitening. METHODS: The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects of water and ethanol CM extracts were determined...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Ningjian Liang, John H Dupuis, Rickey Y Yada, David D Kitts
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) exists as multiple isomers (e.g., 3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA, 3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, and 4,5-diCQA) in foods such as coffee beverages, fruits and vegetables. This study aimed to investigate relative activities of these six different CGA isomers to modify redox biology in inflamed Caco-2 cells that involved Nrf2 signaling. Caco-2 cells were pre-treated with individual CGA isomers to assess the relative effectiveness to mitigate oxidative stress. Isomer-specific capacity of different CGA isomers for direct free radical scavenging activity and potential endogenous control of oxidative stress were determined using chemical assays and cell-based experiments, respectively...
March 20, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Benoit Tessoulin, Geraldine Descamps, Christelle Dousset, Martine Amiot, Catherine Pellat-Deceunynck
Prima-1Met (APR-246) was previously shown to be dependent on glutathione inhibition and on ROS induction in cancer cells with mutated or deleted TP53 . Because this ROS induction was, at least in part, due to a direct interference with the thioredoxin reductase enzyme, we investigated whether activity of Prima-1Met could be mimicked by auranofin, an inhibitor of the thioredoxin reductase. We thus compared the activity of auranofin and Prima-1Met in 18 myeloma cell lines and in 10 samples from patients with multiple myeloma or plasma cell leukemia...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Bárbara Della Noce, Marcelle Vianna de Carvalho Uhl, Josias Machado, Camila Fernanda Waltero, Leonardo Araujo de Abreu, Renato Martins da Silva, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca, Cintia Monteiro de Barros, Gabriela Sabadin, Satoru Konnai, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Kazuhiko Ohashi, Carlos Logullo
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are natural byproducts of metabolism that have toxic effects well documented in mammals. In hematophagous arthropods, however, these processes are not largely understood. Here, we describe that Rhipicephalus microplus ticks and embryonic cell line (BME26) employ an adaptive metabolic compensation mechanism that confers tolerance to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) at concentrations too high for others organisms. Tick survival and reproduction are not affected by H2 O2 exposure, while BME26 cells morphology was only mildly altered by the treatment...
March 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Cheng-Hung Yang, Chung-Tiang Liang, Si-Tse Jiang, Kuan-Hsing Chen, Chun-Chiao Yang, Mei-Ling Cheng, Hung-Yao Ho
EV71 infection is generally associated with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), and may cause severe neurological disorders and even death. An effective murine oral infection model for studying the pathogenesis of various clinical EV71 isolates is lacking. We developed a transgenic mouse that expresses EV71 receptor, that is human scavenger receptor class B member 2 (hSCARB2), in a pattern highly similar to that of murine endogenous mSCARB2 protein. A FLAG-tagged SCARB2 cDNA fragment composed of exon 3-12 was inserted in murine Scarb2 gene-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone, and the resulting transgene was used for establishment of chimeric receptor-expressing transgenic (Tg) mice...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Virology
Concepción Santiago-Fernández, Luis M Pérez-Belmonte, Mercedes Millán-Gómez, Inmaculada Moreno-Santos, Fernando Carrasco-Chinchilla, Amalio Ruiz-Salas, Luis Morcillo-Hidalgo, José M Melero, Lourdes Garrido-Sánchez, Manuel Jiménez-Navarro
BACKGROUND: Oxidized low-density lipoproteins and scavenger receptors (SRs) play an important role in the formation and development of atherosclerotic plaques. However, little is known about their presence in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). The objective of the study was to evaluate the mRNA expression of different SRs in EAT of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), stratifying by diabetes status and its association with clinical and biochemical variables. METHODS: We analyzed the mRNA expression of SRs (LOX-1, MSR1, CXCL16, CD36 and CL-P1) and macrophage markers (CD68, CD11c and CD206) in EAT from 45 patients with IHD (23 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 22 without T2DM) and 23 controls without IHD or T2DM...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Translational Medicine
Xiaochuang Cao, Chunquan Zhu, Chu Zhong, Junhua Zhang, Lianghuan Wu, Qianyu Jin, Qingxu Ma
BACKGROUND: Nutrition with ammonium (NH4 + ) can enhance the drought tolerance of rice seedlings in comparison to nutrition with nitrate (NO3 - ). However, there are still no detailed studies investigating the response of nitric oxide (NO) to the different nitrogen nutrition and water regimes. To study the intrinsic mechanism underpinning this relationship, the time-dependent production of NO and its protective role in the antioxidant defense system of NH4 + - or NO3 - -supplied rice seedlings were studied under water stress...
March 20, 2019: BMC Plant Biology
Jessica Gómez, Mario J Simirgiotis, Beatriz Lima, Jésica D Paredes, Carlos M Villegas Gabutti, Carlos Gamarra-Luques, Jorge Bórquez, Lorena Luna, Graciela H Wendel, Alejandra O Maria, Gabriela E Feresin, Alejandro Tapia
The decoction of the local plant Baccharis grisebachii is used as a digestive, gastroprotective, external cicatrizing agent and antiseptic in Argentine. A lyophilized decoction (BLD) from the aerial parts of this plant was evaluated regarding its anti-ulcer, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and the bioactivities were supported by UHPLC-MS metabolome fingerprinting which revealed the presence of several small bioactive compounds. The antioxidant properties were evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, FRAP and lipoperoxidation inhibition in erythrocytes methods, and the antibacterial activity was evaluated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines...
March 19, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Silvia Bittner Fialová, Martin Kello, Matúš Čoma, Lívia Slobodníková, Eva Drobná, Ivana Holková, Mária Garajová, Martin Mrva, Vlastimil Zachar, Miloš Lukáč
On its own, rosmarinic acid possesses multiple biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, cardioprotective and antitumor properties, and these are the consequence of its ROS scavenging and inhibitory effect on inflammation. In this study, two quaternary phosphonium salts of rosmarinic acid were prepared for the purpose of increasing its penetration into biological systems with the aim of improving its antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and antitumor activity. The synthetized molecules, the triphenylphosphonium and tricyclohexylphosphonium salts of rosmarinic acid, exhibited significantly stronger inhibitory effects on the growth of HCT116 cells with IC50 values of 7...
March 19, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Peipei Zhang, Shuangshuang Li, Pengcheng Zhao, Zhenfei Guo, Shaoyun Lu
The role of nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the cold acclimation of forage legumes was investigated in this study. Medicago sativa subsp. falcata (L.) Arcang. (hereafter M. falcata ) is a forage legume with a higher cold tolerance than Medicago truncatula , a model legume. Cold acclimation treatment resulted in increased cold tolerance in both M. falcata and M. truncatula , which was suppressed by pretreatment with tungstate, an inhibitor of nitrate reductase (NR), and 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO), a scavenger of NO...
March 19, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jamil S Alsahhar, Robert S Rahimi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic encephalopathy is one of the most debilitating clinical manifestations of cirrhosis and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Treatment modalities available include the nonabsorbable disaccharides (lactulose) and the nonabsorbable antibiotics (rifaximin). RECENT FINDINGS: Newer therapeutic targets under evaluation include ammonia scavengers (ornithine phenylacetate) and modulation of gut microbiota (fecal microbiota transplantation)...
March 18, 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Valentina Palmieri, Enrique A Dalchiele, Giordano Perini, Alessandro Motta, Marco De Spirito, Robertino Zanoni, Andrea Giacomo Marrani, Massimiliano Papi
We demonstrate that N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) reduces graphene oxide (GO) at room temperature. This represents a new green method to produce reduced GO (rGO). NAC adheres to the rGO surface as demonstrated by several spectroscopy techniques and avoids GO-mediated oxidation of glutathione. This method offers new opportunities for the production of green biocompatible rGO and NAC-based therapies.
March 20, 2019: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Fahad Ali, Yasir Siddique
Luteolin is a naturally occurring, yellow crystalline flavonoid found in numerous dietary supplements we frequently have in our meals. Studies in last 2 decades have revealed its therapeutic potential to reduce the Alzheimer's disease (AD) symptoms in various in vitro and in vivo studies. The anti-Alzheimer's potential of luteolin is attributed to its ability to suppress Aβ as well as tau aggregation or promote their disaggregation, down-regulate the expression of COX-2, NOS, MMP-9, TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines, reduce oxidative stress by scavenging ROS, modulate the activities of transcription factors CREB, cJun, Nrf-1, NF-κB, p38, p53, AP-1 and β-catenine and inhibiting the activities of various protein kinases...
March 19, 2019: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Yufeng Fu, Shuangyong Sun, Huijun Sun, Jinyong Peng, Xiaodong Ma, Liuchi Bao, Renpeng Ji, Chunxu Luo, Cong Gao, Xiaoxue Zhang, Yue Jin
Atherosclerosis (AS), a progressive disorder, is one of the tough challenges in the clinic. Scutellarin, an extract from Herba Erigerontis, is found to have oxygen-free radicals scavenging effects and antioxidant effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-AS effects of scutellarin is related to controlling the Hippo-FOXO3A and PI3K/AKT signal pathway. To establish an AS model, the rats in the scutellarin and model groups were intraperitoneally injected with vitamin D 3 and then fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Sergey O Bachurin, Galina F Makhaeva, Elena F Shevtsova, Natalia P Boltneva, Nadezhda V Kovaleva, Sofya V Lushchekina, Elena V Rudakova, Ludmila G Dubova, Daria V Vinogradova, Vladimir B Sokolov, Alexey Yu Aksinenko, Vladimir P Fisenko, Rudy J Richardson, Gjumrakch Aliev
We studied the inhibitory activity of methylene blue (MB) γ-carbolines (gC) conjugates (MB-gCs) against human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE), equine serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and a structurally related enzyme, porcine liver carboxylesterase (CaE). In addition, we determined the ability of MB-gCs to bind to the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of Electrophorus electricus AChE (EeAChE) and competitively displace propidium iodide from this site. Moreover, we examined the ability of MB-gCs to scavenge free radicals as well as their influence on mitochondrial potential and iron-induced lipid peroxidation...
March 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
Esra Erikel, Deniz Yuzbasioglu, Fatma Unal
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cynarin is an artichoke phytochemical that possesses a variety of pharmacological features including free-radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. The origin of artichoke species appears to be Mediterranean region. Two of these species, globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC), are widely cultivated and consumed. This vegetable, as the basis of the mediterranean diet, has been used as herbal medicine for its therapeutic effects since ancient times...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Zilajiguli Xikeranmu, Maimaitiaili Abdunasir, Ji Ma, Kuerban Tusong, Xiaoning Liu
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are crucial in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, studies regarding SOD functions in insects under cold conditions are rare. In this paper, two novel Cu/Zn-SOD genes in the desert beetle Microdera punctipennis, an extracellular copper/zinc SOD (MpecCu/Zn-SOD) and an intracellular copper/zinc SOD (MpicCu/Zn-SOD), were identified and characterized. The results of quantitative real-time PCR showed that MpecCu/Zn-SOD expression was significantly up-regulated by 4 °C exposure for 0...
March 16, 2019: Cryobiology
Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo, Adebola Busola Ojo, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye, Omosola Olufisayo Anifowose, Ayodeji Akawa, Oluranti Esther Olaiya, Oluwaseun Ruth Olasehinde, Abidemi Paul Kappo
BACKGROUND: Ocimum gratissimum L. is a medicinal plant widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions with the leaf decoction usually taken in folk medicine to enhance erectile performance in men although the probable mechanism of actions remains undetermined. This study examined the inhibitory potentials of Ocimum gratissimum leaves on some key enzymes associated with erectile dysfunction in penile and testicular tissues of the rat. METHODS: Inhibitory effect of aqueous extract (1:10 w/v) of O...
March 19, 2019: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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