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Soldier System

Kelly L Zuromski, Samantha L Bernecker, Peter M Gutierrez, Thomas E Joiner, Andrew J King, Howard Liu, James A Naifeh, Matthew K Nock, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
Importance: The Department of Veterans Affairs recently began requiring annual suicide ideation (SI) screening of all patients and additional structured questions for patients reporting SI. Related changes are under consideration at the Department of Defense. These changes will presumably lead to higher SI detection, which will require hiring additional clinical staff and/or developing a clinical decision support system to focus in-depth suicide risk assessments on patients considered high risk...
March 1, 2019: JAMA Network Open
Joaquín Sánchez-Molina, José J Robles-Pérez, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
In last years, the insurgency attacks on task forces bases and checkpoints have been common. The study of psychophysiological response of soldiers in these asymmetrical and non-controlled situations remains a challenge. The present research aimed to analyze the psychophysiological response and the variations in specific fine motor skill after a checkpoint simulation which included surveillance, unexpected attacks, and melee combat. Psychophysiological parameters -heart rate, blood glucose, pressure, oxygen saturation, and lactate, legs´ strength, skin temperature, cortical activation, anxiety-, as well as fine motor skills were analyzed in a sample of 24 professional Spanish Army soldiers (35...
March 2, 2019: Journal of Medical Systems
A Schuh-Renner, M Canham-Chervak, T L Grier, V D Hauschild, B H Jones
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are to quantify the proportion of cumulative microtraumatic overuse injuries in a physically active population, evaluate their impact in terms of lost work time, and link them to precipitating activities to inform prevention initiatives. STUDY DESIGN: The study design is retrospective cohort study. METHODS: For a population of U.S. Army Soldiers, diagnoses from medical records (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-9 800-999 and selected ICD-9 710-739) were matched with self-reported injury information...
February 25, 2019: Public Health
Renske H Janssen, Greta Canelli, Mark G Sanders, Edwin J Bakx, Catriona M M Lakemond, Vincenzo Fogliano, Jean-Paul Vincken
Insects are a promising alternative protein source. One of the bottlenecks in applying insects in food is the fast darkening initiated during grinding. Besides enzymatic browning, non-enzymatic factors can cause off-colour formation, which differs between species. This study investigates the impact of iron, phenoloxidase, and polyphenols on off-colour formation in insect larvae. Hermetia illucens showed a blackish colour, whereas Tenebrio molitor turned brown and Alphitobius diaperinus remained the lightest...
February 27, 2019: Scientific Reports
Brian Shiozawa, Cathaleen Madsen, Amanda Banaag, Avni Patel, Tracey Koehlmoos
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and overweight, defined as body mass index (BMI) of 30.0 and above or 25.0-29.9, respectively, are of significant concern to the military population, due to their associated comorbidities and potential for impaired readiness. In 2016, the US Army reported a prevalence of 17.3% obesity and 52.9% overweight among soldiers, despite both physical demands of the job and Department of Defense (DoD) guidelines which recommend separation from service for those unable to meet body composition standards...
February 27, 2019: Military Medicine
Johanna Boutillier, Caroline Deck, Sébastien De Mezzo, Pascal Magnan, Nicolas Prat, Rémy Willinger, Pierre Naz
Blast pulmonary trauma are common consequences of modern war and terrorism action. To better protect soldiers from that threat, the injury risk level when protected and unprotected must be assessed. Knowing from the literature that a possible amplification of the blast threat would be provided by some thoracic protective systems, the objective is to propose an original approach to correlate a measurable parameter on a manikin with a pulmonary risk level. Using a manikin whose response is correlated with the proposed tolerance limits should help in the evaluation of thoracic protective system regarding injury outcomes...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Justin M Curley, Christopher H Warner
INTRODUCTION: The division psychiatrist has been a bedrock U.S. Army institution for nearly 100 years. The role of the position in combat is well established, but its role in garrison has historically been less well defined. Prevention of behavioral health casualties has long been a governing objective of the division psychiatrist and forms the cornerstone of the behavioral health (BH) readiness concept. Accordingly, the Army's increased emphasis on readiness mandates that the division psychiatrist maximize BH force readiness through applied prevention methods...
February 22, 2019: Military Medicine
Kashif Ur Rehman, Rashid Ur Rehman, Abdul Aziz Somroo, Minmin Cai, Longyu Zheng, Xiaopeng Xiao, Asif Ur Rehman, Abdul Rehman, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang
Generation of insects' biomass from lignocellulose rich organic wastes is of significant challenges in reducing the environmental impact of wastes and in sustaining feed and food security. This research looked at the effects of lignocellulotic exogenous bacteria in the black soldier fly (BSF) organic waste conversion system for biomass production and lignocellulose biodegradation of dairy and chicken manures. Six exogenous bacteria were investigated for cellulolytic activity with carboxymethyl cellulose and found that these tested bacterial strains degrade the cellulose...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Justin G Hollands, Tzvi Spivak, Eric W Kramkowski
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the influence of message presentation rate (MPR) and sensory modality on soldier cognitive load. BACKGROUND: Soldiers commonly communicate tactical information by radio. The Canadian Army is equipping soldiers with a battle management system (BMS), which also allows them to communicate by text. METHOD: We varied presentation modality (auditory vs. visual) and MPR (fast or slow) in an experiment involving a tactical scenario...
February 15, 2019: Human Factors
D Alan Nelson, Eric S Marks, Patricia A Deuster, Francis G O'Connor, Lianne M Kurina
Importance: Concern about the renal effects of nonsteroidand al anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) among young, healthy adults has been limited, but more attention may be warranted given the prevalent use of these agents. Objective: To test for associations between dispensed NSAIDs and incident acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease while controlling for other risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, longitudinal cohort study used deidentified medical and administrative data on 764 228 active-duty US Army soldiers serving between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2014...
February 1, 2019: JAMA network open
Tyler Powell, Timothy Fullam, Jonathan Hammett, Darrell Nettlow, Jason Harris
In the military health system, it is important to be aware of this potential complication of combatives as instruction in close-quarters combat continues to be an important aspect of military training.
July 2018: Federal Practitioner
Nakia S Clemmons, Nikki N Jordan, Alfonza D Brown, Erin M Kough, Laura A Pacha, Susan M Varner, Anthony W Hawksworth, Christopher A Myers, Joel C Gaydos
Introduction: Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) is a bacterium that causes pneumonia and other respiratory diseases. Fever may be present early but absent by time of presentation to clinic. Increases in X-ray-confirmed pneumonia (XCP) and laboratory-confirmed Cp infections were observed in new soldiers in training at Fort Leonard Wood (FLW), Missouri, early in 2014. These findings prompted a site assistance visit from the U.S. Army Public Health Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, with a review of available data and information to describe the outbreak, and inspections of barracks and training facilities and review of training practices to identify opportunities for interventions to reduce the risk of respiratory disease agent transmission...
January 23, 2019: Military Medicine
Yun-Chieh Fan, Chih-Yu Wen
Soldier-based simulators have been attracting increased attention recently, with the aim of making complex military tactics more effective, such that soldiers are able to respond rapidly and logically to battlespace situations and the commander's decisions in the battlefield. Moreover, body area networks (BANs) can be applied to collect the training data in order to provide greater access to soldiers' physical actions or postures as they occur in real routine training. Therefore, due to the limited physical space of training facilities, an efficient soldier-based training strategy is proposed that integrates a virtual reality (VR) simulation system with a BAN, which can capture body movements such as walking, running, shooting, and crouching in a virtual environment...
January 22, 2019: Sensors
Hira Shaikh, Muhammad Salman Faisal, Prerna Mewawalla
Historically known to be a disease of sailors and soldiers in the seventeenth and eighteenth century, scurvy is a rare nutritional deficiency in the developed world, but it can still be seen among the alcoholics and the malnourished. We present a case of a 39-year-old alcoholic male who presented with progressive fatigue and diffuse purpuric rash with scattered ecchymosis for 2 months. Blood work was remarkable for hemoglobin of 9.1 g/dl, which further dropped to 7 g/dl over the next few days. He was then found to have hemolysis on lab work...
January 22, 2019: International Journal of Hematology
K Morgan, K L Campbell, S Sargeant, D P Reidlinger
BACKGROUND: Dietetics practice educators are instrumental in the development of future dietitians. The present study aimed to explore dietetics practice educators' experiences of, and challenges faced in, dietetics workforce preparation. METHODS: This study was guided by interpretive description methodology. Purposive and maximum variation sampling were used to recruit 18 dietetics practice educators from a variety of practice areas and locations across Australia...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
James A Naifeh, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler, Oscar I Gonzalez, Carol S Fullerton, Holly B Herberman Mash, Charlotte A Riggs-Donovan, Tsz Hin Hinz Ng, Gary H Wynn, Hieu M Dinh, Tzu-Cheg Kao, Nancy A Sampson, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Although the majority of active duty U.S. Army soldiers are full-time personnel in the Active Component (AC), a substantial minority of soldiers on active duty are in the Reserve Components (RCs). These "citizen-soldiers" (Army National Guard and Army Reserve) represent a force available for rapid activation in times of national need. RC soldiers experience many of the same stressors as AC soldiers as well as stressors that are unique to their intermittent service...
January 18, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
H Frederik Nijhout
Many ant species have complex caste systems, with reproductive queens and sterile workers, which often play distinct roles in the maintenance and defense of the colony. A new study sheds light on how these worker caste systems evolved and the mechanisms by which totipotent larvae give rise to the alternative adult castes.
January 7, 2019: Current Biology: CB
Gavin K Lenton, David J Saxby, David G Lloyd, Daniel Billing, Jeremy Higgs, Tim L A Doyle
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of different body armour types, carried loads, and walking speeds on trunk and lower-limb joint biomechanics. DESIGN: Within-subjects repeated measures to determine the effects of different body armour types, carried loads, and walking speeds on trunk and lower-limb joint biomechanics. METHODS: Twenty soldiers (29.5±7.1yrs) completed a treadmill walking protocol in an unloaded (baseline) condition and wearing a control, Tiered Body Armour System (TBAS) and five different armour types (cARM1-2, pARM1) with two load configurations (15 and 30kg) for a total of eight armour×load ensembles...
February 2019: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Yanxian Li, Trond M Kortner, Elvis M Chikwati, Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu, Erik-Jan Lock, Åshild Krogdahl
Limited availability of sustainable feed ingredients is a serious concern in salmon aquaculture. Insects may become an important, sustainable resource for expanding the raw material repertoire. Herein, we present data from an 8-week feeding trial with pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (initial body weight 49 ± 1.5 g) fed either a reference diet containing fish meal, soy protein concentrate and wheat gluten as protein sources, or a test diet wherein 85% of the protein was supplied by black soldier fly larvae meal...
December 24, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Geverson A Resende-Silva, Leonardo M Turchen, Raul Narciso C Guedes, G Christopher Cutler
There are ongoing concerns of potential direct and indirect lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on nontarget arthropod populations. The risk to natural enemies from systemic insecticides is mainly through exposure to the active ingredient by ingestion, and such risk may be elevated for omnivores that feed on treated plants, as well as herbivores that also feed on those same treated plants. Podisus maculiventris (Say), an important natural enemy in many agricultural systems, can be potentially exposed to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid when ingesting contaminated prey and feeding on plants subjected to soil-drench applications of this compound...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
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