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Nutrition cirrhosis

Matthew T Moyer, Jayakrishna Chintanaboina, Leonard T Walsh, Justin Loloi, Jennifer Maranki, Benjamin Stern, Abraham Mathew
Background and Aims: GI tract perforations and anastomotic dehiscence are increasingly effectively being repaired endoscopically; however, well-known and long-held surgical principles must still be honored. One important principle is that significant extraluminal contamination must be washed out, debrided, and drained in conjunction with repair of the defect if the wound is to effectively heal and resolve. Here we describe the use of endoscopic washout and debridement of extraluminal contamination at the time of luminal defect closure in a 7-patient series at our institution, with video demonstration of 2 patients in the series...
February 2019: VideoGIE: an official video journal of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Barbara Lattanzi, Daria D'Ambrosio, Manuela Merli
Sarcopenia is an important burden in liver cirrhosis representing a negative prognostic factor for mortality. Moreover, sarcopenia is an independent predictor of complications in patients with liver cirrhosis, including Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE). An association between sarcopenia and HE in liver cirrhosis has been reported in recent studies, indeed both these complications often affect patients with advanced liver cirrhosis and may exert a synergic effect in deteriorating patients' outcome. Episodes of HE occur more often in patients with muscle depletion...
January 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Osmanuddin Ahmed, Lisa Liu, Antony Gayed, Amanjit Baadh, Mikin Patel, Jordan Tasse, Ulku Turba, Bulent Arslan
Background/objectives: The purpose of this research is to analyze the past and forecast the future prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) and their respective contribution to Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) incidence in the setting of novel anti-viral agents and rising obesity rates in the United States. Methods: Existing data of HCV and NASH prevalence in the United States utilizing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) was collected and analyzed to project future prevalence trends...
January 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
N Beghdadi, A Soprani, A Kraemer, P Bucur, C Barrat, L Genser
BACKGROUND: Severe post-operative malnutrition (SM) is a dreaded complication after gastric bypass often related to the short bowel syndrome consecutive limb length mismeasurement or intestinal resections. Patients with rapid weight loss or malnutrition can experience liver failure with cirrhosis and require liver transplantation (LT). Malnutrition can constitute a contraindication to LT since it negatively impacts on postoperative morbidity. RYGB reversal is an effective option to consider when nutritional support has failed...
February 11, 2019: Obesity Surgery
Tannaz Eslamparast, Benjamin Vandermeer, Maitreyi Raman, Leah Gramlich, Vanessa Den Heyer, Dawn Belland, Mang Ma, Puneeta Tandon
Malnutrition is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. An accurate nutrition prescription is an essential component of care, often estimated using time-efficient predictive equations. Our aim was to compare resting energy expenditure (REE) estimated using predictive equations (predicted REE, pREE) versus REE measured using gold-standard, indirect calorimetry (IC) (measured REE, mREE). We included full-text English language studies in adults with cirrhosis comparing pREE versus mREE...
February 4, 2019: Nutrients
Mathias Plauth, William Bernal, Srinivasan Dasarathy, Manuela Merli, Lindsay D Plank, Tatjana Schütz, Stephan C Bischoff
This update of evidence-based guidelines (GL) aims to translate current evidence and expert opinion into recommendations for multidisciplinary teams responsible for the optimal nutritional and metabolic management of adult patients with liver disease. The GL was commissioned and financially supported by ESPEN. Members of the guideline group were selected by ESPEN. We searched for meta-analyses, systematic reviews and single clinical trials based on clinical questions according to the PICO format. The evidence was evaluated and used to develop clinical recommendations implementing the SIGN method...
January 16, 2019: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Roger F Butterworth
Neuropathology of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in cirrhosis is primarily astroglial in nature characterized by Alzheimer type 2 astrocytosis together with activation of microglia indicative of neuroinflammation. Focal loss of neurons may also occur in the basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. Pathophysiology of HE in cirrhosis is multifactorial, involving brain accumulation of ammonia and manganese, systemic and central inflammation, nutritional/metabolic factors and activation of the GABAergic neurotransmitter system...
January 31, 2019: Drugs
Maliha Naseer, Erica P Turse, Ali Syed, Francis E Dailey, Mallak Zatreh, Veysel Tahan
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, i.e ., muscle loss is now a well-recognized complication of cirrhosis and in cases of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease can contribute to accelerate liver fibrosis leading to cirrhosis. Hence, it is imperative to study interventions which targets to improve sarcopenia in cirrhosis. AIM: To examine the relationship between interventions such nutritional supplementation, exercise, combined life style intervention, testosterone replacement and trans jugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to improve muscle mass in cirrhosis...
January 26, 2019: World Journal of Clinical Cases
C Gerosa, D Fanni, T Congiu, M Piras, F Cau, M Moi, G Faa
Wilson's disease (WD) is a genetic metabolic disease strictly associated with liver cirrhosis. In this review, the genetic bases of the disease are discussed, with emphasis on the role of ATP7B (the Wilson disease protein) dysfunction as a determinant factor of systemic copper overload. Regarding the different multiple mutations described in WD patients, the peculiarity of Sardinian population is highlighted, Sardinians carrying a rare deletion in the promoter (5' UTR) of the WD gene. The role of epigenetic changes in the clinical presentation and evolution of liver disease in WD patients is also discussed, nutrition probably representing a relevantly risk factor in WD patients...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Yeliz Çağan Appak, Maşallah Baran, Mustafa Onur Öztan, Miray Karakoyun, Soysal Turhan, Cem Tuğmen, Sema Aydoğdu, Cezmi Karaca, Gökhan Köylüoğlu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pediatric intestinal pseudo-obstruction (PIPO) is a severe disorder of gut motility. In this rare and difficult-to-manage disease, complex treatment method, such as intestinal transplantation, is sometimes needed. This study evaluated the management and follow-up results of patients with PIPO who received treatment at our center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cases of 13 patients with PIPO were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data, clinical features, etiologies, pharmacological and surgical treatments, nutritional support, anthropometric findings, small bowel transplantation (SBT), and survival rates were assessed...
January 22, 2019: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Nicholas Latchana, Dhruvin H Hirpara, Julie Hallet, Paul J Karanicolas
BACKGROUND: Several modalities exist for the management of hepatic neoplasms. Resection, the most effective approach, carries significant risk of hemorrhage. Blood loss may be corrected with red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) in the short term, but may ultimately contribute to negative outcomes. PURPOSE: Using available literature, we seek to define the frequency and risk factors of blood loss and transfusion following hepatectomy. The impact of blood loss and RBCT on short- and long-term outcomes is explored with an emphasis on peri-operative methods to reduce hemorrhage and transfusion...
January 3, 2019: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Andree H Koop, Omar Y Mousa, Ly Elaine Pham, Juan E Corral-Hurtado, Surakit Pungpapong, Andrew P Keaveny
Malnutrition is prevalent in cirrhosis. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies, including vitamin D, vitamin A, and zinc, are common and have been shown to correlate with survival. Our aim was to review the mechanisms of vitamin D, vitamin A, and zinc deficiencies in cirrhosis and the clinical assessment of affected patients, their outcomes based on the current literature, and management. This is a narrative review including the relevant literature for cirrhosis and vitamin D, vitamin A, and zinc deficiencies. Vitamin D deficiency has important effects in cirrhosis, regardless of the cause of chronic liver disease...
October 16, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
W J Bush, J P Davis, M A Maluccio, C A Kubal, J B Salisbury, R S Mangus
BACKGROUND: Patients with cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease (ESLD) develop severe nutrition deficits that affect morbidity and mortality. Laboratory measures of nutrition fail to fully assess clinical deficits in muscle mass and fat stores. This study employs computed tomography imaging to assess muscle mass and subcutaneous and visceral fat stores in patients with ESLD. METHODS: This 1:1 case-control study design compares ESLD patients with healthy controls...
December 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Kurt Grüngreiff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Subburaj Ilangumaran, Richard Moriggl, Dhan V Kalvakolanu
This special issue on 'Cytokines in Liver Diseases' was inspired by many talks and presentations on liver cancer during the 2nd Aegean Conference on Cytokine Signaling in Cancer (ACCSC) held at Heraklion, Crete, Greece on May 30-June 04, 2017 (Cytokine 2018, 108: 225-231). The liver is the biggest blood filtration and detoxification unit, and is a vital metabolic organ. Being constantly exposed to potentially harmful dietary chemicals, drugs, alcohol abuse and pathogens, the liver displays an extraordinary capacity to repair tissue damage and to regenerate...
December 15, 2018: Cytokine
F H Pals, H J Verkade, V A M Gulmans, B A E De Koning, B G P Koot, T G J De Meij, D M Hendriks, N Gierenz, A C E Vreugdenhil, R H J Houwen, F A J A Bodewes
BACKGROUND: Up to 10% of patients with Cystic Fibrosis develop cirrhotic CF-related liver disease with portal hypertension: CF cirrhosis (CFC). In a nationwide study, we aimed to determine the role of CFC on survival in the Netherlands between 1 and 1-2009 and1-1-2015. METHODS: We identified all CFC patients in the Netherlands, based on ultrasonographic liver nodularity and portal hypertension. A non-cirrhotic control group was obtained from the national Dutch CF patient registry...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Wen Gao, Ming Kong, Jia Yao, Fan Wang, Jing Liu, Dongmei Wang, Hongbo Ma, Lieqing Ma, Zhongping Duan
<i>Background:</i> Patient immune response is one of the main factors influencing hepatitis virus (HBV) eradication or chronicity. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the nutritional status and immune function, and to provide the appropriate clinical diagnosis data for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) and cirrhosis. <i>Methods:</i> T lymphocyte subsets were tested using flow cytometry in 100 patients (48 with CHB, 52 with cirrhosis) and 26 healthy individuals...
October 31, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Carlos Moctezuma-Velazquez, Maryam Ebadi, Rahima A Bhanji, Guido Stirnimann, Puneeta Tandon, Aldo J Montano-Loza
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The subjective global assessment (SGA) is commonly used to assess nutritional status in patients with cirrhosis. Sarcopenia, a major component of malnutrition, is associated with survival in cirrhosis, and can be objectively diagnosed by computing the skeletal muscle index (SMI) using cross-sectional imaging. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia between SGA categories in patients with cirrhosis, and to determine their association with decompensation/mortality...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Fabian Lanuza, Jorge Sapunar, Edmundo Hofmann
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFDL) includes fatty liver or simple steatosis, characterized by lipid deposits in hepatocytes and more advanced stages such as steatohepatitis (NASH) and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Physical inactivity, hypercaloric and unbalanced diet together with aging play a key role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and are strongly associated with metabolic and physical activity continue to be major components in prevention and first-line treatment to attenuate or reverse NAFLD. Dietary patterns, their composition and weight reduction would be the most relevant nutritional aspects in NAFDL treatment...
August 2018: Revista Médica de Chile
M S Hasan, A B Karim, M Rukunuzzaman, A Haque, M A Akhter, U K Shoma, F Yasmin, M A Rahman
Biliary atresia is the commonest cause of cholestatic jaundice. Early diagnosis & surgical correction helps long time survival & prevent development of cirrhosis. This study was conducted to find out the role of liver biopsy in the diagnosis of biliary atresia having positive hepatobiliary scintigraphy as there is chance of false positivity. This cross sectional study was carried out in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh at Paediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition Department from January 2014 to June 2015...
October 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
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