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Guang Song
Shape had been intuitively recognized to play a dominant role in determining the global motion patterns of bio-molecular assemblies. However, it is not clear exactly how shape determines the motion patterns. What about the local interactions that hold a structure together to a certain shape? The contributions of global shape and local interactions usually mix together and are difficult to tease part. In this work, we use symmetry to elucidate the distinct roles of global shape and local interactions in protein dynamics...
March 15, 2019: Physical Biology
Ra'ed Malallah, Haoyu Li, Yue Qi, Derek Cassidy, Inbarasan Muniraj, Nebras Al-Attar, John T Sheridan
An experimental and theoretical investigation of the preparation and exposure of multilayer photosensitive materials is presented. It is shown how the recorded change in the refractive index in each layer depends on the dye (photosensitizer) concentrations in each layer. It is also shown how the photosensitive material properties in each layer can be controlled to optimize some recording characteristics for particular applications. To do so, a set of equations, predicting the amplitude of higher harmonics refractive index amplitudes induced in the material layers with depth during exposure, is derived...
March 1, 2019: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Mieke Boon, Sophie Van Baalen
In science policy, it is generally acknowledged that science-based problem-solving requires interdisciplinary research. For example, policy makers invest in funding programs such as Horizon 2020 that aim to stimulate interdisciplinary research. Yet the epistemological processes that lead to effective interdisciplinary research are poorly understood. This article aims at an epistemology for interdisciplinary research (IDR), in particular, IDR for solving 'real-world' problems. Focus is on the question why researchers experience cognitive and epistemic difficulties in conducting IDR...
2019: European Journal for Philosophy of Science
Ewa Skimina, Jan Cieciuch, Shalom H Schwartz, Eldad Davidov, René Algesheimer
We identified behavioral signatures of the values distinguished in the Schwartz et al. refined value theory (2012). We examined behavioral signatures for two types of values, value states and value traits. We conducted two studies using innovative approaches. Study 1 used retrospective self-reports whereas Study 2 used self-reports in real time. In Study 1 ( N = 703), we sought act frequency signatures of the 19 basic value traits that the Portrait Value Questionnaire-Revised (Schwartz, 2017) measures. We examined the frequency of 209 acts from the Oregon Avocational Interest Scales (Goldberg, 2010) for which there were no expectations that values would necessarily influence them...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Barbara C N Müller, Rinske Haverkamp, Silvia Kanters, Huriye Yaldiz, Shuang Li
Previous research showed that fear-inducing graphic warning labels can lead to cognitive dissonance and defensive responses. Less threatening, social-related warning labels do not elicit these defensive responses, making them more effective in preventing smoking in adults. Given that smoking numbers are still too high among youngsters, it is crucial to investigate how warning labels should be designed to prevent teenagers from starting smoking in the first place. In two studies, we investigated whether comparable effects of social-related warning labels could be observed in a group of teenagers (14-17 years) who are not yet legally allowed to smoke...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Yoshitomo Yanagimoto, Takeshi Omori, Moon Jeong-Ho, Naoki Shinno, Kazuyoshi Yamamoto, Yoji Takeuchi, Koji Higashino, Noriya Uedo, Keijiro Sugimura, Tomoyuki Matsunaga, Hiroshi Miyata, Hajime Ushigome, Yusuke Takahashi, Junichi Nishimura, Masayoshi Yasui, Kei Asukai, Daisaku Yamada, Akira Tomokuni, Hiroshi Wada, Hidenori Takahashi, Masayuki Ohue, Masahiko Yano, Masato Sakon
BACKGROUND: Pancreatoduodenectomy is considered to be a very invasive treatment for early superficial duodenal tumors (SDTs), which have a lower risk of lymph node metastasis. Partial resection of the duodenum with endoscopic submucosal dissection for SDT resection is an attractive technique but it is associated with a high risk of complications. We describe our technique for SDT resection. METHOD: It includes the following elements: freeing the transverse mesocolon, exposing and mobilizing the second part of the duodenum and the head of the pancreas (Kocher maneuver), confirming the location of the ulcer bed for endoscopic submucosal dissection, and laparoscopic suturing by hand in the seromuscular layer of the duodenum...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Arnold De Loof, Liliane Schoofs
Farnesol, the sesquiterpenoid precursor of insect juvenile hormones (JH) that itself has JH activity, existed already long before animals and their hormones came into being. Although it is omnipresent in all eukaryotes, this molecule remains a "noble unknown" in cell physiology. It is neither documented as a hormone nor as another type of signaling molecule. To date, its function as an intermediate in the synthesis of squalene-cholesterol-steroids in chordates/vertebrates, and of the insect/arthropod JHs, esters of farnesol, in the mevalonate biosynthetic pathway is assumed to be the only one...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
M Fernández-González, H Ribeiro, J R S Pereira, F J Rodríguez-Rajo, I Abreu
The knowledge of the allergen content in the atmosphere is a useful tool to stablish the risk allergy warnings for the sensitive people. In Portugal the main airborne allergenic pollen come from trees (such as Betula or Olea), grasses or weeds (mainly Urticaceae). The present study sought the quantification of the Bet v 1, Ole e 1, Lol p1 and Par j1-2 aeroallergen concentration as well as how weather variables influence in the pollen and allergen concentration in Porto city. Aerobiological study was carried out by a Hirst-type volumetric sampler for pollen collection and a Burkard Cyclone sampler for the aeroallergens...
February 27, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Bernard Dujon
Being invited by a prestigious journal to write the retrospective of one's life is first a great honor, and then a chore when starting to do it. These feelings did not spare me. But trying to recall my past to the best of my memory, I learned how lucky I was to have been born to a generation that witnessed so many scientific discoveries. There is little in common between the genetic courses I taught recently and those that I received more than fifty years ago. Thinking that a tiny bit of this fantastic evolution might come from my accidental encountering with yeasts is a stunning experience...
March 7, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Tolga Yıldız
Homo sapiens is not just a tool-using species, they also can invent and develop tools. This is the feature that distinguishes humans from other species. It is necessary to get rid of the perceptual dominance of the present state of the material to invent and develop a tool. It is based on a mental process: designing. So how was that possible? In this article, I propose an evolutionary hypothesis in response to this question: the referential triangle. Accordingly, the relationship that people establish with things is mentally indirect, but the relationship they establish with each other is mentally direct...
March 2, 2019: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Teija M S Anke, Kari Slinning, Dag Vegard Skjelstad
BACKGROUND: Women with bipolar disorder have a high risk of illness relapse postpartum, including psychosis. The aim of the study was to explore how perinatal women with bipolar disorder relate to the risk. What are their concerns? How do they prepare for the dual demands of mood episodes and motherhood? METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted. To ensure rich insight into the research questions, 13 primiparous and 13 multiparous women with bipolar disorder (I or II), were individually interviewed in pregnancy or early postpartum...
March 3, 2019: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
Samira Bernardino Ramos do Prado, Tânia Misuzu Shiga, Yosuke Harazono, Victor A Hogan, Avraham Raz, Nicholas C Carpita, João Paulo Fabi
While chemically and thermally modified citrus pectin (MCP) has already been studied for health benefits, it is unknown how size-fractionated oligo- and polysaccharides differentially affect cancer cell behavior. We produced thermally MCP and fractionated it by molecular size to evaluate the effect these polymers have on cancer cells. MCP30/10 (between 30 and 10 kDa) had more esterified homogalacturonans (HG) and fewer rhamnogalacturonans (RG-I) than MCP and MCP30 (higher than 30 kDa), while MCP10/3 (between 10 and 3 kDa) showed higher amounts of type I arabinogalactans (AGI) and lower amounts of RG-I...
May 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Kaja Harton, Seishi Shimizu
Salts, when added to milk, profoundly influence casein aggregation. Even though this well-known phenomenon has been widely exploited, there are still many unanswered questions. How do salts affect casein aggregation? Does water contribute significantly to the aggregation change? The key to answering these questions comes from statistical thermodynamics, i.e. the principles of physics that can link macroscopic data to the collective behaviour of molecules. We present two theoretical approaches. A rigorous approach which demands far more measurements than reported hitherto; and an approximate, pragmatic approach...
February 12, 2019: Biophysical Chemistry
Rafdzah Zaki, Siti Norsyuhada Roffeei, Yien Ling Hii, Abqariyah Yahya, Mahesh Appannan, Mas Ayu Said, Ng Chiu Wan, Nasrin Aghamohammadi, Noran Naqiah Hairi, Awang Bulgiba, Mikkel Quam, Joacim Rocklov
An early warning system for dengue is meant to predict outbreaks and prevent dengue cases by aiding timely decision making and deployment of interventions. However, only a system which is accepted and utilised by the public would be sustainable in the long run. This study aimed to explore the perception and attitude of the Malaysian public towards a dengue early warning system. The sample consisted of 847 individuals who were 18 years and above and living/working in the Petaling District, an area adjacent to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia...
2019: PloS One
Daniel L Christensen, Kyle E Nappo, Jared A Wolfe, Sean M Wade, Daniel I Brooks, Benjamin K Potter, Jonathan A Forsberg, Scott M Tintle
BACKGROUND: Quantifying bone mineral density (BMD) on CT using commercial software demonstrates good-to-excellent correlations with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) results. However, previous techniques to measure Hounsfield units (HUs) within the proximal femur demonstrate less successful correlation with DEXA results. An effective method of measuring HUs of the proximal femur from CT colonoscopy might allow for opportunistic osteoporosis screening. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Do proximal femur HU measurements from CT colonoscopy correlate with proximal femur DEXA results? (2) How effective is our single HU measurement technique in estimating the likelihood of overall low BMD? (3) Does the relationship between our comprehensive HU measurement and DEXA results change based on age, sex, or time between studies? METHODS: This retrospective study investigated the measurement of HU of the femur obtained on CT colonoscopy studies compared with DEXA results...
September 4, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Natasha Warner
Humans often communicate through reduced speech, where many sounds are altered or deleted. Even whole syllables or occasionally whole words can be deleted, as in the production [th jyth ɛ̃m] for do you have time shown in the visual abstract. Such reduction is more common in spontaneous, casual, conversational speech, but it occurs in connected speech in formal settings, and rarely even in careful word-list reading. Such speech poses challenges for phonetic transcription, since it contains many sounds that do not seem to be any particular sound of the language and that are difficult to classify into categories...
February 27, 2019: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Weijia Shi
Objectives: Given the prevalence of stress among young adults and its impact on overall health, it is important to understand how college students respond to stress and stress management messages and which factors influence subsequent health information engagement. Methods: In the current study, I used an experimental design to test whether the variables of risk percep tion, response efficacy, and source credibility can exert an impact on a convenient sample of undergraduate students at a large Midwestern public university in the health context of stress and stress management...
March 1, 2019: American Journal of Health Behavior
Michael Gouzos, Neeraj Sethi, Andrew Foreman, Suren Krishnan, J C Hodge
Collapse of the resection plane presents a frustrating problem during transoral robotic resection, in a situation already typified by limited vision and access for instruments. We present a quick and cost-effective retraction technique to effectively mitigate this issue and increase the ease and reliability of robotic oropharyngeal resection. This technique utilises a simple transnasal apparatus to create greater exposure of the resection plane. A Y-suction catheter is inserted into the oropharynx via the nasal cavity...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Lucile Ferreux, Amira Sallem, Ahmed Chargui, Anne-Sophie Gille, Mathilde Bourdon, Chloé Maignien, Pietro Santulli, Jean Philippe Wolf, Catherine Patrat, Khaled Pocate-Cheriet
STUDY QUESTION: Did the revised Alpha/ESHRE consensus (Vienna, 2017) bring a real answer on managing oocytes with aggregates of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SERa)? SUMMARY ANSWER: According to the currently available literature, a case by case approach on the time of injecting/inseminating SERa+ oocytes may be not helpful for embryologists making a decision, so we suggest fertilizing both SERa+ and SERa- oocytes and prioritizing embryos derived from SERa- oocytes...
February 26, 2019: Human Reproduction
Curt G Tribble
There is an old saying that history only makes sense in retrospect. I am sure that I am as susceptible to this adage as any other person. However, I will tell the story of my long history as an amateur medical ethicist, which is, to this day, how I would describe myself. My interest in the ethics of medicine, particularly as these ethical principles apply to interventions or procedures, started at a young age, fairly frequently going to the hospital with my father, a General and Thoracic Surgeon. I think that I found myself agreeing to accompany him, when invited, presuming that doing so would be a chance to spend some time with my dad, who was, throughout my childhood, either a surgical resident or a busy practicing surgeon...
February 20, 2019: Heart Surgery Forum
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