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Gene AND Obesity

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878016/short-term-strength-training-reduces-gluconeogenesis-and-nafld-in-obese-mice
#1
Rodrigo Martins Pereira, Kellen Cristina da Cruz Rodrigues, Chadi Pellegrini Anaruma, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, Thaís Dantis Pereira de Campos, Rodrigo Stellzer Gaspar, Raphael Dos Santos Canciglieri, Diego Gomes de Melo, Rania A Mekary, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, Leandro Pereira de Moura
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a positive correlation with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The aerobic training is an important tool in combating NAFLD. However, no studies have demonstrated the molecular effects of short-term strength training on the accumulation of hepatic fat in obese mice. This study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term strength training on the mechanisms of oxidation and lipid synthesis in the liver of obese mice. The short duration protocol was used to avoid changing the amount of adipose tissue...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877201/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-parkin-is-dispensable-for-metabolic-homeostasis-in-murine-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-adipocytes
#2
Callie A S Corsa, Gemma L Pearson, Aaron Renberg, Matthew M Askar, Tracy Vozheiko, Ormond A MacDougald, Scott A Soleimanpour
The E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin is a critical regulator of mitophagy and has been identified as a susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, its role in metabolically active tissues that precipitate T2D development is unknown. Specifically, pancreatic β cells and adipocytes both rely heavily on mitochondrial function in the regulation of optimal glycemic control to prevent T2D, but parkin's role in preserving quality control of β-cell or adipocyte mitochondria is unclear. Although parkin has been previously reported to control mitophagy, here we show that parkin surprisingly is dispensable for glucose homeostasis in both β cells and adipocytes during diet-induced insulin resistance in mice...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30875721/a-scientific-perspective-of-personalised-gene-based-dietary-recommendations-for-weight-management
#3
REVIEW
Theresa Drabsch, Christina Holzapfel
Various studies showed that a "one size fits all" dietary recommendation for weight management is questionable. For this reason, the focus increasingly falls on personalised nutrition. Although there is no precise and uniform definition of personalised nutrition, the inclusion of genetic variants for personalised dietary recommendations is more and more favoured, whereas scientific evidence for gene-based dietary recommendations is rather limited. The purpose of this article is to provide a science-based viewpoint on gene-based personalised nutrition and weight management...
March 14, 2019: Nutrients
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30875680/vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-improves-liver-and-hypothalamic-functions-in-obese-mice
#4
Peixin Li, Zhijian Rao, Brenton Laing, Wyatt Paul Bunner, Taylor Landry, Amber Prete, Yuan Yuan, Zhong-Tao Zhang, Hu Huang
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) is an effective surgery to treat obesity and diabetes. However, the direct effect of VSG on metabolic functions is not fully understood. We aimed to investigate if alterations in hypothalamic neurons were linked with perturbations in liver metabolism after VSG in an energy intake-controlled obese mouse model. C57BL/6 and hrNPY-GFP reporter mice received HFD for 12 weeks and were then divided into three groups: Sham (ad lib), sham (pair-fed) with VSG, and VSG. Food intake was measured daily, and blood glucose levels were measured before and after the study...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30874564/absence-of-the-proteoglycan-decorin-reduces-glucose-tolerance-in-overfed-male-mice
#5
Jessica Svärd, Therese H Røst, Camilla E N Sommervoll, Christine Haugen, Oddrun A Gudbrandsen, Anne E Mellgren, Eyvind Rødahl, Johan Fernø, Simon N Dankel, Jørn V Sagen, Gunnar Mellgren
Studies have implicated the extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipose tissue in insulin resistance. The proteoglycan decorin, a component of ECM, has been associated with glucose tolerance, but possible causal effects on metabolism remain to be explored. We here sought to determine metabolic consequences of loss of decorin in mice (DcnKO). DcnKO mice were fed a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 10 weeks and body weight and food intake was recorded. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed after eight weeks...
March 15, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30871540/fto-haplotyping-underlines-high-obesity-risk-for-european-populations
#6
Vladimir Babenko, Roman Babenko, Junaid Gamieldien, Arcady Markel
BACKGROUND: Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene has been under close investigation since the discovery of its high impact on the obesity status in 2007 by a range of publications. Recent report on its implication in adipocytes underscored its molecular and functional mechanics in pathology. Still, the population specific features of the locus structure have not been approached in detail. METHODS: We analyzed the population specific haplotype profiles of FTO genomic locus identified by Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) for the high obesity risk by examining eighteen 1000G populations from 4 continental groups...
March 13, 2019: BMC Medical Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30871035/eicosapentaenoic-acid-improves-hepatic-metabolism-and-reduces-inflammation-independent-of-obesity-in-high-fat-fed-mice-and-in-hepg2-cells
#7
Kembra Albracht-Schulte, Samantha Gonzalez, Abigail Jackson, Savanna Wilson, Latha Ramalingam, Nishan S Kalupahana, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide, concurrent with increased obesity. Thus, there is urgent need for research that can lead to effective NAFLD prevention/treatment strategies. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), improve inflammation- and dyslipidemia-related metabolic disorders; however, mechanisms mediating the benefits of n-3 PUFAs in NAFLD treatment are less understood. We previously reported that EPA reversed obesity-induced hepatic steatosis in high-fat (HF)-fed B6 mice...
March 12, 2019: Nutrients
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30870486/fecal-and-blood-microbiota-profiles-and-presence-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-obese-versus-lean-subjects
#8
Yeojun Yun, Han-Na Kim, Eun-Ju Lee, Seungho Ryu, Yoosoo Chang, Hocheol Shin, Hyung-Lae Kim, Tae Hun Kim, Kwon Yoo, Hwi Young Kim
Pathophysiological background in different phenotypes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains to be elucidated. The aim was to investigate the association between fecal and blood microbiota profiles and the presence of NAFLD in obese versus lean subjects. Demographic and clinical data were reviewed in 268 health checkup examinees, whose fecal and blood samples were available for microbiota analysis. NAFLD was diagnosed with ultrasonography, and subjects with NAFLD were further categorized as obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥25) or lean (BMI <25)...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30870482/the-evidence-of-metabolic-improving-effect-of-metformin-in-ay-a-mice-with-genetically-induced-melanocortin-obesity-and-the-contribution-of-hypothalamic-mechanisms-to-this-effect
#9
Kira Derkach, Irina Zakharova, Inna Zorina, Andrey Bakhtyukov, Irina Romanova, Liubov Bayunova, Alexander Shpakov
In diet-induced obesity, metformin (MF) has weight-lowering effect and improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. However, there is no information on the efficiency of MF and the mechanisms of its action in melanocortin-type obesity. We studied the effect of the 10-day treatment with MF at the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg/day on the food intake and the metabolic and hormonal parameters in female C57Bl/6J (genotype Ay/a) agouti-mice with melanocortin-type obesity, and the influence of MF on the hypothalamic signaling in obese animals at the most effective metabolic dose (600 mg/kg/day)...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30868903/impact-of-green-tea-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-hif1-%C3%AE-and-mtorc2-expression-in-obese-women-anti-cancer-and-anti-obesity-effects
#10
Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Heitor Bernardes Pereira Delfino, Marcela Augusta Souza Pinhel, Natália Yumi Noronha, Vitor Caressato Pinhanelli, Driele Cristina Gomes Quinhoneiro, Bruno Affonso Parenti Oliveira, Júlio Sergio Marchini, Carla Barbosa Nonino
INTRODUCTION: epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin contained in green tea (Camellia sinensis) and has been associated with anti-obesity and anti-cancer effects, but the exact molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this context, this study was designed to improve the understanding of the EGCG anti-obesity and anti-cancer action. OBJECTIVES: this study was designed to examine the effects of EGCG on the expression of genes involved in obesity and cancer pathways in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of obese women...
March 15, 2019: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867643/association-of-fto-gene-variant-rs8050136-with-type-2-diabetes-and-markers-of-obesity-glycaemic-control-and-inflammation
#11
Tamer Bego, Adlija Čaušević, Tanja Dujić, Maja Malenica, Zelija Velija-Asimi, Besim Prnjavorac, Janja Marc, Jana Nekvindová, Vladimír Palička, Sabina Semiz
Background: FTO , a gene recently discovered in genomewide associated studies for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), play an important role in the management of energy homeostasis, nucleic acid demethylation and regulation of body fat mass by lipolysis. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of FTO rs8050136 A>C genetic variant with clinical and biochemical parameters of T2D in the population of West Balkan region (Bosnians and Herzegovinians and Kosovars). Methods: The study included 638 patients with T2D and prediabetes and 360 healthy controls of both genders, aged from 40 to 65 years...
April 2019: Journal of Medical Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867412/t-cell-senescence-contributes-to-abnormal-glucose-homeostasis-in-humans-and-mice
#12
Hyon-Seung Yi, So Yeon Kim, Jung Tae Kim, Young-Sun Lee, Ji Sun Moon, Mingyo Kim, Yea Eun Kang, Kyong Hye Joung, Ju Hee Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kwangsik Chun, Minho Shong, Bon Jeong Ku
Chronic inflammation is a driving force for the development of metabolic disease including diabetes and obesity. However, the functional characteristics of T-cell senescence in the abnormal glucose homeostasis are not fully understood. We studied the patients visiting a hospital for routine health check-ups, who were divided into two groups: normal controls and people with prediabetes. Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal controls and patients with type 2 diabetes was undertaken using microarray analysis...
March 13, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867392/dietary-%C3%AE-conglycinin-modulates-insulin-sensitivity-body-fat-mass-and-lipid-metabolism-in-obese-otsuka-long-evans-tokushima-fatty-oletf-rats
#13
Koji Kawabeta, Shizuka Hase-Tamaru, Masahiro Yuasa, Kazuhito Suruga, Michihiro Sugano, Kazunori Koba
The physiological effects of dietary β-conglycinin (β-CON), one of the major components of soy protein (SOY), were examined in an obese animal model. Prior studies show that β-CON intake decreases plasma triglycerides and visceral adipose tissue weight, and increases plasma adiponectin in rodents. Since plasma adiponectin is known to affect both lipid and glucose metabolism, feeding a diet containing β-CON could modulate insulin sensitivity. Therefore, we examined the effects of dietary β-CON on insulin sensitivity and blood glucose levels, as well as lipid metabolism in obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats (pre-symptomatic stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus)...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Oleo Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30866520/circulating-chemerin-levels-but-not-the-rarres2-polymorphisms-predict-the-long-term-outcome-of-angiographically-confirmed-coronary-artery-disease
#14
Leay Kiaw Er, Lung-An Hsu, Jyh-Ming Jimmy Juang, Fu-Tien Chiang, Ming-Sheng Teng, I-Shiang Tzeng, Semon Wu, Jeng-Feng Lin, Yu-Lin Ko
Chemerin, a novel adipokine, has been associated with metabolic, inflammatory, and atherosclerotic diseases. We aimed to determine the genetic basis of chemerin levels by conducting a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and to investigate the role of RARRES2 polymorphisms and circulating chemerin levels in the long-term outcome of coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 2197 participants from the Taiwan Biobank (TWB) were recruited for the GWAS analysis, and 481 patients with angiographically confirmed CAD were enrolled for long-term outcome analysis...
March 7, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30866087/adipose-tissue-dysfunction-in-obese-horses-with-equine-metabolic-syndrome
#15
A Reynolds, J A Keen, T Fordham, R A Morgan
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a common feature of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). In other species obese adipose tissue shows pathological features such as adipocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and impaired insulin signalling all of which contribute to whole body insulin dysregulation. Such adipose tissue dysfunction has not been investigated in horses. OBJECTIVES: To determine if obese horses with EMS have adipose tissue dysfunction characterised by adipocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and altered insulin signalling...
March 13, 2019: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30865899/single-cell-heterogeneity-analysis-and-crispr-screen-identify-key-%C3%AE-cell-specific-disease-genes
#16
Zhou Fang, Chen Weng, Haiyan Li, Ran Tao, Weihua Mai, Xiaoxiao Liu, Leina Lu, Sisi Lai, Qing Duan, Carlos Alvarez, Peter Arvan, Anthony Wynshaw-Boris, Yun Li, Yanxin Pei, Fulai Jin, Yan Li
Identification of human disease signature genes typically requires samples from many donors to achieve statistical significance. Here, we show that single-cell heterogeneity analysis may overcome this hurdle by significantly improving the test sensitivity. We analyzed the transcriptome of 39,905 single islets cells from 9 donors and observed distinct β cell heterogeneity trajectories associated with obesity or type 2 diabetes (T2D). We therefore developed RePACT, a sensitive single-cell analysis algorithm to identify both common and specific signature genes for obesity and T2D...
March 12, 2019: Cell Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30865877/mitofusin-2-in-mature-adipocytes-controls-adiposity-and-body-weight
#17
Giacomo Mancini, Kevin Pirruccio, Xiaoyong Yang, Matthias Blücher, Matthew Rodeheffer, Tamas L Horvath
We found that exposure of adult animals to calorie-dense foods rapidly abolished expression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), a gene promoting mitochondrial fusion and mitochondrion-endoplasmic reticulum interactions, in white and brown fat. Mfn2 mRN was also robustly lower in obese human subjects compared with lean controls. Adipocyte-specific knockdown of Mfn2 in adult mice led to increased food intake, adiposity, and impaired glucose metabolism on standard chow as well as on a diet with high calorie content. The body weight and adiposity of mature adipocyte-specific Mfn2 knockout mice on a standard diet were similar to those of control mice on a high-fat diet...
March 12, 2019: Cell Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30863887/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-deficiency-aggravates-obesity-induced-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-impairs-thermogenic-response
#18
Luthfiyyah Mutsnaini, Chu-Sook Kim, Jiye Kim, Yeonsoo Joe, Hun Taeg Chung, Hye-Seon Choi, Eun Roh, Min-Seon Kim, Rina Yu
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Hypothalamic inflammation is closely associated with metabolic dysregulation. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is known to be an important metabolic regulator with anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of FGF21 deficiency on obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation and thermogenic responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FGF21-deficient mice and/or wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks...
March 12, 2019: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30863800/genetic-analysis-of-early-onset-familial-coronary-artery-diseases
#19
Mohammad Javad Ghorbani, Nematollah Razmi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher Tabei, Mohammad Javad Zibaeenezhad, Hamid Reza Goodarzi
Introduction: Coronary artery diseases (CAD) are the most common causes of death. Myocardial infarction (MI) is a complex multifactorial and the most severe type of CAD. Early onset MI in a first-degree relative could be defined as an independent risk factor for CAD. This study was performed to investigate the genetic cause of early onset familial CAD. Material and methods: In this study, the genetic cause of familial CAD was investigated in patients with a family history of CAD who underwent angiography before the age of 50 years...
2019: Archives of Medical Sciences. Atherosclerotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30863132/identification-of-the-mc4r-start-lost-mutation-in-a-morbidly-obese-brazilian-patient
#20
Ana Carolina Proença da Fonseca, Gabriella de Medeiros Abreu, Verônica Marques Zembrzuski, Mario Campos Junior, João Regis Ivar Carneiro, Fernanda Cristina C Mattos Magno, Eliane Lopes Rosado, José Firmino Nogueira Neto, Giselda Maria Kalil de Cabello, Pedro Hernán Cabello
Background: Melanocortin 4 receptor gene ( MC4R ) is an important regulator of food intake, body weight, and blood pressure. Mutations in MC4R are associated with the most common form of nonsyndromic monogenic obesity. MC4R variations have an autosomal co-/dominant model of inheritance. MC4R screening could reveal individuals previously unrecognized with Mendelian form of obesity for further clinical management and genetic counseling. However, there are limited data regarding MC4R variants in patients with obesity from Brazil...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
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