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Mental Health, Psychiatry, Mindfulness

Devon A Sherwood
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Attitudes towards disclosure of a psychiatric diagnosis and directed at persons with mental illness have represented negativity and stigma. The purpose of this study was to identify stigma towards mental illness among health profession students in pharmacy, nursing, and social work programs, and identify if primary psychiatric coursework in each curriculum has an impact on students' perceptions. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Pharmacy, nursing and social work students were surveyed pre- and post-primary didactic psychiatry coursework (pre-course = 154 total; 95 pharmacy, 47 nursing, 12 social work; post-course = 128 total; 79 pharmacy, 38 nursing, and 11 social work) using the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC)...
February 2019: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Nic John Ramos
The community mental health movement has been generally regarded as a benevolent movement that replaced old notions of psychiatric racism with new ideas about the normality of race. Few studies, however, have explored the movement for its active support for new surveillance and policing strategies, particularly broken windows theory, a policing approach partly responsible for the expansion of prisons in the United States after the 1970s. Looking to racially liberal approaches to psychiatry in the 1960s and 1970s crafted by integrationist psychiatrist Louis Jolyon West and black nationalist psychiatrist J...
January 1, 2019: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Ventriglio Antonio, Bonfitto Iris, Ricci Fabiana, Cuoco Federica, Bhavsar Vishal
BACKGROUND: Religion and psychiatry may be both considered to be two different ways of explaining the unknown, of responding to questions about the meaning of life, and of bringing healing. AIMS: To discuss the border between religion and psychiatry. METHOD: This lecture explores the interface between religion and psychiatry and discusses the border between soul and mind. RESULTS: Religious beliefs may affect behaviours and may been seen on a psychopathological continuum with overvalued ideas and delusions...
November 29, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Sharon Karr
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to update the physician community on current evidence regarding ways individuals can combat the rise in physician burnout. More than half of US physicians are experiencing at least some degree of burnout and the incidence has increased significantly over the past decade. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings suggest practicing physical, mental, and emotional self-care are important factors in avoiding physician burnout...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Roxanne C Keynejad, Thomas Frodl, Richard Kanaan, Carmine Pariante, Markus Reuber, Timothy R Nicholson
At the interface between mind and body, psychiatry and neurology, functional neurological disorder (FND) remains poorly understood. Formerly dominant stress-related aetiological models have been increasingly challenged, in part due to cases without any history of past or recent trauma. In this perspective article, we review current evidence for such models, and how research into the role of traumatic stress in other disorders and the neurobiology of the stress response can inform our mechanistic understanding of FND...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Felix Tretter
Psychiatric illnesses like dementia are increasingly relevant for public health affairs. Neurobiology promises progress in diagnosis and treatment of these illnesses and exhibits a rapid increase of knowledge by new neurotechnologies. In order to find generic patterns in huge neurobiological data sets and by exploring formal brain models, non-linear science offers many examples of fruitful insights into the complex dynamics of neuronal information processing. However, it should be minded that neurobiology neither can bridge the explanatory gap between brain and mind nor can substitute psychological and psychiatric categories and knowledge...
October 2018: Chaos
Toshimasa Maruta, Chihiro Matsumoto
The movement towards renaming of schizophrenia in Japan started in 1993 upon receipt of a letter by The National Federation of Families with Mentally Ill in Japan addressed to the board of Japanese Society of Psychiatry of Neurology (JSPN), requesting to rename schizophrenia as the then-official term for the condition, Seishin-Bunretsu-Byo, or 'mind-splitting disease', was humiliating. A committee was established within JSPN to address the issue, public comments were collected, a new name 'Togo-Shitcho-Sho' ('disintegration disorder') was approved in 2002, and in 2005, the new name was adopted in the Revised Mental Health and Welfare Act...
October 29, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Sharon A M Stevelink, Margaret Jones, Lisa Hull, David Pernet, Shirlee MacCrimmon, Laura Goodwin, Deirdre MacManus, Dominic Murphy, Norman Jones, Neil Greenberg, Roberto J Rona, Nicola T Fear, Simon Wessely
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of mental health outcomes in UK personnel at the end of the British involvement in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts.AimsWe examined the prevalence of mental disorders and alcohol misuse, whether this differed between serving and ex-serving regular personnel and by deployment status. METHOD: This is the third phase of a military cohort study (2014-2016; n = 8093). The sample was based on participants from previous phases (2004-2006 and 2007-2009) and a new randomly selected sample of those who had joined the UK armed forces since 2009...
October 8, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Shan Liang, Xiaoli Wu, Feng Jin
Mental disorders and neurological diseases are becoming a rapidly increasing medical burden. Although extensive studies have been conducted, the progress in developing effective therapies for these diseases has still been slow. The current dilemma reminds us that the human being is a superorganism. Only when we take the human self and its partner microbiota into consideration at the same time, can we better understand these diseases. Over the last few centuries, the partner microbiota has experienced tremendous change, much more than human genes, because of the modern transformations in diet, lifestyle, medical care, and so on, parallel to the modern epidemiological transition...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Dennis J Butler, Dominique Fons, Travis Fisher, James Sanders, Sara Bodenhamer, Julie R Owen, Marc Gunderson
A significant percentage of patients with psychiatric disorders are exclusively seen for health-care services by primary care physicians. To address the mental health needs of such patients, collaborative models of care were developed including the embedded psychiatry consult model which places a consultant psychiatrist on-site to assist the primary care physician to recognize psychiatric disorders, prescribe psychiatric medication, and develop management strategies. Outcome studies have produced ambiguous and inconsistent findings regarding the impact of this model...
November 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Chiara Thumiger
This book on ancient medicine offers a unique resource for historians of medicine, historians of psychology, and classicists - and also cultural historians and historians of art. The Hippocratic texts and other contemporary medical sources have often been overlooked when it comes to their approaches to psychology, which are considered more mechanical and less elaborated than contemporary poetic and philosophical representations, but also than later medical works, notably Galenic. This book aims to do justice to early medical accounts by illustrating their richness and sophistication, their links with contemporary cultural products, and the indebtedness of later medicine to their observations...
August 13, 2018: History of Psychiatry
Andrew A Fingelkurts, Alexander A Fingelkurts
Contemporary psychiatry faces serious challenges because it has failed to incorporate accumulated knowledge from basic neuroscience, neurophilosophy, and brain-mind relation studies. As a consequence, it has limited explanatory power, and effective treatment options are hard to come by. A new conceptual framework for understanding mental health based on underlying neurobiological spatial-temporal mechanisms of mental disorders (already gained by the experimental studies) is beginning to emerge.
August 3, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Ladislav Kesner
One of major challenges facing contemporary psychiatry is the insufficient grasp of relationship between individual and collective mental pathologies. A long tradition of diagnosing "mental illness" of society-exemplified by Erich Fromm-stands apart from approach of contemporary social psychiatry and is not perceived as relevant for psychiatric discourse. In this Perspective article, I argue that it is possible to uphold the idea of a supra-individual dimension to mental health, while avoiding the obvious pitfalls involved in categorical diagnosing of society as suffering from mental illness...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Lisa J Mullen
Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), George Orwell's political satire on state surveillance and mind control, was written between 1946 and 1948, at a time when new thinking in forensic psychiatry coincided with scientific breakthroughs in neurology to bring questions of criminality, psychotherapy and mental health to the forefront of the popular imagination. This paper examines how Nineteen Eighty-Four inverts psychiatric paradigms in order to diagnose what Orwell sees as the madness of totalitarian regimes. It then goes on to place the novel's dystopian vision of total surveillance and mind control in the context of the neurological research and brain scanning techniques of the mid-20th century...
June 25, 2018: Medical Humanities
Else Guthrie, Mathew Harrison, Richard Brown, Rajdeep Sandhu, Peter Trigwell, Seri Abraham, Shazada Nawaz, Peter Kelsall, Rachel Thomasson
Aims and methodTo develop and pilot a clinician-rated outcome scale to evaluate symptomatic outcomes in liaison psychiatry services. Three hundred and sixty patient contacts with 207 separate individuals were rated using six subscales (mood, psychosis, cognition, substance misuse, mind-body problems and behavioural disturbance) plus two additional items (side-effects of medication and capacity to consent for medical treatment). Each item was rated on a five-point scale from 0 to 5 (nil, mild, moderate, severe and very severe)...
June 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
Kulamakan Kulasegaram, Maria Mylopoulos, Paul Tonin, Stacey Bernstein, Pier Bryden, Marcus Law, Jana Lazor, Richard Pittini, Sanjeev Sockalingam, Glendon R Tait, Patricia Houston
RATIONALE: There are perennial calls for MD curricula to reform in order to meet the changing needs of students, patients, and society. And yet, efforts at renewal have also been suggested to have minimal impact on the pedagogy and outcomes of medical education. One reason may be misalignment between the components of the curriculum during design and implementation. The University of Toronto MD program recently renewed its undergraduate preclinical Foundations curriculum. Mindful of the pitfalls of misalignment, the renewal process focused deliberately on alignment between the various components of the curriculum: instructional methods, student assessment, faculty development, and the larger purpose of serving students and society...
May 2018: Medical Teacher
Kelsey T Laird, Pattharee Paholpak, Michael Roman, Berna Rahi, Helen Lavretsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A growing body of research supports the use of mind-body therapies (MBTs) as minimally invasive and effective approaches for the management of late-life mood and cognitive disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses indicate that MBTs are effective for enhancing well-being, mood, sleep, and cognition in older adults. Evidence suggests that mindful movement (e.g., yoga, tai chi, walking meditation) may even outperform conventional physical exercise with regard to effects on quality of life, mood, and cognitive functioning...
January 25, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Ye V Makushkin, S N Oskolkova, G A Fastovtsov
First part of this review (Chapter 1) demonstrates an ambiguous attitude toward psychiatry among professionals and in society in recent decades. The articles of supporters and opponents of psychiatry are also quoted. The authors describe the dynamics of the reflection of psychopathology in the main widely accepted classifications and manuals. Critical and negative opinions regarding the DSM-5, due to its role in the 'medicalization' processes, for the movement 'World Mental Health', are mentioned. The history of antipsychiatry movement and its results for psychiatry and society are analyzed as well...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Alexa Bonacquisti, Matthew J Cohen, Crystal Edler Schiller
Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for childbearing women. Current treatments, such as cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy, have demonstrated modest success in addressing perinatal psychiatric symptoms; however, additional treatment options are needed to address the limitations of current approaches, particularly for women experiencing moderate to severe perinatal mental illness during pregnancy or postpartum. We discuss the use of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) as a promising treatment approach that may be uniquely suited for perinatal women due to its emphasis of values, mindfulness, and acceptance; these psychological constructs notably address the significant psychiatric and behavioral health condition comorbidity, somatic symptoms, and stigma associated with perinatal mood and anxiety disorders...
October 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Michael Jarvis
In Naked Lunch, the institutions and practices of science and medicine, specifically with regard to psychiatry/psychology, are symptoms of a bureaucratic system of control that shapes, constructs, defines, and makes procrustean alterations to both the mind and body of human subjects. Using sickness and junk (or heroin) as convenient metaphors for both a Cold War binary mentality and the mandatory consumption of twentieth-century capitalism, Burroughs presents modern man as fundamentally alienated from any sense of a personal self...
2017: Literature and Medicine
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