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Culture Psychiatry

E Rossiou, A Orologas
The art of the confined began to be studied by psychiatrists in the late 19th century for diagnostic purposes, while the first studies of aesthetic interest were found in the first decades of the 20th century, when psychiatrists as the Swiss W. Morgenthaler and the Austrian H. Prinzhorn published studies on mentally ill artworks, having mainly aesthetic approach. The artworks of the mentally ill belong to the field of Art found in the international literature by the term of Art Brut. The term "Brut" was introduced in 1945 by J...
October 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
M Danielson, A Månsdotter, E Fransson, S Dalsgaard, J-O Larsson
Background: There is a strong call for clinically useful standardized assessment tools in everyday child and adolescent psychiatric practice. The attitudes of clinicians have been raised as a key-facilitating factor when implementing new methods. An explorative study was conducted aimed to investigate the clinicians' attitudes regarding standardized assessments and usefulness of diagnoses in treatment planning. Methods: 411 mental health service personnel working with outpatient and inpatient assessment and treatment within the specialist child and adolescent mental health services, Stockholm County Council were asked to participate in the study, of which 345 (84%) agreed answer a questionnaire...
2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Joel T Braslow, Stephen R Marder
We live in an age of psychopharmacology. One in six persons currently takes a psychotropic drug. These drugs have profoundly shaped our scientific and cultural understanding of psychiatric disease. By way of a historical review, we try to make sense of psychiatry's dependency on psychiatric drugs in the care of patients. Modern psychopharmacology began in 1950 with the synthesis of chlorpromazine. Over the course of the next 50 years, the psychiatric understanding and treatment of mental illness radically changed...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Marcos Zurita
The aim of this paper is to discuss about some key issues concerning psychiatry. What really does a psychiatrist nowadays? What kind of disorder does he treat? Why psychiatry keeps itself apart from other specialties and within its own autonomous field? Having in mind the differences between the mental disorders, can we consider that the same semiological elements are appropriate for all of them or do we need to resume an individual analysis from each of those disorders? Can we go through the sparse spectrum of neurotic disorders ignoring the market forces or the dualistic interpretation? In this context, there is still room for questioning: is there an undiscovered explanation regarding the psychiatry disorders or are we trying to find a whole rationale explanation to study non-agroupable objects, lacking of that aforementioned common nuclear logic? And finally, could it be that the constant variables which we assume as the constitutive elements of psychiatric objects are barely the shifting boundaries that change as the time and the culture does?...
September 2018: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Wiremu NiaNia, Allister Bush, David Epston
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to give an overview of Māori concepts informing a collaboration between a Māori healer (NiaNia) and psychiatrist (Bush). CONCLUSIONS: Wairua (spiritual) problems can resemble psychiatric disorders or symptoms. Knowledge of relevant Māori concepts such as mauri, tapu, mana, matekite and manaakitanga may assist psychiatrists in collaborating with Māori healers and kaumātua (elders) to enable more appropriate cultural and clinical assessment, as well as helping to build rapport and clinical interactions with Māori whānau (individuals and families)...
February 18, 2019: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Amesh K Shrestha, Zeliha Özlü-Erkilic, Christian Popow, Susanne Ohmann, Türkan Akkaya-Kalayci
BACKGROUND: The symptoms following a traumatic event as well as the coping strategies can be culture specific. The objective of the present study was to analyse the transcultural differences of psychologically traumatized children and adolescents with and without migration background. METHODS: The medical files of 199 psychologically traumatized children and adolescents (99 native Austrian, 100 Turkish-speaking) who were treated at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Vienna were retrospectively analysed...
February 1, 2019: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Signe Skammeritz, Nevra Sari, Oscar Jiménez-Solomon, Jessica Carlsson
A myriad of cultural and language-related factors can affect the communication between clinicians, interpreters, and patients. Misunderstandings can lead to diagnostic errors; inadequate treatment; disengagement; and, thereby, poor clinical outcomes. A qualified interpreter can decrease the risk of miscommunication. The integration of an interpreter in the clinical encounter can shape the course of treatment and patient experience. Therefore, developing clinicians' awareness about and skills to address contextual challenges in using interpreters in transcultural psychiatry is of great importance...
March 1, 2019: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Sofie Bäärnhielm, Maria Sundvall
BACKGROUND: Mental health services in Sweden are confronted with globalization and refugee migration from conflict- and war-torn countries. AIM: To discuss how clinicians in Sweden can deal with a series of challenges in a changing globalized society, ranging from difficulties of overcoming barriers to help seeking to difficulties of identifying trauma and finding culturally adapted clinical tools. METHOD: Case vignettes are presented to exemplify challenges...
September 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Maria-Ioanna Stefanou, Sophia Peloponnissiou-Vassilacos
Angelos Katakouzenos, a Greek neurologist and prolific medical writer at the beginning of the 20th century, belonged to a group of artists and scholars that formed the "generation of the 30s," a cultural movement that emerged after World War I and introduced modernism in Greek art and literature. Born in 1902, Katakouzenos studied medicine in France at the Universities of Montpellier and Paris, where he trained in neurology and -psychiatry under Georges Guillain, Henri Claude, Jean-Athanase Sicard, Pierre Marie, Clovis Vincent and Théophile -Alajouanine...
January 15, 2019: European Neurology
Vasudeo P Paralikar, Ankita Deshmukh, Mitchell G Weiss
The DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation (OCF) was a framework for assessment based on principles of cultural psychiatry. The Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) for DSM-5 provided a tool enabling wider use of cultural formulation in clinical cultural assessment. Validation to justify the inclusion of the CFI in DSM-5 involved quantitative analysis of debriefing interviews of patients and clinicians for feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility. We now further examine qualitative field trial data from the CFI interviews and the debriefing interviews in Pune, India...
January 14, 2019: Transcultural Psychiatry
N Derevianchenko, O Lytovska, D Diurba, I Leshchyna
Modern medical practice require close communication both doctors and patients. Development of medicine, especially seen in past decades, promoted changes in medical procedures and documentation, i.e. development of more accurate and valuable informed consent, which is an important part of treatment or diagnostic process. On the other hand, novel researches and achievements in medicine brought new terminology, descriptions and widened medical language, which complicated understanding of information both by practitioners (in any field, including psychiatry), and by patients...
November 2018: Georgian Medical News
Faith R Kelley, Gretchen L Haas, Emily Felber, Michael J Travis, Esa M Davis
OBJECTIVE: Promoting awareness in residency training about the influence of religion on the doctor's and patient's ability to negotiate a patient-centered treatment plan is challenging and yet important for improving the quality of mental health care for religious individuals. This paper aims to explore the use of community partners and non-psychiatry faculty to provide this education within psychiatry residency programs. METHODS: Fifty-one psychiatry residents at an academic psychiatric hospital took part in a 4-h interdisciplinary workshop aimed at improving doctors' overall approach to treating African-American Christian patients...
January 7, 2019: Academic Psychiatry
Max J Stein
With the aim of advancing the cross-cultural investigation of the folk illness nervios, I conducted a dual-sited comparative study of symptom descriptions among two diverse research settings in Honduras. Baer et al. (Cult Med Psychiatry 27(3):315-337, 2003) used cultural consensus modeling (CCM) to confirm a core description of nervios among four Latino groups in the US, Mexico, and Guatemala, but observed that overall agreement and average competence in a shared illness model decreased along a gradient from presumably more-to-less economically developed sites...
January 5, 2019: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Emily Mendenhall, Andrew Wooyoung Kim
How we interpret concepts from suffering to survival has been historically debated in the field of anthropology, transcultural psychiatry, and global mental health. These debates have centered on the notion that such concepts are cross-culturally reproducible, although scholars who work the boundaries of culture, medicine, and psychiatry often triangulate methods from internationally standardized scales to various interpretive methods from participant observation to narrative. This article considers resilience, as opposed to suffering, as the subject of a reproducible entity by discussing the failure of an attempt to capture resilience via an internationally reputed scale called the "Resilience Scale for Adults" among cancer patients in urban South Africa...
January 3, 2019: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Ockert Coetzee, Colleen Adnams, Leslie Swartz
In a rapidly transforming world, cultural assimilation and the hybridity of clients and therapists are increasingly acknowledged. Juxtaposed against universalist and relativist discourses in Cultural Psychiatry, the elucidation of perceived "difference" from cultural norms, constructed as being observed in the lives of either the client, or therapist, or both, requires critical reflection on how such norms are derived and by whom. This cultural case study describes a clinical encounter between a Muslim South African woman, and a South African man of Afrikaner descent...
January 3, 2019: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
K Triantafyllou, I Othiti, G Xylouris, V Moulla, V Ntre, P Kovani, I Gertsou, D Anagnostopoulos
Since 1989, Greece has accepted thousands of economic immigrants and more recently, since 2010, has been transformed to a host country for refugees mainly from countries at war. Refugees experience a number of serious traumas, i.e. death of family member or a close friend, physical, emotional or sexual abuse, and at the same time have to confront poverty, hostility and racism during and after the settlement in the host country. On the other hand, economic immigrants have mainly to face adaption difficulties in a host country including racism, poverty, different culture, bureaucracy...
July 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Richard Martinez
Dr. Ezra Griffith's retirement as Editor of The Journal motivated this reflection on his contributions to forensic psychiatry. In 1998, Dr. Griffith published a response to Dr. Alan Stone's views and Dr. Paul Appelbaum's theory on ethics in forensic psychiatry. This response has been often labeled as the "cultural formulation" perspective. This article reviews some of the major contributors in the development of ethics and professionalism for forensic psychiatry and offers a perspective on Dr. Griffith's contributions in this evolving and relatively young sub-specialty within psychiatry...
December 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Richard J Loewenstein
Controversy about dissociation and the dissociative disorders (DD) has existed since the beginning of modern psychiatry and psychology. Even among professionals, beliefs about dissociation/DD often are not based on the scientific literature. Multiple lines of evidence support a powerful relationship between dissociation/DD and psychological trauma, especially cumulative and/or early life trauma. Skeptics counter that dissociation produces fantasies of trauma, and that DD are artefactual conditions produced by iatrogenesis and/or socio-cultural factors...
September 2018: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Nic John Ramos
The community mental health movement has been generally regarded as a benevolent movement that replaced old notions of psychiatric racism with new ideas about the normality of race. Few studies, however, have explored the movement for its active support for new surveillance and policing strategies, particularly broken windows theory, a policing approach partly responsible for the expansion of prisons in the United States after the 1970s. Looking to racially liberal approaches to psychiatry in the 1960s and 1970s crafted by integrationist psychiatrist Louis Jolyon West and black nationalist psychiatrist J...
January 1, 2019: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Deborah Doroshow, Matthew Gambino, Mical Raz
Gerald Grob's work in the history of psychiatry over the course of almost fifty years created a model for how historians might successfully situate mental health in its social and political context, and how inseparable it was from this context. Over the last twenty years, the field has grown tremendously. Historians have incorporated categories of analysis like gender and race, methodologies like cultural history and intellectual history, and sought to continue Grob's quest to understand American mental health history as a critical component of American history writ large...
January 1, 2019: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
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