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Culture dissociative disorder

Lana Ruvolo Grasser, Arash Javanbakht
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posttraumatic stress disorder is a chronic, heterogeneous disorder for which a multitude of psychotherapies, pharmaceuticals, and immerging treatment programs are available. Majority of efficacy studies focus on Caucasian male military populations, which may be a reason why not all patients respond to treatment with long-term positive outcomes. Additionally, effects of treatment on symptom clusters have been neglected. This work reviews treatment of PTSD and its symptom clusters exclusively in civilian populations, which have been historically under-examined in the literature...
February 8, 2019: Current Psychiatry Reports
Richard J Loewenstein
Controversy about dissociation and the dissociative disorders (DD) has existed since the beginning of modern psychiatry and psychology. Even among professionals, beliefs about dissociation/DD often are not based on the scientific literature. Multiple lines of evidence support a powerful relationship between dissociation/DD and psychological trauma, especially cumulative and/or early life trauma. Skeptics counter that dissociation produces fantasies of trauma, and that DD are artefactual conditions produced by iatrogenesis and/or socio-cultural factors...
September 2018: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Dongying Yan, Zhuo Ma, Chang Liu, Can Wang, Yu Deng, Wei Liu, Bin Xu
Manganese (Mn) has recently come into the limelight as an important environmental risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders. Although multiple neurotoxicities of Mn have been extensively studied, the exact mechanism of Mn-induced autophagic dysregulation is still poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to explore the role of cytosolic high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)-dependent autophagy in Mn-induced autophagic dysregulation and neurotoxicity. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with culture solution (control) and three different concentrations of Mn (50, 100, and 200 μM) for 24 h to detect the effect of Mn on HMGB1-dependent autophagy...
December 19, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jennifer M Gómez
Cultural betrayal trauma theory proposes that intraracial trauma in ethnic minority populations includes a cultural betrayal that contributes to outcomes, such as symptoms of PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder; posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS]), dissociation, and (intra)cultural pressure. Participants ( n = 179) were ethnic minority female college students, who completed online questionnaires. The results revealed that when controlling for age, ethnicity, and interracial trauma, intraracial trauma and (intra)cultural pressure affected PTSS and dissociation...
November 30, 2018: Violence Against Women
Ventriglio Antonio, Bonfitto Iris, Ricci Fabiana, Cuoco Federica, Bhavsar Vishal
BACKGROUND: Religion and psychiatry may be both considered to be two different ways of explaining the unknown, of responding to questions about the meaning of life, and of bringing healing. AIMS: To discuss the border between religion and psychiatry. METHOD: This lecture explores the interface between religion and psychiatry and discusses the border between soul and mind. RESULTS: Religious beliefs may affect behaviours and may been seen on a psychopathological continuum with overvalued ideas and delusions...
November 29, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Ethan Moitra, Yovanska Duarte-Velez, Roberto Lewis-Fernández, Risa B Weisberg, Martin B Keller
BACKGROUND: Ataque de nervios (ataque) represents a cultural syndrome of paroxysmic symptoms that is described as an expression of distress among Latinx (gender-inclusive term for people of Latin-American descent). Some ataques are symptomatically similar to DSM-5-defined panic attacks, but also may include acute anger, grief, suicidal/violent behavior, or dissociation, and can last for hours or even days. Ataques usually occur after stressors and can trigger the mobilization of social support networks...
October 17, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Cosima Rhein, Stefan Löber, Peter Gmeiner, Erich Gulbins, Philipp Tripal, Johannes Kornhuber
In recent studies, major depressive disorder (MDD) was linked to an increase in acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity. Several drugs that are commonly used to treat MDD functionally inhibit the lysosomal enzyme ASM and are called functional inhibitors of ASM (FIASMAs). These drugs are classified as cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) that influence the catalytic activities of different lysosomal enzymes. This action results in the side effect of phospholipidosis (PLD), which describes a detrimental increase in the phospholipid content in lysosomes...
December 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
M S Ahsan, J Roy, M A Shah, S Y Arafat, J S Nahar, M I Mullick
Dissociative (conversion) disorder (DCR) has a long and controversial history. Some authors wish to classify it with somatoform disorders separate from dissociative disorders; many researchers keep it with DCR. Symptoms pattern also varies in different cultures. This study used the criteria of International Classification of Diseases Tenth Edition (ICD-10). Study was aimed to see the presenting symptom profile of dissociative (conversion) disorder more focusing on psychotic symptoms in tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh...
July 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Stefanie Blain-Moraes, Eric Racine, George A Mashour
Current paradigms in Western medicine often fail to differentiate clearly between consciousness, responsiveness and personhood. The growing number of individuals who exist with sustainable cardiopulmonary systems but who are behaviorally unresponsive has prompted a cultural reconsideration of the relationship between the presence of consciousness and what it means to be a person. This article presents relevant clinical situations that exemplify the different modes in which personhood and consciousness can be associated and dissociated: disorders of consciousness, emergence from anesthesia, and neocortical death...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sérgio Vencio, Rafael Caiado-Vencio, Leonardo Caixeta
BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the most diverse cultural aspects related to religiosity. Scientifically, it is important to understand religious manifestations and their relation to health, and to differentiate them from psychopathological manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mental health of a group of mediums and compare it with that of a control group from the same religious context who do not manifest mediumship, using the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS)...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Yi Pang, Kimberly Simpson, José Javier Miguel-Hidalgo, Renate Savich
Myelination cell culture systems are useful tools for studying myelin biology and myelin-related disorders. Compared to a number of established protocols for dissociated pure oligodendrocyte (OL) culture, methods for myelination culture are limited. We recently developed a mixed neuron-glia coculture system that generates robust and efficient myelination. By optimizing cell culture conditions, dissociated neural progenitor cells from embryonic rat spinal cords develop into neurons and glial cells including profiles of oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sara H Mokhtar, Min Joung Kim, Kylie A Magee, Pei Mun Aui, Speros Thomas, Maha M Bakhuraysah, Amani A Alrehaili, Jae Young Lee, David L Steer, Rachel Kenny, Catriona McLean, Michael F Azari, Antonis Birpanagos, Ewlina Lipiec, Philip Heraud, Bayden Wood, Steven Petratos
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Prior to the development of these characteristic pathological hallmarks of AD, anterograde axonal transport is impaired. However, the key proteins that initiate these intracellular impairments remain elusive. The collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) plays an integral role in kinesin-1-dependent axonal transport and there is evidence that phosphorylation of CRMP-2 releases kinesin-1...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Niele D Mendes, Artur Fernandes, Glaucia M Almeida, Luis E Santos, Maria Clara Selles, N M Lyra E Silva, Carla M Machado, José A C Horta-Júnior, Paulo R Louzada, Fernanda G De Felice, Soniza Alves-Leon, Jorge Marcondes, João Alberto Assirati, Caio M Matias, William L Klein, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Sergio T Ferreira, Luciano Neder, Adriano Sebollela
BACKGROUND: Slice cultures have been prepared from several organs. With respect to the brain, advantages of slice cultures over dissociated cell cultures include maintenance of the cytoarchitecture and neuronal connectivity. Slice cultures from adult human brain have been reported and constitute a promising method to study neurological diseases. Despite this potential, few studies have characterized in detail cell survival and function along time in short-term, free-floating cultures...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Kazi Abdus Salam, Richard Y Wang, Teresa Grandinetti, Valeria De Giorgi, Harvey J Alter, Robert D Allison
Erythrocytes bind circulating immune complexes (ICs) and facilitate IC clearance from the circulation. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with IC-related disorders. In this study, we investigated the kinetics and mechanism of HCV and HCV-IC binding to and dissociation from erythrocytes. Cell culture-produced HCV was mixed with erythrocytes from healthy blood donors, and erythrocyte-associated virus particles were quantified. Purified complement proteins, complement-depleted serum, and complement receptor antibodies were used to investigate complement-mediated HCV-erythrocyte binding...
December 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Jongwan Kim, Md Nazmul Haque, Tae-Won Goo, Il Soo Moon
In the brain, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results in synaptic dysfunction and eventually leads to neurodegeneration. Allomyrina dichotoma larvae are a Chinese ethnomedicine and are widely used in East Asia. In the present study, we investigated the ability of ethanol extract of A. dichotoma larvae (ADE) to improve synaptic structure and function by activating unfolded protein response (UPR) under ER stress in animal and neuron culture models. ER stress was induced in obese mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) or by treating dissociated cultures of rat embryonic (E19) hippocampal neurons with tunicamycin (TM)...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Hong Wang Fung, Tat Ming Choi, Chitat Chan, Colin A Ross
PURPOSE: Pathological dissociation (PD) is an easily overlooked phenomenon in the mental health field. Standardized assessment is important for identifying dissociative symptoms and disorders. However, the use of PD measures in Chinese cultures needs investigation. This pilot study investigated the psychometric properties of three PD measures among Hong Kong Chinese. METHODS: The psychometric properties of the Dissociative Experiences Scale-Taxon, the 5-item Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire, and the Self-Report Version of the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (SR-DDIS) were evaluated using online methods in Hong Kong...
July 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
Louis Sass, Juan P Borda, Luis Madeira, Elizabeth Pienkos, Barnaby Nelson
The self-disorder model offers a unifying way of conceptualizing schizophrenia's highly diverse symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized), of capturing their distinctive bizarreness, and of conceiving their longitudinal development. These symptoms are viewed as differing manifestations of an underlying disorder of ipseity or core-self: hyper-reflexivity/diminished-self-presence with accompanying disturbances of "grip" or "hold" on reality. Recent revision to this phenomenological theory, in particular distinguishing primary-vs-secondary factors, offers a bio-pheno-social model that is consistent with recent empirical findings and offers several advantages: (1) It helps account for the temporal variations of the symptoms or syndrome, including longitudinal progression, but also the shorter-term, situationally reactive, and sometimes defensive or quasi-intentional variability of symptom-expression that can occur in schizophrenia (consistent with understanding some aspects of ipseity-disturbance as dynamic and mutable, involving shifting attitudes or experiential orientations)...
June 6, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Jan Ilhan Kizilhan
Research into the psychological consequences of rape on women in war and warlike situations is limited. The aims of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence and the nature of PTSD symptoms among Yazidi women reporting rape during IS captivity, (b) to describe comorbidity of other psychological disorders, and (c) to examine the risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder.The study included 296 Yazidi women survivors of rape and has been conducted in Germany since January 2016 as part of a special-quota project in the German region of Baden-Wuerttemberg, designed to support the women and children who have escaped after being held hostage by IS...
October 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Subhadip Basu, Punam Kumar Saha, Matylda Roszkowska, Marta Magnowska, Ewa Baczynska, Nirmal Das, Dariusz Plewczynski, Jakub Wlodarczyk
The observation and analysis of dendritic spines morphological changes poses a major challenge in neuroscience studies. The alterations of their density and/or morphology are indicators of the cellular processes involved in neural plasticity underlying learning and memory, and are symptomatic in neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite ongoing intense investigations in imaging approaches, the relationship between changes in spine morphology and synaptic function is still unknown. The existing quantitative analyses are difficult to perform and require extensive user intervention...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Neta Shvil, Victor Banerjee, Guy Zoltsman, Tom Shani, Joy Kahn, Salah Abu-Hamad, Niv Papo, Stanislav Engel, Jurgen Bernhagen, Adrian Israelson
Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by the progressive loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. It has been suggested that toxicity of mutant SOD1 results from its misfolding, however, it is yet unclear why misfolded SOD1 accumulates specifically within motor neurons. We recently demonstrated that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-a multifunctional protein with cytokine/chemokine activity and cytosolic chaperone-like properties-inhibits the accumulation of misfolded SOD1...
January 25, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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