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soluble sugar

Mohamed A El-Esawi, Aisha A Alayafi
Drought stress significantly restricts plant growth and crop productivity. Cotton is the most important textile fiber and oilseed crop worldwide, and its cultivation is affected by drought stress, particularly in dry regions. Improving cotton tolerance to drought stress using the advanced genetic engineering technologies is a promising strategy to maintain crop production and fiber quality and meet the increasing worldwide fiber and oil demand. Dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) transcription factors play a main role in regulating stresses-tolerance pathways in plant...
February 14, 2019: Genes
Zanping Han, Bin Wang, Lei Tian, Shunxi Wang, Jun Zhang, ShuLei Guo, Hengchao Zhang, Lengrui Xu, Yanhui Chen
Seed germination, as an integral stage of crop production, directly affects Zea mays (maize) yield and grain quality. However, the molecular mechanisms of seed germination remain unclear in maize. We performed comparative transcriptome analysis of two maize inbred lines, Yu82 and Yu537A, at two stages of seed germination. Expression profile analysis during seed germination revealed that a total of 3381 and 4560 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in Yu82 and Yu537A at the two stages. Transcription factors were detected from several families, such as the bZIP, ERF, WRKY, MYB, and bHLH families, which indicated that these transcription factor families might be involved in driving seed germination in maize...
February 14, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Wen Wen, Robert F Schwabe
Nearly 25% of the world's population is suffering from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is closely associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD may progress to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). With efficient medical therapies lacking, modifications of life style and diet are considered the best options for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. For the latter, it is thought that besides reducing fat, sugar and caloric intake, increasing fiber may exert beneficial effects on NAFLD, e...
February 14, 2019: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Xinnan Tong, Xinze Wang, Xiaojuan He, Yanming Sui, Jian Shen, Jimeng Feng
To investigate the effects of antibiotics on nitrogen removal and uptake by wetland plants, four typical macrophyte species, Cyperus alternifolius L., Typha angustifolia L., Lythrum salicaria L., and Acorus calamus L., were grown in hydroponic cultivation systems and fed wastewater polluted with 10 μg L-1 Ofloxacin (OFL) and Tetracycline (TET). Biomass production, nitrogen mass concentration, chlorophyll content, root exudates, and nitrogen removal efficiency of hydroponic cultivation were investigated. The results indicated that in all hydroponic systems, NH4 + -N was entirely removed from the hydroponic substrate within 1 day and plant nitrogen accumulation was the main role of the removed NO3 - ...
February 14, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jianjian Liu, Junli Liu, Jinhui Liu, Miaomiao Cui, Yujuan Huang, Yuan Tian, Aiqun Chen, Guohua Xu
Most terrestrial plants form a root symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which receive fixed carbon from the plant and enhance the plant's uptake of mineral nutrients. AM symbiosis improves the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrition of host plants; however, little is known about the role of AM symbiosis in potassium (K+) nutrition. Here, we report that inoculation with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis improved tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plant growth and K+ acquisition, and K+ deficiency has a negative effect on root growth and AM colonization...
February 13, 2019: Plant Physiology
Tingting Jia, Jian Wang, Wei Chang, Xiaoxu Fan, Xin Sui, Fuqiang Song
To reveal the mechanism of salinity stress alleviation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), we investigated the growth parameter, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and protein abundance pattern of E. angustifolia seedlings that were cultured under salinity stress (300 mmol/L NaCl) and inoculated by Rhizophagus irregularis (RI). Furthermore, a label-free quantitative proteomics approach was used to reveal the stress-responsive proteins in the leaves of E. angustifolia . The result indicates that the abundance of 75 proteins in the leaves was significantly influenced when E...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chiara Pagliarani, Valentino Casolo, Maryam Ashofteh Beiragi, Silvia Cavalletto, Ilenia Siciliano, Andrea Schubert, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Maciej A Zwieniecki, Francesca Secchi
Some plant species are capable of significant reduction of xylem embolism during recovery from drought despite that stem water potential remains negative. However, the functional biology underlying this process remains elusive. We subjected poplar trees to drought stress followed by a period of recovery. Water potential, hydraulic conductivity, gas exchange, xylem sap pH and carbohydrate content in sap and woody stems were monitored in combination with an analyses of carbohydrate metabolism, enzyme activity and expression of genes involved in sugar metabolic and transport pathways...
February 12, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
Alessandra Cavalcanti Duarte Lupi, Bruno Silvestre Lira, Giovanna Gramegna, Bruna Trench, Frederico Rocha Rodrigues Alves, Diego Demarco, Lazaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Eduardo Purgatto, Luciano Freschi, Magdalena Rossi
Plastids are organelles responsible for essential aspects of plant development, including carbon fixation and synthesis of several secondary metabolites. Chloroplast differentiation and activity are highly regulated by light, and several proteins involved in these processes have been characterised. Such is the case of the GOLDEN 2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors, which induces the expression of genes related to chloroplast differentiation and photosynthesis. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome harbours two copies of this gene, SlGLK1 and SlGLK2, each with distinct expression patterns...
2019: PloS One
Haiqiang Shi, Miaofang Zhou, Wenchao Jia, Na Li, Meihong Niu
When using a combination of pre-extraction and chemical pulping, a high yield of sugar recovery and minimal negative effect on the subsequent pulping step are expected. In this work, the P factor was utilized to investigate the effect of auto-hydrolysis severity on sugar recovery, removal of the main component, and impact on the kraft pulping of acacia wood chips. Using a P factor of 235, 84.34% of the polysaccharides in 14.05 g·L-1 of dissolved sugars could be obtained. In addition, the soluble sugars were easily separated with a recovery yield of 3...
February 12, 2019: Biotechnology Progress
Quan Li, Xiaoxiao Chang, Hong Wang, Charles Brennan, Xinbo Guo
This study followed the flesh reddening of Sanhua plum from the surface to the center during fruit development. Five key stages were identified based on colour changes during fruit ripening full-green (FG), red-appeared (RA), half-red (HR), full-red (FR) and purple-red (PR). Fruits were collected and analyzed for phytochemicals and antioxidant properties. Concurrently, the transcript levels of genes associated with phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin production were investigated. The titratable acid (TA) content of Sanhua plum decreased during development, while total soluble sugar (TSS) content increased...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Shuguang Wang, Jialong Pei, Juan Li, Guojian Tang, Jingwei Zhao, Xiaopeng Peng, Shuangxi Nie, Yulong Ding, Changming Wang
Bamboo is one of the fastest growing plants in the world, but their shoot buds develop very slowly. Information about the sugar storage and metabolism during the shoot growth is lacking. In the present study, we determined the activity of sucrose and starch metabolizing enzymes during the developmental period of Fargesia yunnanensis from shoot buds to the young culms that have achieved their full height. The soluble sugars and starch contents were also determined and analyzed in shoot buds and shoots at different developmental stages...
February 11, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Lin-Quan Ge, Hao-Tian Gu, Xin Li, Sui Zheng, Ze Zhou, Hong Miao, Jin-Cai Wu
Hexokinase is a rate-limiting enzyme that plays pivotal roles in glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism via glucose (Glc) phosphorylation and Glc signaling mediation. Previous investigations have revealed the modulatory role of Hexokinase (Hex) genes involved in proper glucose regulation during insect diapause and embryo development, whereas whether it functions in insect fecundity remains largely unknown. We aimed to explore the relationship between Triazophos (TZP)-induced Hex-1 and fecundity of female Nilaparvata lugens...
January 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Ilhem Rjeibi, Anouar Feriani, Faiez Hentati, Najla Hfaiedh, Philippe Michaud, Guillaume Pierre
The structure, antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of polysaccharides from Nitraria retusa fruits (named as NRFP) were investigated. The NRFP fraction, with a molecular weight of 66.5 kDa, was composed of a β-(1 → 3)-glucan, containing neutral sugars (69.1%) but also uronic acids up to 23.1% due to pectin structure. The monosaccharide composition highlighted a polymer composed of glucose (41.4%), galacturonic acid (30.5%), galactose (12.6%), arabinose (11.8%) and rhamnose (3.70%). In the antioxidant assays, NRFP exhibited effective total antioxidant capacity (IC50  = 7...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rebekka Bögelein, Marco M Lehmann, Frank M Thomas
While photosynthetic isotope discrimination is well understood, the post-photosynthetic and transport-related fractionation mechanisms that influence phloem and subsequently tree ring δ13 C are less investigated and may vary among species. We studied the seasonal and diel courses of leaf-to-phloem δ13 C differences of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in vertical crown gradients and followed the assimilate transport via the branches to the trunk phloem at breast height in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)...
February 11, 2019: New Phytologist
Luuk Mestrom, Stefan R Marsden, Marit Dieters, Puck Achterberg, Lysanne Stolk, Isabel Bento, Ulf Hanefeld, Peter-Leon Hagedoorn
LeLoir glycosyltransferases are important biocatalysts for the production of glycosidic bonds in natural products, chiral building blocks, and pharmaceuticals. Trehalose transferase (TreT) is of particular interest since it catalyzes the stereo- and enantioselective α,α-(1→1)-coupling of a nucleotide sugar donor and monosaccharide acceptor for the synthesis of disaccharide derivatives. Heterologously expressed thermophilic trehalose transferases were found to be intrinsically aggregation-prone and are mainly expressed as catalytically active inclusion bodies in E...
February 8, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Bahareh Azarian, Amin Azimi, Mahboubeh Sepehri, Vahideh Samimi Fam, Faegheh Rezaie, Yeganeh Talebkhan, Vahid Khalaj, Fatemeh Davami
Aggregation of recombinant proteins, a major problem in E. coli expression system, is improved by using EnBase culture system based on slow release of glucose. In the present study, to understand the intracellular mechanisms involved in increased solubility of the target recombinant protein through EnBase system, the effect of this system was investigated on E. coli cells proteome profile. The proteome profile of E. coli cells cultured in EnBase and conventional batch mode was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis...
February 8, 2019: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Elham Ashrafi, Edris Allahyari, Elena Torresi, Henrik Rasmus Andersen
In this study, two moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBR1 and MBBR2 ) filled with different size of carrier media (Kaldnes K1 and Kaldnes K1 micro, respectively) were subjected to soluble (sugar and sodium acetate (Ac)) substrate and mixture of soluble and particulate (particulate potato starch (PS)) substrate in a very high organic loading rate (12 kgCOD/m3 ·d) at different temperatures (26 and 15˚C, in MBBR1 and MBBR2 , respectively). The effects of carrier type and substrate on biofilm structure and reactor performance have been studied...
February 8, 2019: Environmental Technology
Marsha Cole, Gillian Eggleston, Ya-Jane Wang
The inhibitory activity of soluble and insoluble starch (0-550 ppm/Brix) in factory raw sugars were investigated using simulated refinery carbonatation clarification reactions to underpin what causes the undesirable formation of CaCO3 crystal fines (≤5 μm). It was found that CaCO3 crystal growth was inhibited mostly by soluble starch by forming starch-Ca2+ metal complexes. Insoluble (granular) starch, however, had a greater affinity for inhibiting CaCO3 crystallization because it retained the carbonatation clarification reactants, i...
March 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Pamela Pagliaccia, Agata Gallipoli, Andrea Gianico, Fausto Gironi, Daniele Montecchio, Carlo Pastore, Luigi di Bitonto, Camilla M Braguglia
A comprehensive sustainable Food Waste (FW) management is globally needed in order to reduce the environmental pollution and the financial costs due to FW disposal; anaerobic digestion is considered as one of the best environmental-friendly alternatives to this aim. A deep investigation of the chemical composition of different Food waste types (cooked kitchen waste (CKW), fruit and vegetable scraps (FVS) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)) is here reported, in order to evaluate their relevant substance-specific properties and their impact on anaerobic biodegradability by means of a sophisticated automatic batch test system...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Zijing Chen, Yingyan Han, Kang Ning, Chen Luo, Wei Sheng, Shenglin Wang, Shuangxi Fan, Yanfang Wang, Qian Wang
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a very important leafy vegetable in China and is commonly grown using furrow irrigation. In order to improve production efficiency, greenhouse experiments were conducted at Experimental Station, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China using furrow irrigation (FI), micro-sprinkler irrigation (MS), plastic film mulching irrigation (PF) and a combined plastic film mulching-micro-sprinkler irrigation system (PF+MS) to study their effects on soil physical characteristics, water distribution, root morpho-physiological traits, nutrition absorption, lettuce yield and water use efficiency for a spring crop and autumn crop in 2015 (Fig 1)...
2019: PloS One
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