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reducing sugar

Anna H Grummon, Marissa G Hall, Lindsey Smith Taillie, Noel T Brewer
Health warnings are a promising strategy for reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), but uncertainty remains about how to design warnings to maximize their impact. Warnings already implemented in Latin America use nutrient disclosures, while proposed U.S. warnings would describe the health effects of consuming SSBs. We sought to determine whether warning characteristics influence consumers' reactions to SSB health warnings. A national convenience sample of U.S. adults (n = 1360) completed an online survey in 2018...
February 14, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Ibrahim Nasser Ahmed, Xiu-Li Yang, Amare Aregahegn Dubale, Rong Shao, Rong-Feng Guan, Xiangming Meng, Ming-Hua Xie
Metal-organic framework (MOF) assisted hydrothermal pretreatment and co-catalysis strategy based on UiO-66 MOF is developed for the first time. The Planetree exfoliating bark was pretreated with or without UiO-66 assisted hydrothermal method at a temperature ranging from 160 to 240 °C for 1-3 h residence. With the rise of pretreatment severity, the total reducing sugar (TRS) was increased till reached maximum, 180 mg g-1 , in the presence of UiO-66. The fitting models validate the optimal hydrothermal condition was at 180 °C and 1 h, which was characterized with high TRS and very low yield of furfural and HMF...
February 8, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Hannah G Lawman, Xavier Lofton, Sara Grossman, Mica Root, Meka Perez, Gregory Tasian, Anisha Patel
INTRODUCTION: Improving children's tap water intake and reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is beneficial for health and health equity, particularly in low-income communities and communities of color. Existing community level interventions to improve the intake of tap water have predominantly occurred in schools and have focused on promoting water consumption in cafeterias during lunch or snack periods. METHODS: The "Hydrate Philly" intervention was developed to target multiple environmental and social factors to improve tap water consumption in community recreation centers in low-income communities: replacing old and unappealing water fountains with appealing water-bottle-filling "hydration stations", conducting water safety testing and publicizing results, disseminating reusable water bottles, promoting tap water, and discouraging SSB consumption...
February 13, 2019: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Alejandro Blas, Alberto Garrido, Olcay Unver, Bárbara Willaarts
The promotion of responsible consumption is a key strategy to achieve environmental benefits, sustainable food security, and enhance public health. Countries like Spain are making efforts to reverse growing obesity and promote healthy diets, such as the recommended and traditional Mediterranean, recognized as a key strategy to improve the population's health with locally grown, traditional, and seasonal products like fruits, vegetables, olive oil, and fish. With a view to connecting water, agriculture, food security, nutrition and health, this research aims to investigate and compare the nutritional and water implications of the current food consumption of Spanish households with the recommended Mediterranean diet...
February 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Allison R Kolbe, Anthony J Studer, Omar E Cornejo, Asaph B Cousins
BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyzes the hydration of CO2 in the first biochemical step of C4 photosynthesis, and has been considered a potentially rate-limiting step when CO2 availability within a leaf is low. Previous work in Zea mays (maize) with a double knockout of the two highest-expressed β-CA genes, CA1 and CA2, reduced total leaf CA activity to less than 3% of wild-type. Surprisingly, this did not limit photosynthesis in maize at ambient or higher CO2 concentrations...
February 15, 2019: BMC Genomics
Trevor Rajchgot, Sini Christine Thomas, Jo-Chiao Wang, Maryam Ahmadi, Mohammad Balood, Théo Crosson, Jenny Pena Dias, Réjean Couture, Audrey Claing, Sébastien Talbot
Diabetes is a common condition characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. High blood sugar primarily affects cells that have a limited capacity to regulate their glucose intake. These cells include capillary endothelial cells in the retina, mesangial cells in the renal glomerulus, Schwann cells, and neurons of the peripheral and central nervous systems. As a result, hyperglycemia leads to largely intractable complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, hypertension, and neuropathy. Diabetic pain neuropathy is a complex and multifactorial disease that has been associated with poor glycemic control, longer diabetes duration, hypertension, advanced age, smoking status, hypoinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Naeem Khan, Asghari Bano, M Atikur Rahman, Jia Guo, Zhiyu Kang, Md Ali Babar
The plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and plant growth regulators (PGRs) can be applied to improve the growth and productivity of plants, with potential to be used for genetic improvement of drought tolerance. However, for genetic improvement to be achieved, a solid understanding of the physiological and biochemical changes in plants induced by PGPR and PGR is required. The present study was carried out to investigate the role of PGPR and PGRs on the physiology and biochemical changes in chickpea grown under drought stress conditions and their association with drought tolerance...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Salvador Hernández-Martínez, Víctor Cardoso-Jaime, Marcela Nouzova, Veronika Michalkova, Cesar E Ramirez, Francisco Fernandez-Lima, Fernando G Noriega
Anophelinae mosquitoes are vectors of human malaria, a disease that infects hundreds of millions of people and causes almost 600,000 fatalities annually. Despite their medical importance, laboratory studies on key aspects of Anophelinae reproductive biology have been limited, and in particular, relatively little is known about the role of juvenile hormone (JH) in the control of female reproduction. The study presented here attempts to fill a gap of knowledge in our understanding of the JH control of ovarian development in female Anophelinae mosquitoes, using Anopheles albimanus as a model...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Wen Wen, Robert F Schwabe
Nearly 25% of the world's population is suffering from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is closely associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD may progress to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). With efficient medical therapies lacking, modifications of life style and diet are considered the best options for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. For the latter, it is thought that besides reducing fat, sugar and caloric intake, increasing fiber may exert beneficial effects on NAFLD, e...
February 14, 2019: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Hui-Jie Wei, Li Liu, Fang-Lian Chen, Dong Wang, Liang Wang, Zeng-Guang Wang, Rong-Cai Jiang, Jing-Fei Dong, Jie-Li Chen, Jian-Ning Zhang
Hyperglycemia reduces the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, accelerates their senescence and impairs their function. However, the relationship between blood glucose levels and endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood of patients with traumatic brain injury is unclear. In this study, 101 traumatic brain injury patients admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital or the Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, China, were enrolled from April 2005 to March 2007...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Paula Lorenzo, Pablo Souza-Alonso, Alejandra Guisande-Collazo, Helena Freitas
BACKGROUND: Acacia dealbata Link is an invasive plant worldwide. Finding potential uses for its waste that contribute to control its spread and revert in benefits for agriculture has recently become a new research topic. This study aimed at evaluating the potential biostimulant effect of the bark extract derived from the management of A. dealbata (0, 450 or 900 ppm) on onion plants under stressful conditions, including soils treated with saline solutions (0, 60 or 120 mM NaCl) and reduced irrigation (100, 50 or 25 %)...
February 13, 2019: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Shuen-Fuh Lin, Cheng-Ke Li, Yi-Pei Chung
Lactobionic acid ( O -β-galactosyl-(1-4)-gluconic acid) (LBA) is a high-value lactose derivative, produced via oxidation of the reducing terminal of lactose. LBA can be produced by fermentation using certain microorganisms, although subsequent purification is challenging. Therefore, we have attempted to identify an enzyme for possible use in LBA production. Here, we purified a novel lactose oxidase (LOD) to homogeneity from a wheat bran culture of a soil-isolated fungal strain, Myrmecridium flexuosum NUK-21...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Abhinandan S Patil, Dalia Maurer, Oleg Feygenberg, Noam Alkan
Mango quarantine is based mainly on heat treatment, with a possible deterioration of fruit quality. We studied the effects of cold quarantine (19 days storage at 2 °C) on fruit quality of commercial mango cvs. Keitt and Shelly for three consecutive years. Chilling injury (CI) occurs in mango fruit stored at temperatures lower than 12 °C. By reanalysing our previous transcriptome, we found that under sub-optimal temperature storage (5 °C), the fruit increases its ethylene biosynthesis and osmolarity by activating sugar metabolism, thereby probably reducing its freezing point...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Shaun Yon-Seng Khoo, Mandy Rita LeCocq, Ghislaine E Deyab, Nadia Chaudhri
Preclinical data have shown that the excitatory metabotropic Gαq -coupled glutamate receptor, mGluR5, has a role in substance abuse and relapse. However, little is known about the contribution of mGluR5 to the expression of conditioned responding elicited by appetitive Pavlovian cues. We investigated this question in rats that were trained to associate a discrete, auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) with a fructose-glucose solution (5.5% fructose/4.5% glucose; "sugar"). In subsequent tests for the expression of conditioned responding without sugar delivery, CS-elicited fluid port entries were elevated in a context associated with sugar, relative to an equally familiar, neutral context...
February 8, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Laura M Bogart, Gabriela Castro, Deborah A Cohen
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the range of stakeholders' perceptions of the Balance Calories Initiative (BCI), under which the American Beverage Association pledged to decrease per capita US consumption of beverage energy by 20 % by 2025. DESIGN: Semi-structured cross-sectional interviews were conducted in 2017. SETTING: Participants were recruited from communities targeted by the BCI (Montgomery, AL; North Mississippi Delta, MS; Eastern Los Angeles, CA)...
February 13, 2019: Public Health Nutrition
Eugenia Papadaki, Fani Th Mantzouridou
This study aimed to optimize an integrated simple process for citric acid production using Spanish-style green olive processing wastewaters enriched with sugars from white grape pomace and the robust Aspergillus niger B60. Mild mixing of equal quantities of the above streams governed satisfactory amount of appropriate carbon sources (equimolar mixture of glucose and fructose, 111.5 g/L) in the sugar-enriched wastewater and its neutralization. Various nutrients and fermentation conditions were investigated and maximum citric acid content (85 g/L) and yield (0...
January 30, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Gulsah Adiguzel, Ozlem Faiz, Melda Sisecioglu, Bilge Sari, Ozkan Baltaci, Sumeyya Akbulut, Berna Genc, Ahmet Adiguzel
A novel extracellular xylanase was purified and characterized from Pediococcus acidilactici GC25 (GenBank number: MF289522). The purification was 4.6-fold with a yield of 43.61% through acetone precipitation, Q-Sepharose, and CM-Sepharose ion change chromatography. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 48.15 kDa, and the optimum pH and temperature were 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The maximum activity was observed between 20 and 50 °C. Although it was active within a wide pH range (pH 2.0-9.0), it retained over 85% of its activity after 24 h incubation; and over 70% of its activity after 168 h incubation in neutral and alkaline pH...
February 9, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Damien Sellier, Youcef Mammeri
Phloem transport is the process by which plants internally distribute assimilates. The loading of assimilates near the photosynthetic source is responsible for generating enough osmotic pressure to drive sap flow towards the sink tissues where assimilates are consumed. Phloem loading is variable and subject to a diurnal cycle. It is dominated by photosynthesis during the day and by degradation of leaf starch to sugars at night. Most studies ignore the effect of the loading cycle on transport and assume that sugar flow operates at equilibrium...
February 7, 2019: Tree Physiology
Galih Kusuma Aji, Frederick J Warren, Eugeni Roura
Starch-related sweet taste perception plays an important role as a part of the dietary nutrient sensing mechanisms in the oral cavity. However, the release of sugars from starchy foods eliciting sweetness has been less studied in humans than in laboratory rodents. Thus, twenty-eight respondents were recruited and evaluated for their starch-related sweet taste perception, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity, oral release of reducing sugars, and salivary leptin. The results demonstrated that a two-minute oral mastication of starchy chewing gum produced an oral concentration of maltose above the sweet taste threshold and revealed that the total amount of maltose equivalent reducing sugars produced was positively correlated with the sAA activity...
February 7, 2019: Chemical Senses
Gustavo Benevides Martins, Giacomo Giacomelli, Oliver Goldbeck, Gerd M Seibold, Marc Bramkamp
Many bacteria take up carbohydrates by membrane-integral sugar specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent carbohydrate:phosphotransferase systems (PTS). Although the PTS is centrally involved in regulation of carbon metabolism in different bacteria, little is known about localization and putative oligomerization of the permease subunits (EII). Here, we analyzed localization of the fructose specific PtsF and the glucose specific PtsG transporters, as well as the general components EI and HPr from Corynebacterium glutamicum using widefield and single molecule localization microscopy...
February 12, 2019: Molecular Microbiology
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