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Energy requirements

Luciano R Infiesta, Cassius R N Ferreira, Alam G Trovó, Valério L Borges, Solidônio R Carvalho
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) from the city of Boa Esperança, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was used to produce refuse-derived fuel (RDF). The MSW contains residues from human society, including product packaging, bottles, batteries, organic waste, fines, textiles, health textiles, plastics, glass, and metals, among others. The following protocol was performed during the conversion of MSW to RDF: (i) the raw MSW was placed in a silo and sent to a primary crusher using a metal conveyor belt, which reduced the particle size to 80 mm; (ii) the biomass was transferred to a selective waste collection platform by a rubber conveyor belt, and the recyclable waste, metals, and glasses were separated manually; (iii) residual metals were removed by a magnetic separator; (iv) the waste was transferred to a secondary crusher which reduced the particle size to 60 mm; (v) the waste passed through an airborne separator to remove materials with high density, such as glass, stones, and organic materials, using a metallic conveyor belt; (vi) the particle size was reduced to 40 mm by a tertiary crusher; (vii) the aluminium was separated from the non-metallic materials (plastic, paper, rubber, etc...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
J D Quigley
Provision of nutrients in appropriate amounts to meet nutrient requirements for growth, production, and reproduction is the basis for modern animal nutrition. Ration formulation systems predict nutrient requirements based on numerous inputs and then predict nutrient supply based on predicted intake and nutrient content of feeds. Energy systems are used to predict energy supply based on gross caloric content of feeds followed by adjustments for digestion and metabolism of ingested energy. Many models of energy supply use static coefficients of digestibility based on nutrient composition of feed...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
B N Shonka-Martin, B J Heins, L B Hansen
Rotational 3-breed crossbred cows of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and Holstein (CB) were compared with Holstein (HO) cows for alternative measures of feed efficiency as well as income over feed cost (IOFC) and residual feed intake (RFI) during the first 150 d of first, second, and third lactations. Primiparous and multiparous CB (n = 63 and n = 43, respectively) and HO (n = 60 and n = 37, respectively) cows were fed the same total mixed ration twice daily with refusals weighed once daily. Feed was analyzed for dry matter content, net energy for lactation, and crude protein content...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Oscar A Douglas-Gallardo, David Adrian Saez, Stefan Vogt-Geisse, Esteban Vöhringer-Martinez
Carboxylation reactions represent a very special class of chemical reactions that is characterized by the presence of a carbon dioxide (CO2 ) molecule as reactive species within its global chemical equation. These reactions work as fundamental gear to accomplish the CO2 fixation and thus to build up more complex molecules through different technological and biochemical processes. In this context, a correct description of the CO2 electronic structure turns out to be crucial to study the chemical and electronic properties associated with this kind of reactions...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Alexander G Nickel, Michael Kohlhaas, Edoardo Bertero, Daniel Wilhelm, Michael Wagner, Vasco Sequeira, Michael M Kreusser, Matthias Dewenter, Reinhard Kappl, Markus Hoth, Jan Dudek, Johannes Backs, Christoph Maack
KEY POINTS: Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake stimulates the Krebs cycle to regenerate the reduced forms of pyridine nucleotides (NADH, NADPH and FADH2 ) required for ATP production and ROS elimination. It was previously proposed that Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) regulates mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake via MCU phosphorylation. We used two mouse models with either global deletion of CaMKIIδ (CaMKIIδ KO) or cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of CaMKIIδ and γ (CaMKIIδ/γ DKO) to interrogate whether CaMKII controls mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in isolated mitochondria and during β-adrenergic stimulation in cardiac myocytes...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Binay Kumar Tripathy, Gayathri Ramesh, Animesh Debnath, Mathava Kumar
The suitability of stand-alone ultrasound (US) system, coagulation pre-treatment followed by US, hydrogen peroxide added US system (US-H2 O2 ) and persulfate added US system (US-PS) for the treatment of matured landfill leachate was investigated. With US system, around 67% COD removal and an increase in BOD/COD ratio were observed (from 0.033 to 0.142) after 15 min at 30% US amplitude. However, the energy input required for landfill leachate treatment in US system was found to be very high due to the presence of fixed solids...
January 29, 2019: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Forbes McGain, Kelvin Lam, Samantha Bates, Miriam Towns, Craig French
BACKGROUND: Although propofol is widely used for sedation in intensive care units around Australia, evaluation of bedside nursing practices of the administration of propofol have been limited. We investigated whether there was a discrepancy between the amount of propofol delivered by the infusion pump and that recorded electronically and consequently patient exposure to avoidable harms. AIMS: The aim of this research was to compare the total amount of propofol administered to intensive care patients via a programmable infusion pump with that documented in the electronic medical record (EMR)...
February 12, 2019: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
Fiona L Kearns, Luke Warrensford, Stefan Boresch, H Lee Woodcock
Indirect (S)QM/MM free energy simulations (FES) are vital to efficiently incorporating sufficient sampling and accurate (QM) energetic evaluations when estimating free energies of practical/experimental interest. Connecting between levels of theory, i.e., calculating Δ A l o w → h i g h , remains to be the most challenging step within an indirect FES protocol. To improve calculations of Δ A l o w → h i g h , we must: (1) compare the performance of all FES methods currently available; and (2) compile and maintain datasets of Δ A l o w → h i g h calculated for a wide-variety of molecules so that future practitioners may replicate or improve upon the current state-of-the-art...
February 14, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Bei Su, Ying-Guo Zhou
Poly(cyclohexylene dimethylene cyclohexanedicarboxylate) (PCCE) is a kind of copolyester polymer with excellent toughness and outstanding flexibility. However, the opacity caused by crystallization limits the widespread application of PCCE in products that have transparency requirements. The effects of 1,3:2,4-Di-p-methylbenzylidene sorbitol (MDBS) on the crystallization behavior, transparency, and mechanical properties of a PCCE melt were investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), spectrophotometry, and tensile testing...
February 14, 2019: Materials
Dao-Yi Yu, Stephen J Cringle, Paula K Yu, Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam, Andrew Mehnert, Marinko V Sarunic, Dong An, Er-Ning Su
The central role of the cardiovascular system is to maintain adequate capillary perfusion. The spatially and temporally heterogeneous nature of capillary perfusion has been reported in some organs. However, such heterogeneous perfusion properties have not been sufficiently explored in the retina. Arguably, spatial and temporal heterogeneity of capillary perfusion could be more predominant in the retina than that in other organs. This is because the retina is one of the highest metabolic demand neural tissues yet it has a limited blood supply due to optical requirements...
February 12, 2019: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Vasudeva Rao Bakuru, Marilyn DMello, Suresh Babu Kalidindi
Hydrogen is in limelight as an environmental benign alternative to fossil fuels from few decades. To bring the concept of hydrogen economy from academic labs to real world certain challenges needs to be addressed in the areas of hydrogen production, storage and its use in fuel cells. Crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with unprecedented surface areas are considered as potential materials for addressing the challenges in all these three fronts. MOFs combine the diverse chemistry of molecular linkers with their ability to co-ordinate to metal ions and clusters...
February 15, 2019: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Yifan Wang, Xiaolong Zhang, Jilai Tian, Jinjun Shan, Yunfeng Hu, Yiqian Zhai, Jun Guo
Neuronal polarization depends on the interaction of intracellular chemical and mechanical activities in which the cytoplasmic protein, talin, plays a pivotal role during neurite growth. To better understand the mechanism underlying talin function in neuronal polarization, we overexpressed several truncated forms of talin and found that the presence of the rod domain within the overexpressed talin is required for its positive effect on neurite elongation because the neurite number only increased when the talin head region was overexpressed...
February 15, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Johannes Knolle, Roderich Moessner, Natalia B Perkins
The 5d-electron honeycomb compound H_{3}LiIr_{2}O_{6} [K. Kitagawa et al., Nature (London) 554, 341 (2018)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature25482] exhibits an apparent quantum spin liquid state. In this intercalated spin-orbital compound, a remarkable pileup of low-energy states was experimentally observed in specific heat and spin relaxation. We show that a bond-disordered Kitaev model can naturally account for this phenomenon, suggesting that disorder plays an essential role in its theoretical description. In the exactly soluble Kitaev model, we obtain, via spin fractionalization, a random bipartite hopping problem of Majorana fermions in a random flux background...
February 1, 2019: Physical Review Letters
M Navadeh-Toupchi, N Takemura, M D Anderson, D Y Oberli, M T Portella-Oberli
We demonstrate the existence of a cross Feshbach resonance by strongly driving a lower polariton mode and by monitoring in time the transmission of a short optical pulse at the energy of the upper polariton mode in a semiconductor microcavity. From the signatures of the optical resonance, strength, and sign of the energy shift, we attribute the origin of the scattering process between polariton modes with opposite circular polarization to a biexciton bound state. From this study, we infer the conditions required for a strong enhancement of the generation of entangled photon pairs...
February 1, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Jingwei Weng, Wenning Wang
TolC is a channel protein responsible for substrate translocation across outer membrane, and it is also a part of the tripartite multidrug efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. The crystal structure of TolC shows that the periplasmic entrance is tightly closed in the resting state, while substrate translocation definitely requires the entrance to open. How the occluded periplasmic entrance opens to allow passage of substrates remains elusive. In this work, we constructed a Markov state model from swarms of all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories, which delineates the energetics of the conformational changes of TolC...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Brian P Chaplin
Growing worldwide population, climate change, and decaying water infrastructure have all contributed to a need for a better water treatment and conveyance model. Distributed water treatment is one possible solution, which relies on the local treatment of water from various sources to a degree dependent on its intended use and, finally, distribution to local consumers. This distributed, fit-for-purpose water treatment strategy requires the development of new modular point-of-use and point-of-entry technologies to bring this idea to fruition...
February 15, 2019: Accounts of Chemical Research
Laura Rossi, Sini Reuna, Tommi Fred, Mari Heinonen
Present phosphorus (P) recovery technologies mainly contain P recovery from sludge liquor or ash. These types of technologies are suitable for large wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), digestion and/or incineration. In Finland and other Nordic countries, strict P discharge limits require chemical precipitation, thus EBPR alone is not sufficient. Ammonium recovery from wastewater, on the other hand, is not so often discussed. However, recovery from WWTP reject waters would decrease the energy demand of ammonium synthesis by Haber-Bosh technology and the energy demand of the WWTP's biological process...
December 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Akinori Okuda, Naoki Maegawa, Hiroaki Matsumori, Tomohiko Kura, Yasushi Mizutani, Hideki Shigematsu, Eiichiro Iwata, Masato Tanaka, Keisuke Masuda, Yusuke Yamamoto, Yusuke Tada, Yohei Kogeichi, Keisuke Takano, Hideki Asai, Yasuyuki Kawai, Yasuyuki Urisono, Kenji Kawamura, Hidetada Fukushima, Yasuhito Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Unstable sacral fractures are high-energy injuries and comprise polytrauma. Internal fixation to enable withstanding vertical loads is required to get up early from the bed after an unstable sacral fracture. We developed a new minimally invasive surgical (MIS) procedure for unstable pelvic ring fractures and reported it in Japanese in 2010. We presented our minimally invasive surgical technique of crab-shaped fixation for the treatment of unstable pelvic ring fractures and report on its short-term outcomes...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Maimaiti Reshalaitihan, Masaaki Hanada
We investigated the influence of calving difficulty on dry matter intake (DMI) in Holstein cows immediately after calving using 15 pregnant heifers and 15 multiparous cows. DMI was measured for 6 days after calving. Calving difficulty was evaluated with a calving score, and urinary cortisol was measured. The calving score was higher in the first lactation heifers than in the multiparous cows. The average DMI 6 days after calving was lower in the first lactation heifers than in the multiparous cows. The urinary cortisol concentration at 4 days after calving was higher in the first lactation heifers than in the multiparous cows and was positively associated with the calving score...
February 14, 2019: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Noriaki Koizumi, Yosuke Ariyoshi, Hiroshi Fujiki, Chouhei Sakakura
Broad ligament hernia is a rare type of internal hernia. We herein report a case of broad ligament hernia successfully treated by needlescopic surgery. A 41-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a complaint of nausea and vomiting. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed diffuse dilatation of the small bowel accompanied by a caliber change at the right side of the uterus. She was thus diagnosed with small bowel obstruction due to incarceration through right broad ligament hernia. After bowel decompression, she underwent elective needlescopic surgery using 2- and 3-mm instruments...
February 14, 2019: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
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