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Prématurity And Brain

Mayuri Shukla, Subhamita Maitra, Jean-François Hernandez, Piyarat Govitrapong, Bruno Vincent
Methamphetamine is a potent and highly addictive psychostimulant whose abuse has turned out to be a global health hazard. The multitudinous effects it exerts at the cellular level induces neurotoxic responses in the human brain, ultimately leading to neurocognitive disorders. Strikingly, brain changes, tissue damage and neuropsychological symptoms due to Meth exposure compels and necessitates to link the probability of risk of developing premature Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid plaques composed of amyloid-β peptides and clinical dementia...
February 13, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Camilla L Nord, Seung-Goo Kim, Mette Buhl Callesen, Timo L Kvamme, Mads Jensen, Mads Uffe Pedersen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Valerie Voon
Impulsivity has been suggested as a neurocognitive endophenotype conferring risk across a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including substance and behavioural addictions, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We used a paradigm with interspecies translation validity (the four-choice serial reaction time task, 4CSRTT) to assess 'waiting' impulsivity in a youth sample (N = 99, aged 16-26 years). We collected magnetization prepared two rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP2RAGE) scans, which enabled us to measure R1, the longitudinal relaxation rate, a parameter closely related to tissue myelin content, as well as quantify grey matter volume...
February 15, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Weiming Xia
Twenty years ago, Wolfe, Xia, and Selkoe identified two aspartate residues in Alzheimer's presenilin protein that constitute the active site of the γ-secretase complex. Mutations in the genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP) or presenilin (PS) cause early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (AD), and sequential cleavages of the APP by β-secretase and γ-secretase/presenilin generate amyloid β protein (Aβ), the major component of pathological hallmark, neuritic plaques, in brains of AD patients. Therapeutic strategies centered on targeting γ-secretase/presenilin to reduce amyloid were implemented and led to several high profile clinical trials...
February 11, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Chenling Meng, Jinyue Liao, Danfeng Zhao, Huihui Huang, Jinzhong Qin, Tin-Lap Lee, Degui Chen, Wai-Yee Chan, Yin Xia
Lethal (3) malignant brain tumor like 2 (L3MBTL2) is a member of the MBT-domain proteins, which are involved in transcriptional repression and implicated in chromatin compaction. Our previous study has shown that L3MBTL2 is highly expressed in the testis, but its role in spermatogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we found that L3MBTL2 was most highly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes within the testis. Germ cell-specific ablation of L3mbtl2 in the testis led to increased abnormal spermatozoa, progressive decrease of sperm counts and premature testicular failure in mice...
February 13, 2019: Cell Death and Differentiation
Melanie Dani, Sophie Bowen-Carpenter, Patrick J McGown
A 72-year-old woman presented with a complex partial seizure and right hemiparesis, after a four-week history of cognitive decline, apraxia and speech disturbance. She previously had chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and had finished chemotherapy one year prior to presentation. She was receiving monthly intravenous immunoglobulins for bronchiectasis. Brain imaging showed hypodensity in the left temporo-parietal regions. Cerebrospinal fluid was positive for the JC virus, leading to a diagnosis of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML)...
2019: European Journal of Case Reports in Internal Medicine
Megan Finch-Edmondson, Catherine Morgan, Rod W Hunt, Iona Novak
Worldwide, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm (<37 weeks' gestation) every year. Despite significant improvements in survival rates, preterm infants often face a lifetime of neurodevelopmental disability including cognitive, behavioral, and motor impairments. Indeed, prematurity remains the largest risk factor for the development of cerebral palsy. The developing brain of the preterm infant is particularly fragile; preterm babies exhibit varying severities of cerebral palsy arising from reductions in both cerebral white and gray matter volumes, as well as altered brain microstructure and connectivity...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Xiaowei Wu, Yan Gu
Craniosynostosis, is the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures which is the second most common cranial facial anomalies. The premature cranial sutures leads to deformity of skull shape and restricts the growth of brain, which might elicit severe neurologic damage. Craniosynostosis exhibit close correlations with a varieties of syndromes. During the past two decades, as the appliance of high throughput DNA sequencing techniques, steady progresses has been made in identifying gene mutations in both syndromic and nonsyndromic cases, which allow researchers to better understanding the genetic roles in the development of cranial vault...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Tate Gisslen, Garima Singh, Michael K Georgieff
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a major cause of preterm birth and often results in a fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS). Preterm infants with FIRS have a higher childhood incidence of neurodevelopmental disability than preterm infants without FIRS. The mechanisms connecting FIRS to neurodevelopmental disability in formerly preterm infants are not fully understood, but the effect on premature gray matter may have an important role. METHODS: Fetal rats were exposed to intra-amniotic (i...
February 11, 2019: Pediatric Research
Soung Yung Kim, Simon Völkl, Stephan Ludwig, Holm Schneider, Viktor Wixler, Jung Park
Fhl2 (Four and a half LIM domain protein 2) is an adaptor protein capable of mediating protein-protein interactions. Here, we report for the first time phenotypic changes in the brain of Fhl2-deficient mice. We showed that: (i) Fhl2 is expressed in neural stem cells, precursors, and mature cells of the neuronal lineage; (ii) Fhl2 deficiency leads to delayed neuroblast migration in vivo , to (iii) premature astroglial differentiation of neural stem cells (NSC) in vitro , and to (iv) a gliosis-like accumulation of GFAP+ astrocytes in vivo that substantially increases with age...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cell Science
Yen-Ling Chiu, Hsiu-Hui Tsai, Yen-Jun Lai, Hsin-Yi Tseng, Yen-Wen Wu, Yu-Sen Peng, Cheng-Ming Chiu, Yi-Fang Chuang
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease exhibits a prominent premature aging phenotype in many different organ systems, including the brain. Nevertheless, a comprehensive characterization of brain aging in non-demented patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is lacking and it remains unclear if the collective changes of cognitive functions and brain structures in ESRD is compatible with aging. METHODS: We compared 56 non-demented, independently living dialysis patients (mean age 59...
February 7, 2019: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Gerard M Moloney, Wesley E P A van Oeffelen, Feargal J Ryan, Marcel van de Wouw, Caitlin Cowan, Marcus J Claesson, Harriet Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Impulsivity is an important component of many psychiatric illnesses and has been associated with a number of psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder and attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Exploring the different aspects of impulsive behaviour and assigning these to specific neurobiological pathways would advance our interpretation of disorders for which impulsivity is key. Pharmacological studies have implicated a number of neurotransmitters in impulsivity, which in turn have been shown to be affected by several genes in both rodent and human studies of impulsivity...
February 6, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Marjo S van der Knaap, Marianna Bugiani, Marisa I Mendes, Lisa G Riley, Desiree E C Smith, Joëlle Rudinger-Thirion, Magali Frugier, Marjolein Breur, Joanna Crawford, Judith van Gaalen, Meyke Schouten, Marjolaine Willems, Quinten Waisfisz, Frederic Tran Mau-Them, Richard J Rodenburg, Ryan J Taft, Boris Keren, John Christodoulou, Christel Depienne, Cas Simons, Gajja S Salomons, Fanny Mochel
OBJECTIVE: To describe the leukodystrophy caused by pathogenic variants in LARS2 and KARS , encoding mitochondrial leucyl transfer RNA (tRNA) synthase and mitochondrial and cytoplasmic lysyl tRNA synthase, respectively. METHODS: We composed a group of 5 patients with leukodystrophy, in whom whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing revealed pathogenic variants in LARS2 or KARS . Clinical information, brain MRIs, and postmortem brain autopsy data were collected. We assessed aminoacylation activities of purified mutant recombinant mitochondrial leucyl tRNA synthase and performed aminoacylation assays on patients' lymphoblasts and fibroblasts...
February 8, 2019: Neurology
Min Zhang, Volkan Ergin, Lin Lin, Cheryl Stork, Liang Chen, Sika Zheng
How a neuron acquires an axon is a fundamental question. Piecemeal identification of many axonogenesis-related genes has been done, but coordinated regulation is unknown. Through unbiased transcriptome profiling of immature primary cortical neurons during early axon formation, we discovered an association between axonogenesis and neuron-specific alternative splicing. Known axonogenesis genes exhibit little expression alternation but widespread splicing changes. Axonogenesis-associated splicing is governed by RNA binding protein PTBP2, which is enriched in neurons and peaks around axonogenesis in the brain...
January 30, 2019: Neuron
Muhammet Gürdoğan, Sezgin Kehaya, Selçuk Korkmaz, Servet Altay, Uğur Özkan, Çağlar Kaya
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cranial magnetic resonance imaging findings of patients considered to be cryptogenic stroke may be useful in determining the clinical and prognostic significance of arrhythmias, such as atrial premature beats and atrial run attacks, that are frequently encountered in rhythm Holter analysis. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between short atrial runs and frequent premature atrial contractions detected in Holter monitors and infarct distributions in cranial magnetic resonance imaging of patients diagnosed with cryptogenic stroke...
February 4, 2019: Medicina
Sudeepta K Basu, Subechhya Pradhan, Kushal Kapse, Robert McCarter, Jonathan Murnick, Taeun Chang, Catherine Limperopoulos
Advanced neuroimaging techniques have improved our understanding of microstructural changes in the preterm supratentorial brain as well as the cerebellum and its association with impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the metabolic interrogation of the developing cerebellum during the early postnatal period after preterm birth remains largely unknown. Our study investigates the relationship between cerebellar neurometabolites measured by proton magnetic spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) in preterm infants with advancing post-menstrual age (PMA) and brain injury during ex-utero third trimester prior to term equivalent age (TEA)...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Haley K Perlow, Vincent Cassidy, Benjamin Farnia, Deukwoo Kwon, Adam W Awerbuch, Stephanie Ciraula, Scott Alford, Jacob Griggs, Joseph A Quintana, Raphael Yechieli, Stuart E Samuels
Purpose: Previous studies have indicated a relationship between functional status and comorbidity on overall survival when treating patients with bone and brain metastases. However, the degree to which these findings have been integrated into modern-day practice remains unknown. This study examines the impact of performance measures, including Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) and comorbidity, on palliative radiation therapy treatment tolerance and fractionation schedule. The relationship between a shorter fractionation schedule (SFx) and pending mortality is examined...
January 2019: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Marco Papageorgiou, Ali Raza, Sarah Fraser, Kulmira Nurgali, Vasso Apostolopoulos
The recreational use of methamphetamine (METH, or ice) is a global burden. It pervades and plagues contemporary society; it has been estimated that there are up to 35 million users worldwide. METH is a highly addictive psychotropic compound which acts on the central nervous system, and chronic use can induce psychotic behavior. METH has the capacity to modulate immune cells, giving the drug long-term effects which may manifest as neuropsychiatric disorders, and that increase susceptibility to communicable diseases, such as HIV...
March 2019: Maturitas
Iu Kyslova, O Yablon, O Mazulov, T Savrun, O Bykovska
The aim of the research was to determine the diagnostic significance of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in preterm infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks. The study group included 30 preterm infants with average birth weight 1373.5±66.0 g and gestational age 29.3±0.5 weeks. The catamnestic observation was conducted over this category of infants until reaching the corrected age of 18 months. The relationship between BDNF levels and antenatal factors, postnatal results and remote effects were determined...
December 2018: Georgian Medical News
Jida El Hajjar, Wassim Chatoo, Roy Hanna, Patrick Nkanza, Nicolas Tétreault, Yiu Chung Tse, Tak Pan Wong, Mohamed Abdouh, Gilbert Bernier
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. However, representative experimental models of AD have remained difficult to produce because of the disease's uncertain origin. The Polycomb group protein BMI1 regulates chromatin compaction and gene silencing. BMI1 expression is abundant in adult brain neurons but down-regulated in AD brains. We show here that mice lacking one allele of Bmi1 (Bmi1+/-) develop normally but present with age cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration sharing similarities with AD...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
Irina Meledin, Hilla Tzur-Sebton, Iris Noyman, Michael Friger, Guy Hazan, Eilon Shany
BACKGROUND: The incidence of seizures in the neonatal period is thought to be high due to a lower seizure threshold of the immature brain. Data on seizures in extremely premature infants are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether seizures are an independent risk factor for in-hospital death and to determine the incidence of seizures in extremely premature infants. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Included were infants born under 28 weeks' gestation and monitored with amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) over the first 3 days of life...
January 22, 2019: Neonatology
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