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Dementia, sarcopenia

Jahae Kim, Kang-Ho Choi, Sang-Geon Cho, Sae-Ryung Kang, Su Woong Yoo, Seong Young Kwon, Jung-Joon Min, Hee-Seung Bom, Ho-Chun Song
Increasing evidence indicates that sarcopenia and obesity can be risk factors for incident dementia. We investigated the association of body composition including muscle and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with the probability of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in healthy middle-aged and elderly subjects using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). This study included 110 healthy subjects with available whole-body FDG PET/CT scans and medical records. Muscle and VAT tissues were measured on the abdominal CT slice, and the PMOD Alzheimer's discrimination FDG PET analysis tool (PALZ) score was evaluated on the brain PET of the same subject using software PALZ...
January 30, 2019: Scientific Reports
Seong-Eun Byun, Sujin Kim, Kyu-Hwang Kim, Yong-Chan Ha
This study aimed to determine: (1) the association between psoas cross-sectional area (PCA) and mortality in hip fracture patients, and (2) the usefulness of PCA as a diagnostic tool for sarcopenia. A total of 373 female and 121 male hip fracture patients aged 50 years or more who had surgical repair of their hip fracture between 2011 and 2017 were analyzed. PCA was measured at L4-L5 disc level using CT. PCA of gender-specific 20th percentile determined from this study cohort was used as a cutoff value. The effect of decreased PCA on mortality was analyzed...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Andrea Ticinesi, Claudio Tana, Antonio Nouvenne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes the advances of research on the role of the intestinal microbiota in influencing sarcopenia, frailty, and cognitive dysfunction in older individuals, and thus its relevance for healthy active ageing. RECENT FINDINGS: Age-related alterations of intestinal microbiota composition may negatively influence muscle protein synthesis and function by promoting chronic systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and reducing nutrient bioavailability...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Lynda Bonewald
Until recently, it was assumed that the only interaction between muscle and bone is mechanical, that the muscle acts as a pulley and the bone as a lever to move the organism. A relatively new concept is that muscle, especially contracted muscle, acts as a secretory organ, regulating metabolism. An even newer concept is that bone, especially the osteocytes in bone, act as endocrine cells targeting other organs such as kidney and more recently, muscle. These two new concepts logically led to the third concept: that muscle and bone communicate via soluble factors...
November 5, 2018: Bone
Yoshiaki Tamura, Joji Ishikawa, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Masashi Tanaka, Nobuo Kanazawa, Yuko Chiba, Ai Iizuka, Sho Kaito, Jun Tanaka, Masamitsu Sugie, Takashi Nishimura, Akiko Kanemaru, Keigo Shimoji, Hirohiko Hirano, Ko Furuta, Akihiko Kitamura, Satoshi Seino, Shoji Shinkai, Kazumasa Harada, Shunei Kyo, Hideki Ito, Atsushi Araki
BACKGROUND: Although frailty and cognitive impairment are critical risk factors for disability and mortality in the general population of older inhabitants, the prevalence and incidence of these factors in individuals treated in the specialty outpatient clinics are unknown. METHODS: We recently established a frailty clinic for comprehensive assessments of conditions such as frailty, sarcopenia, and cognition, and planned 3-year prospective observational study to identify the risk factors for progression of these aging-related statuses...
November 6, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Esra Ates Bulut, Pinar Soysal, Ahmet Turan Isik
Background: Geriatric syndromes are complex clinical manifestations that are not an isolated disease in older adults and have common risk factors within themselves. The syndromes are significant causes of mortality, morbidity, and increased health care costs. Objective: To determine the frequency of geriatric syndromes such as malnutrition, dementia, depression, falls, polypharmacy, urinary incontinence, pressure ulcer, sarcopenia, and frailty in community-dwelling older adults...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Yusuke Ogawa, Yoshitsugu Kaneko, Tomohiko Sato, Soichiro Shimizu, Hidekazu Kanetaka, Haruo Hanyu
Although sarcopenia is closely linked to dementia, particularly Alzheimer disease (AD), there are few studies examining the prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia in subjects with AD. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia, factors associated with sarcopenia in elderly subjects with AD, and differences in muscle functions of the upper and lower extremities and gait speed at various stages of AD. We evaluated handgrip and knee extension strength, muscle mass, and gait speed in 285 elderly outpatients with probable AD (mean age 82...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Manpreet S Mundi, Jayshil Patel, Stephen A McClave, Ryan T Hurt
With the number of individuals older than 65 years expected to rise significantly over the next few decades, dramatic changes to our society and health care system will need to take place to meet their needs. Age-related changes in muscle mass and body composition along with medical comorbidities including stroke, dementia, and depression place elderly adults at high risk for developing malnutrition and frailty. This loss of function and decline in muscle mass (ie, sarcopenia) can be associated with reduced mobility and ability to perform the task of daily living, placing the elderly at an increased risk for falls, fractures, and subsequent institutionalization, leading to a decline in the quality of life and increased mortality...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Shin Takayama, Ryutaro Arita, Akiko Kikuchi, Minoru Ohsawa, Soichiro Kaneko, Tadashi Ishii
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability to poor resolution of homeostasis following stress, which increases the risk of adverse outcomes such as falls, delirium, and disability in the elderly. Recently in Japan, clinical practice guidelines (CPG) have recommended kampo treatment. We conducted a search for reports on Japanese CPG and kampo medicine in the treatment of symptoms in the elderly. The search was performed using the databases PubMed, Ichushi Web, J-Stage, Japan Medical Publishers Association, Medical Information Network Distribution Service, and CPG containing kampo products in Japan; reports from January 1st, 2012 to October 31st, 2017 were reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Luigi Ferrucci, Elisa Fabbri
Most older individuals develop inflammageing, a condition characterized by elevated levels of blood inflammatory markers that carries high susceptibility to chronic morbidity, disability, frailty, and premature death. Potential mechanisms of inflammageing include genetic susceptibility, central obesity, increased gut permeability, changes to microbiota composition, cellular senescence, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, oxidative stress caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, immune cell dysregulation, and chronic infections...
September 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Wei-Ju Lee, Li-Ning Peng, Chih-Kuang Liang, Ching-Hui Loh, Liang-Kung Chen
BACKGROUND: Cognitive frailty (CF) featured as frailty plus cognitive impairment was deemed to be a novel target for dementia and disable prevention. The study was intended to investigate the epidemiology of CF and the association between CF and all-cause mortality. METHODS: The national representative cohort study was comprised of 1,103 community-living middle-aged and older adults. CF was defined as the co-existence of dynapenia (weakness and/or slowness) and cognitive impairment (1...
2018: PloS One
Youngji Kim, Soong-Nang Jang
BACKGROUNDS: This study was to understand the trends of frailty research and networking features of keywords from the academic articles focusing on frailty in the last four decades. METHOD: Keywords were extracted from articles (n = 6,424) retrieved from Web of Science, from 1981 to April 2016, using Bibexcel, and a social network analysis was conducted using Net Miner. RESULTS: The core-keywords of research on frailty are constantly changing over the last 40 years...
2018: PloS One
Patrizia Mecocci, Virginia Boccardi, Roberta Cecchetti, Patrizia Bastiani, Michela Scamosci, Carmelinda Ruggiero, Marta Baroni
The Editors of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease invited Professor Patrizia Mecocci to contribute a review article focused on the importance and implications of her research on aging, brain aging, and senile dementias over the last years. This invitation was based on an assessment that she was one of the journal's top authors and a strong supporter of the concept that oxidative stress is a major contributor to several alterations observed in age-related conditions (sarcopenia, osteoporosis) and, more significantly, in brain aging suggesting a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of one of the most dramatic age-related diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Haruo Hanyu
There is a wide range of potentially modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and dementia, including cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, sleep-apnea syndrome), psychosocial factors (e.g., depression), health behaviors (e.g., low level of physical or mental activity, smoking status), and head trauma. In the elderly, weight loss associated with frailty and sarcopenia is another risk factor for dementia. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of dementia has declined in the US and European countries during the last 20 years...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Akito Tsugawa, Yusuke Ogawa, Naoto Takenoshita, Yoshitsugu Kaneko, Hirokuni Hatanaka, Eriko Jaime, Raita Fukasawa, Haruo Hanyu
Background/Aims: Diabetes-related dementia (DrD), a dementia subgroup associated with specific diabetes mellitus (DM)-related metabolic abnormalities, is clinically and pathophysiologically different from Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia. We determined whether skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass decrease in individuals with DrD. Methods: We evaluated grip and knee extension strength, muscle mass, and gait speed in 106 patients with probable AD and without type 2 DM (AD[-DM] group), 74 patients with probable AD and with DM (AD[+DM] group), and 36 patients with DrD (DrD group)...
September 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Mahdi Malekpour, Kelly Bridgham, Kathryn Jaap, Ryan Erwin, Kenneth Widom, Megan Rapp, Diane Leonard, Susan Baro, James Dove, Marie Hunsinger, Joseph Blansfield, Mohsen Shabahang, Denise Torres, Jeffrey Wild
Elderly patients are at a higher risk of morbidity and mortality after trauma, which is reflected through higher frailty indices. Data collection using existing frailty indices is often not possible because of brain injury, dementia, or inability to communicate with the patient. Sarcopenia is a reliable objective measure for frailty that can be readily assessed in CT imaging. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of sarcopenia on the outcomes of geriatric blunt trauma patients. Left psoas area (LPA) was measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on the axial CT images...
November 1, 2017: American Surgeon
Joanna Ulley, Ahmed H Abdelhafiz
The greatest proportional increase in the number of people with diabetes by age group is predicted to occur in those aged 60 to 79. In older people living with diabetes, geriatric syndromes, which indicate frailty, are emerging as a third category of complications in addition to the traditional microvascular and macrovascular sequelae. Frailty is defined by the presence of three or more phenotypes (weight loss, weakness, decreased physical activity, exhaustion and slow gait speed). The presence of one or two phenotypes describes a pre-frail state, and the absence of phenotypes describes a non-frail person...
January 2017: Practitioner
Keizo Ohnaka
The decline in sex hormones along with aging is suggested to be involved in age-associated diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and dementia. The decrease of estrogen level after menopause is related to osteoporosis in addition to climacteric disturbance in women, while that of testosterone to sarcopenia, osteoporosis and late-onset hypogonadism in men. New treatment strategy is expected for targeting age-associated diseases against the decreased level of sex hormones.
2017: Clinical Calcium
Kellie L Hawkins, Todd T Brown, Joseph B Margolick, Kristine M Erlandson
: HIV infection, in many circumstances, can now be managed as a chronic disease due to the marked increase in life expectancy since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). As the patients who first had access to combination ART age into their 50s and 60s, the effects of chronic HIV infection on health have become an important research focus in HIV infection. People living with HIV appear to exhibit an earlier occurrence of some aging-related conditions compared to people without HIV, in part due to higher rates of comorbidities, high-risk behaviors (e...
June 1, 2017: AIDS
Hiroyuki Umegaki, Taeko Makino, Kazuki Uemura, Hiroyuki Shimada, Takahiro Hayashi, Xian Wu Cheng, Masafumi Kuzuya
Insulin resistance (IR), diabetes mellitus (DM), sarcopenia, and cognitive dysfunction are thought to be mutually associated. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of the relationships among IR, gait speed, hyperglycemia, and DM by cross-sectionally analyzing the baseline data of an interventional study for cognitive preservation with physical exercise (the TOyota Preventional Intervention for Cognitive decline and Sarcopenia [TOPICS]). The participants (n = 444) were relatively healthy older individuals who had mild cognitive impairment without dementia, and 61 of the participants had DM...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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