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Running kinematics

J J Hannigan, Christine D Pollard
BACKGROUND: A recent study suggested that maximal running shoes may increase the impact force and loading rate of the vertical ground-reaction force during running. It is currently unknown whether runners will adapt to decrease the impact force and loading rate over time. PURPOSE: To compare the vertical ground-reaction force and ankle kinematics between maximal and traditional shoes before and after a 6-week acclimation period to the maximal shoe. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
March 2019: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Ben Langley, Mary Cramp, Stewart C Morrison
To-date there is a paucity of information about how different types of conventional running shoes influence lower limb kinematics. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of motion control, neutral and cushioned running shoes upon lower limb kinematics. Twenty-eight active males completed one test session running in standardised motion control, neutral and cushioned running shoes, on a treadmill at a self-selected pace (2.9 ± 0.6 m.s-1 ). Kinematic data were collected using a VICON motion analysis system with hip, knee and ankle joint angles calculated...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Neil J Cronin, Timo Rantalainen, Juha P Ahtiainen, Esa Hynynen, Ben Waller
Kinematic analysis is often performed with a camera system combined with reflective markers placed over bony landmarks. This method is restrictive (and often expensive), and limits the ability to perform analyses outside of the lab. In the present study, we used a markerless deep learning-based method to perform 2D kinematic analysis of deep water running, a task that poses several challenges to image processing methods. A single GoPro camera recorded sagittal plane lower limb motion. A deep neural network was trained using data from 17 individuals, and then used to predict the locations of markers that approximated joint centres...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Rinara Woo, Eun-Ju Yang, Dae-Wha Seo
In this paper, a fuzzy-innovation based adaptive extended Kalman filter (FI-AKF)is proposed to improve the performance of the GNSS/INS fusion system, which is degradeddue to satellite signal cutoff and attenuation and inaccurate modeling in dense urbanenvironments. The information used for sensor fusion is obtained from real-time kinematic (RTK),micro-electro-mechanical system based inertial measumrement unit (MEMS-IMU), and on-boarddiagnostics (OBD). The fuzzy logic system is proposed to adaptively update the measurementcovariance matrix of the RTK according to the position dilution of precision (PDOP), the numberof receivable satellites, and the innovation of the extended Kalman filter (EKF)...
March 6, 2019: Sensors
A Chappell, B Liew, A T Murphy, N Gibson, G T Allison, G Williams, S L Morris
BACKGROUND: Biomechanical data in cerebral palsy are inherently variable but no optimal model of translational joint constraint has been identified. The primary aim of this study was to determine which model of translational joint constraint resulted in the lowest within-participant variability of lower limb joint angles and moments. The secondary aim was to determine which model best distinguished known functional groups in Cerebral Palsy. METHODS: Three models (three degrees of freedom, six degrees of freedom and six degrees of freedom with specified joint translation constraint) were applied to data from running trials of 40 children with cerebral palsy...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
Christina R Hollis, Rachel M Koldenhoven, Jacob E Resch, Jay Hertel
Running biomechanics research has traditionally occurred in the laboratory, but with the advent of wearable sensors measurement of running biomechanics may shift outside the laboratory. The purpose was to determine if RunScribe™ wearable sensors could detect differences in kinematic, kinetic and spatiotemporal measures during runs at two speeds and on two different surfaces. Fifteen recreational runners (7 males, 8 females; age = 20.0 ± 3.1 years) participated. While wearing sensors on the heels of their shoes, participants completed four 1600 m runs on both track and grass surfaces...
March 7, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Øyvind Skattebo, Thomas Losnegard, Hans Kristian Stadheim
PURPOSE: Long-distance cross-country skiers specialize to compete in races >50km predominantly using double poling (DP). This emphasize the need for highly developed upper-body endurance capacities and an efficient DP-technique. Our aim was to investigate potential effects of specialization; by comparing physiological capacities and kinematics in DP between long-distance skiers and skiers competing using both techniques (skating/classic) in several competition formats ("all-round skiers")...
March 6, 2019: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Matteo Zago, Fabio Esposito, Filippo Bertozzi, Bruna Tritto, Susanna Rampichini, Christel Galvani, Manuela Galli, Chiarella Sforza
In team sports, non-contact ACL and MCL injuries occur during abrupt changes of direction, like turns or cutting manoeuvres. Fatigue affects dynamic neuromuscular control and increases knee injury risk. This study analysed how lower limb joints and centre-of-mass kinematics are affected throughout a high-intensity running protocol involving repeated 180°-turns. Twenty young men (18-23 years, BMI: 20.8-24.4 kg m-2 ) completed a 5-m shuttle running trial lasting 5 min at an average speed of 75% of their maximum aerobic speed...
March 5, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
François Druelle, Jana Goyens, Menelia Vasilopoulou-Kampitsi, Peter Aerts
Substrate variations are likely to compel animal performance in natural environments, as running over complex terrains challenges the dynamic stability of the body differently in each step. Yet, being able to negotiate complex terrains at top speed is a strong advantage for animals that have to deal with predators and evasive prey. Only little is known on how animals negotiate such terrain variability at high speed. We investigated this in fast running Acanthodactylus boskianus lizards, by measuring their 3D kinematics using four synchronized high-speed video cameras (325Hz) on an adaptable racetrack...
February 22, 2019: Journal of Experimental Biology
Thibault Lussiana, Aurélien Patoz, Cyrille Gindre, Laurent Mourot, Kim Hébert-Losier
A lower duty factor (DF) reflects a greater relative contribution of leg swing to ground contact time during the running step. Increasing time on the ground has been reported in the scientific literature to both increase and decrease the energy cost (EC) of running, with DF reported to be highly variable in runners. As increasing running speed aligns running kinematics more closely with spring-mass model behaviors and re-use of elastic energy, we compared the centre of mass (COM) displacement and EC between runners with a low (DFlow ) and high (DFhigh ) duty factor at typical endurance running speeds...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Experimental Biology
Christopher K Basu, Francois Deacon, John R Hutchinson, Alan M Wilson
The study of animal locomotion can be logistically challenging, especially in the case of large or unhandleable animals in uncontrolled environments. Here we demonstrate the utility of a low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in measuring two-dimensional running kinematics from free-roaming giraffes ( Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa ) in the Free State Province, South Africa. We collected 120 Hz video of running giraffes, and calibrated each video frame using metatarsal length as a constant object of scale. We tested a number of methods to measure metatarsal length...
2019: PeerJ
Joel M Garrett, Ryan Gunn, Roger G Eston, John Jakeman, Darren J Burgess, Kevin Norton
INTRODUCTION: With the underlying mechanisms of fatigue shown to be task-specific, gaining an understanding of changes within the running profile due to fatigue may provide a greater task-specific method for monitoring neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) in elite team sport athletes. This review aimed to identify, review and summarise the literature to understand the effects of fatigue on the running profile of elite team sport athletes. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Paul Macadam, Sergi Nuell, John B Cronin, Ryu Nagahara, Aaron M Uthoff, Scott P Graham, Farhan Tinwala, Jono Neville
This study aimed to understand the kinematic and kinetic differences between two sprint starts: block and split-stance standing. Fourteen sub-elite male sprinters (100 m time: 11.40 ± 0.39 s) performed block and split-stance standing starts sprints over 30 m of in-ground force platforms in a randomised order. Independent t-tests and repeated measures mixed model analysis of variance were used to analyse the between-condition variables across conditions, and over four step phases. Block start sprints resulted in significantly (p < ...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Bhushan Thakkar, John D Willson, Kathryn Harrison, Robert Tickes, D S Blaise Williams
PURPOSE: Elevated tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) contact forces have been linked to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis. The primary objective of this study was to determine the association between peak TFJ shear and compression forces during running at different self-selected step frequencies (SF) in female recreational runners. METHODS: Fifty-five healthy female recreational runners ran at 2.98 m/s on an instrumented treadmill. Peak TFJ anterior shear force, peak axial TFJ compression force and peak medial compartment TFJ compression force were estimated using a musculoskeletal model with inputs from 3D joint kinematics and inverse dynamics calculations...
February 4, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Iwona Sulowska, Anna Mika, Łukasz Oleksy, Artur Stolarczyk
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of plantar short foot muscles exercises on the performance of lower extremities in long-distance runners. 47 long-distance runners aged 21-45 years took part in this study. The participants were divided into two groups based on baseline measurement of Foot Posture Index: Group 1 (n=27) with neutral foot and Group 2 (n=20) with slight and increased pronation. The participants performed the exercises daily for 6 weeks. The knee flexors and extensors torque, work, and power on Isokinetic Dynamometer and Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) were checked at baseline and after 6 weeks of exercises...
2019: BioMed Research International
Tzu-Chieh Liao, Christopher M Powers
BACKGROUND: To determine whether the location and magnitude of peak patella cartilage stress varies among runners with and without patellofemoral pain. To determine whether tibiofemoral kinematics in the frontal and transverse planes predict peak lateral and medial patella cartilage stress. METHODS: Twelve recreational runners with patellofemoral pain and 10 pain-free controls participated. Peak patella cartilage stress was quantified using finite element models that incorporated subject-specific kinematic and kinetic data obtained during running...
January 17, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
Ana F Dos Santos, Theresa H Nakagawa, Giovanna C Lessi, Bruna C Luz, Heitor T M Matsuo, Giovana Y Nakashima, Carlos D Maciel, Fábio V Serrão
OBJECTIVES: Analyze the effects of 3 gait retraining: forefoot landing (FFOOT), 10% step rate increase (SR10%) and forward trunk lean (FTL) on lower limb biomechanics and clinical measurements in patellofemoral pain (PFP) runners. DESIGN: Case series report. SETTINGS: Biomechanical laboratory and treadmill running. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen recreational PFP runners randomized in 3 groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lower limb kinematics and muscle activation were assessed at baseline and 2-week post-training...
March 2019: Physical Therapy in Sport
Ryu Nagahara, Miki Haramura, Yohei Takai, Jon L Oliver, Nuttanan Wichitaksorn, Lesley M Sommerfield, John B Cronin
This study aimed to investigate the age-related differences in sprinting performance, kinematic and kinetic variables in girls aged between 7.0 to 15.3 years. Step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction impulses during sprinting were collected in 94 Japanese girls across a 50 m in-ground force plate. From the results, a difference in rate of development in sprinting performance in girls over 12.7 years compared with younger girls (YG) was observed. The older girls (OG) became slightly slower each year (-0...
January 29, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jocelyn F Hafer, Jillian Peacock, Ronald F Zernicke, Cristine E Agresta
Running is a popular activity that results in high rates of overuse injury, with less-experienced runners becoming injured at higher rates than their more-experienced peers. While measures of joint kinematics and kinetics and ground reaction forces have been associated with overuse running injuries, similar differences across levels of running experience have not been found. As running is a motor skill that may develop with experience, an analysis of segment coordination and its variability could provide additional insight into why injury incidence decreases with increasing experience...
January 24, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jonathan Sinclair, Bobbie Butters, Philip Stainton
The current investigation examined the effects of running barefoot and in minimalist footwear on medial tibiofemoral compartment loading, compared to conventional running trainers. Fifteen male runners ran over a force platform in five different footwear conditions (barefoot, Vibram five-fingers (Footwear A), Inov-8 (Footwear B) Nike-Free (Footwear C), and running trainer) whilst lower extremity kinematics were examined using a three-dimensional camera system. Medial compartment loading during the stance phase was explored using the knee adduction moment (KAM)...
December 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
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