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Dóra Sipos, Krisztina Ursu, Ádám Dán, Dávid Herczeg, Edit Eszterbauer
Here, we investigated the early development of two closely related myxozoan parasites, the highly pathogenic Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of the whirling disease in salmonids, and Myxobolus pseudodispar, a common, non-pathogenic parasite of cyprinids. The aim of our study was to examine under in vivo laboratory conditions whether fish blood is involved in the intrapiscine development of the two parasite species and investigate if there is dissimilarity between the parasite infection intensity in blood and if it varies in terms of host susceptibility and parasite pathogenicity...
2018: PloS One
Barbara Forro, Edit Eszterbauer
Myxobolus pseudodispar Gorbunova, 1936 (Myxozoa) is capable of infecting and developing mature myxospores in several cyprinid species. However, M. pseudodispar isolates from different fish show up to 5% differences in the SSU rDNA sequences. This is an unusually large intraspecific difference for myxozoans and only some of the muscle-dwelling myxozoan species possess such a high genetic variability. We intended to study the correlation between the host specificity and the phylogenetic relationship of the parasite isolates, and to find experimental proof for the putatively wide host range of M...
June 2, 2016: Folia Parasitologica
S Marton, E Eszterbauer
This study provides detailed information on the invertebrate hosts of Myxobolus pseudodispar (Myxozoa) and explores the susceptibility range of several species and analyses the relevance of the species composition of an oligochaete population. Our findings demonstrate that the oligochaete host range of M. pseudodispar is similarly wide as the number of vertebrate host species. Besides Tubifex tubifex and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Psammoryctides barbatus and Psammoryctides moravicus were also found to be susceptible invertebrate hosts...
April 2012: Journal of Fish Diseases
D M Kallert, B Forró, E Eszterbauer
Mucus-derived nucleosides serve as key host cues for myxozoan actinospore fish host recognition, but to date their use for experimental actinospore activation in the laboratory or application in disease prevention has not progressed very far. One obstacle has been the low solubility of pure inosine and guanosine. To overcome this, we used inosine-arginine salt (ino-arg), which incorporates both high activation properties and high solubility. We tested its efficacy both in microassays directly observing reactions of actinospores of 2 distantly related myxozoan species, Myxobolus cerebralis and M...
May 13, 2014: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Kálmán Molnár, Csaba Székely
For several species of fish myxosporeans known at present, the musculature has been designated as the location of intrapiscine development. In the majority of these cases, plasmodia and spores are actually found in the muscle cells, but there are also myxosporeans that select intermuscular connective tissue, fish bones, nerves and capillaries of the musculature as their site of development. During the plasmodial development of Myxobolus, Henneguya and Thelohanellus species in fish inhabiting Hungarian freshwaters, 3 main locations of development inside the muscles were identified...
January 16, 2014: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Dennis Marc Kallert, Jennifer Borrelli, Wilfried Haas
Since the basis of host specificity in Myxozoa, i.e. the differential disposition and extinction of erroneously penetrated myxozoan infective stages in non-susceptible fish hosts, remains puzzling, we aimed to explore the role of the innate immune system in this issue. In a comparative incubation challenge of actinospore sporoplasms of the freshwater parasite species Myxobolus cerebralis, Henneguya nuesslini and Myxobolus pseudodispar to isolates of host and non-host muci and blood sera, we measured cellular disintegration proportions and times by means of a double staining viability assay utilizing fluorescent dyes...
October 2012: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
D D Iwanowicz, L R Iwanowicz, E W Howerth, W B Schill, V S Blazer, R L Johnson
Myxobolus stanlii sp. n. was described from largescale stonerollers ( Campostoma oligolepis ) from the Mobile River Basin in Alabama. The parasite was described using critical identifying morphological features, and the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence. The spore body was ovoid, 10.03 ± 0.7 (7.5-11.0) μm long and 8.8 ± 1.5 (6.3-11.3) μm wide in frontal view. Spore thickness was 6.3 ± 2.7 (6.2-8.6) μm in sutural view. Polar capsules were pyriform, of equal size, and oriented in plane with the sutural ridge...
February 2013: Journal of Parasitology
Dennis M Kallert, Walter Bauer, Wilfried Haas, Mansour El-Matbouli
This work reports the discovery of an hitherto unknown chemical recognition trait enabling a parasitic life cycle in aquatic habitats. We believe this is the first record of a natural, host-derived chemical molecule identified as a recognition cue for the phylum Myxozoa. The actinospores of these parasites attach to fish hosts via polar filaments that are extruded upon mechanical stimulation after preceding recognition of a chemical trigger contained in surface mucus. Our goal was to identify this signal. We separated compounds from a purified active fraction derived from trout mucus by a novel HPLC method...
March 2011: International Journal for Parasitology
Kálmán Molnár, Szilvia Marton, Csaba Székely, Edit Eszterbauer
During a survey on fishes from Hungarian freshwaters, the occurrence of eight Myxobolus species was registered in roach (Rutilus rutilus L.). Most species had a specific location within the fish host. Of the known species infecting roach, the intramuscularly developing species Myxobolus pseudodispar was found to be the most common. Besides Myxobolus intimus and Myxobolus diversicapsularis infecting the capillary network of gill lamellae, Myxobolus feisti infecting the cartilaginous gill rays were observed. Of the "muelleri-type" Myxobolus spp, Myxobolus rutili and Myxobolus sommervillae sp...
October 2010: Parasitology Research
P Iu Tiutiaev
For a long period of time two factors have impeded investigations of myxosporidia physiology: the small size of their nuclei and the absence of data about existence of condensed chromosomes in these organisms. Significant progress in biological research methods provides new approaches to investigations of Myxozoa chromatin and chromosomal apparatus. Using confocal scanning microscopy chromosomes in the generative cell nuclei of Zschokkela nova (Klokacewa, 1914) were revealed and described in this work for the first time...
2008: Tsitologiia
Dennis Marc Kallert, Mansour El-Matbouli
Little is known about the viability of myxozoan actinospore stages after harvest from laboratory cultures of infected oligochaete worms. The viability and reactivity of actinospores of three myxozoan species was evaluated after short-term storage at 4 degrees C and 12 degrees C. Two methods of determining actinospore viability were compared: differential fluorescent staining and direct microscopic observation of morphological indicators of spore integrity. Spore reactivity was quantified by measuring polar filament discharge rates in a micro-assay with fish mucus substrate and mechanical stimulation by vibration...
June 2008: Folia Parasitologica
P Iu Tiutiaev
The analysis of plasmodium and spore nuclei, f-actin, tialpha- and gamma-tubulin of three Mixosporidia species--Zschokkela nova (Klokacewa, 1914), Myxidium gasterostei (Noble, 1943) and Myxobolus pseudodispar (Gorbunova, 1936)--was performed using confocal microscopy. We have found out the features of nucleus structure and its changes during division and formation of myxospores.
2008: Tsitologiia
P Iu Tiutiaev
The analysis of organic and non-organic substances in the valves of long stored in water Henneguya oviperda (Gohn, 1895) and Myxobolus pseudodispar (Gorbunova, 1936) myxospores has been made using the cytochemical methods and atomic-absorptional spectroscopy. The high content of Si (up to 94 %) and the presence of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn cations (Cu, Al, Ni, Cr in fewer amounts) have been detected.
2008: Tsitologiia
D M Kallert, S Ponader, E Eszterbauer, M El-Matbouli, W Haas
Various mechanisms that enable and improve transmission success of myxozoan actinospore stages towards fish hosts are described, based upon a combination of experimental data and functional analysis of morphological characters. For this purpose, laboratory-reared actinospores of Myxobolus cerebralis, Myxobolus parviformis, Henneguya nuesslini and Myxobolus pseudodispar were employed to exemplarily investigate aspects of host attachment and invasion. The process of polar filament discharge of M. cerebralis actinospores was analysed, showing that full discharge occurs in less than 10 msec...
November 2007: Parasitology
K Molnár, Sz Marton, E Eszterbauer, Cs Székely
During a survey on fishes from the River Danube, the occurrence of 8 Myxobolus species (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) was registered in chub Leuciscus cephalus L. Most species had a specific location within the fish host. M. cycloides was found in the wall of the swimbladder; the branched plasmodia of M. dujardini were located typically in the epithelium of the non-lamellar part of gill filaments; the plasmodia of M. ellipsoides infected fins between 2 fin rays; M. muelleri and Myxobolus sp. 2 formed large elongated plasmodia in the afferent gill artery of filaments, while the round cysts of M...
November 21, 2006: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Orsolya Rácz, Cs Székely, K Molnár
The actinospore consumption of copepods (Cyclops spp.) was demonstrated by laboratory observations. It was observed that in experimental dishes the number of actinospores floating in the water decreased, or such actinospores were completely eliminated, in the presence of copepods. The ingestion of actinospores by copepods and their further fate were monitored by fluorescent staining and by conventional histological techniques. The actinospores were observed to have got caught on the filters of Cyclops spp. Two and a half hours after the copepods had been placed into water containing actinospores, their digestive tract was found to contain spores that had extruded their filaments from the polar capsules...
March 2006: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
A V Uspenskaya, O I Raikova
To understand the discharge mechanism of Myxozoan polar capsule (cnida) it is necessary to verify the role of major cytoskeletal proteins in the process. With this aim F-actin and beta-tubulin localization in spores of myxosporean developmental phase (in myxospores) of Myxobolus pseudodispar Gorbunova, 1936 has been studied under confocal scanning laser microscope using phalloidin fluorescent staining of F-actin and indirect anti-beta-tubulin immunostaining. F-actin has been detected in walls of the stinging tube invaginated into the polar capsule of myxospore...
2004: Tsitologiia
P Alvarez-Pellitero, K Molnár, A Sitjà-Bobadilla, C Székely
The ultrastructrure of triactinospores and other developmental stages obtained after the experimental infection of the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex with myxospores of Myxobolus bramae and Myxobolus pseudodispar was studied. In both cases, pansporocysts harbouring spores and the remnants of polar bodies were found in the gut epithelium of the tubificids. Other stages were also seen in M. pseudodispar. Capsulogenic cells surrounded the apical part of the sporoplasm in M. bramae whereas they were located separately in M...
March 2002: Parasitology Research
R van Ee, B L Anderson, H Farid
Occlusion geometry gives rise to interocular shifts in the positions of binocularly viewed contour junctions. Since these shifts do not give rise to normal binocular disparities, they have been called 'pseudodisparities'. Previous work has shown that the unmatched contour segments of a partially occluded contour at occlusion junctions can be used to recover the geometry of the occluding surface through the construction of 'illusory' contours. Here, experiments were performed to determine whether such junction shifts could enhance stereoscopic depth detection when the relative disparity between the contours was below threshold...
2001: Spatial Vision
A Iu Ibragimov
Spores of Myxobolus pseudodispar from plasmodia occurring in the roach muscles (Rutilus rutilus) were studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, before and after discharge of their polar filaments. Scanning microscopy reveals that discharged polar filaments bear no spines and their walls are slightly folded. Polar filaments of M. pseudodispar have been compared with stinging threads of the parasitic cnidarium Polypodium hydriforme.
2001: Tsitologiia
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