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lung volume

Emilie C Risom, Katrine B Buggeskov, Ulla B Mogensen, Martin Sundskard, Jann Mortensen, Hanne B Ravn
OBJECTIVES: Although reduced lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with higher risk of death following cardiac surgery, preoperative spirometry is not performed routinely. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between preoperative lung function and postoperative complications in all comers for cardiac surgery irrespective of smoking or COPD history. METHODS: Preoperative spirometry was performed in elective adult cardiac surgery patients...
March 15, 2019: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Jason K Tan, Georgia Banton, Corrado Minutillo, Graham L Hall, Andrew Wilson, Conor Murray, Elizabeth A Nathan, Maureen Verheggen, James Ramsay, Naeem Samnakay, Jan Dickinson
OBJECTIVE: Survival rates for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are increasing. The long-term outcomes of CDH survivors were compared with a healthy control group to assess the morbidity for guidance of antenatal counselling and long-term follow-up programmes. PARTICIPANTS AND DESIGN: Participants born with CDH in Western Australia 1993-2008 were eligible with matched controls from the general population. Participants had comprehensive lung function tests, echocardiogram, low-dose chest CT scan and completed a Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and quality of life (QOL) questionnaire...
March 15, 2019: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Greg Bowden, Andrew Faramand, Ajay Niranjan, L Dade Lunsford, Edward Monaco
BACKGROUND: The number of metastases that can be treated safely and effectively with Gamma Knife® stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) remains controversial despite continuing evidence to support its expanded utilization. We endeavored to elucidate the survival outcomes for patients who presented with ≥15 brain metastases at the time of initial SRS. METHODS: This retrospective analysis reviewed patients treated for ≥15 brain metastases originating from breast cancer, lung cancer, or melanoma...
March 12, 2019: World Neurosurgery
M Valli, S Cima, D Gaudino, R Cartolari, L Deantonio, M Frapolli, D Daniele, G A Pesce, F Martucci, N C Azinwi, D Bosetti, S Presilla, A Richetti
PURPOSE: To evaluate acute and late skin/subcutaneous toxicities and radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF) in patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for synchronous bilateral breast cancers (SBBC), after conservative surgery. METHODS/PATIENTS: Twenty-five patients were treated with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT/RapidArc® ) on both breasts, and checked clinically for detecting RT toxicities during and after treatment. A high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed, for detecting RILF during follow-up...
March 14, 2019: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Khaled Bousabarah, Susanne Temming, Mauritius Hoevels, Jan Borggrefe, Wolfgang W Baus, Daniel Ruess, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Maximilian Ruge, Martin Kocher, Harald Treuer
OBJECTIVES: To predict radiation-induced lung injury and outcome in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) from radiomic features of the primary tumor. METHODS: In all, 110 patients with primary stage I/IIa NSCLC were analyzed for local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and development of local lung injury up to fibrosis (LF). First-order (histogram), second-order (GLCM, Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix) and shape-related radiomic features were determined from the unprocessed or filtered planning CT images of the gross tumor volume (GTV), subjected to LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) regularization and used to construct continuous and dichotomous risk scores for each endpoint...
March 15, 2019: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Markus Polke, Matthias Rötting, Nilab Sarmand, Johannes Krisam, Ralf Eberhardt, Felix J F Herth, Daniela Gompelmann
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic and surgical interventions may be beneficial for selected patients with emphysema. Rates of treatment failure decrease when the predictors for successful therapy are known. The aim of the study was to evaluate the number of patients with severe emphysema who were not eligible for any intervention, and the reasons for their exclusion. METHODS: The study was a retrospective analysis of 231 consecutive patients with advanced emphysema who were considered for interventional therapy in 2016 at the Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg, Germany...
January 2019: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
Michelle Klingel, Sanja Stanojevic, Elizabeth Tullis, Felix Ratjen, Valerie Waters
RATIONALE: Intravenous (IV) tobramycin is frequently used to treat pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), but there is concern that azithromycin may interact with tobramycin making it less effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether oral azithromycin use was associated with worse lung function response to intravenous tobramycin treatment for PExs in a cohort of pediatric CF patients with chronic P...
March 15, 2019: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Zinab Al Ansari, Zainab A Alkharas, Rauda M Al Ahbabi, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Javed Yasin, Badreldin H Ali
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO₂ NPs) are released from diesel engines that use cerium compounds as a catalytic agent to decrease the diesel exhaust particles, leading to human exposure by inhalation to CeO₂ NPs. We have recently demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to CeO₂ NPs induces lung inflammation, thrombosis, and oxidative stress in various organs including kidneys. It is well known that particulate air pollution effects are greater in patients with renal diseases...
2019: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Khush S Aujla, Alan W Katz, Deepinder P Singh, Paul Okunieff, Michael T Milano
Purpose and Objective(s): We sought to analyze the long-term follow-up of patients treated with hypofractionated, stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) for oligometastases from malignancies other than breast or prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: From 2001 to 2006, 82 cancer patients with 1-5 radiographically apparent metastatic lesions (in 1-3 organs) from primary sites other than breast or prostate cancer, were enrolled on a prospective study of HSRT. Freedom from widespread metastasis (FFWM) was defined from date of enrollment until death, an event (i...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Megan L Crichton, Stefano Aliberti, James D Chalmers
Bronchiectasis is an increasing clinical problem, but multiple recent clinical trials have failed to reach their primary end-point. Difficulties in achieving "positive" bronchiectasis trials is reflected in a lack of agreement from trialists and regulators on what are the optimal end-points.To evaluate the use of end-points in bronchiectasis trials, we conducted a systematic review of published bronchiectasis trials from 2008 to 2018 and extracted end-points used, definitions, methods of analysis and responsiveness...
March 31, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Albert Comelli, Alessandro Stefano, Samuel Bignardi, Giorgio Russo, Maria Gabriella Sabini, Massimo Ippolito, Stefano Barone, Anthony Yezzi
In the context of cancer delineation using positron emission tomography datasets, we present an innovative approach which purpose is to tackle the real-time, three-dimensional segmentation task in a full, or at least nearly full automatized way. The approach comprises a preliminary initialization phase where the user highlights a region of interest around the cancer on just one slice of the tomographic dataset. The algorithm takes care of identifying an optimal and user-independent region of interest around the anomalous tissue and located on the slice containing the highest standardized uptake value so to start the successive segmentation task...
March 2019: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Arturo B Ramirez, Raksha Bhat, Debashish Sahay, Carmine De Angelis, Hariprasad Thangavel, Sina Hedayatpour, Lacey E Dobrolecki, Agostina Nardone, Mario Giuliano, Chandandeep Nagi, Mothaffar Rimawi, C Kent Osborne, Michael T Lewis, Jackie L Stilwell, Eric P Kaldjian, Rachel Schiff, Meghana V Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer patient-derived xenograft (BC-PDX) models represent a continuous and reproducible source of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) for studying their role in tumor biology and metastasis. We have previously shown the utility of BC-PDX models in the study of CTCs by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on serial paraffin sections and manual microscopic identification of cytokeratin-positive cells, a method that is both low-throughput and labor-intensive. We therefore aimed to identify and characterize CTCs from small volume mouse blood samples and examined its practical workflow in a study of BC-PDX mice treated with chemotherapy using an automated imaging platform, the AccuCyte®-CyteFinder® system...
March 12, 2019: BMC Cancer
Jing-Jing Wang, Yin-Ling Wang, Xin-Xin Ge, Meng-Dan Xu, Kai Chen, Meng-Yao Wu, Fei-Ran Gong, Min Tao, Wen-Jie Wang, Liu-Mei Shou, Wei Li
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Platelet-related indictors, including platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width, not only associate with morphology and functions of platelet but also correlate with tumor development and metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the values of platelet-related indictors in the prognosis evaluation of resectable lung cancers. METHODS: In total, 101 patients with resectable lung cancer were recruited in this study...
January 1, 2019: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Domenico L Grieco, Luca S Menga, Davide Eleuteri, Massimo Antonelli
The role of spontaneous breathing among patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS is debated: while avoidance of intubation with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) or high-flow nasal cannula improves clinical outcome, treatment failure worsens mortality. Recent data suggest patient self-inflicted lung injury (P-SILI) as a possible mechanism aggravating lung damage in these patients. P-SILI is generated by intense inspiratory effort yielding: (A) swings in transpulmonary pressure (i.e. lung stress) causing the inflation of big volumes in an aerated compartment markedly reduced by the disease-induced aeration loss; (B) abnormal increases in transvascular pressure, favouring negative-pressure pulmonary edema; (C) an intra-tidal shift of gas between different lung zones, generated by different transmission of muscular force (i...
March 12, 2019: Minerva Anestesiologica
Joseph Pierre Aboumsallem, Ilayaraja Muthuramu, Mudit Mishra, Herman Kempen, Bart De Geest
The risk of heart failure (HF) is prominently increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objectives of this study were to establish a murine model of diabetic cardiomyopathy induced by feeding a high-sugar/high-fat (HSHF) diet and to evaluate the effect of reconstituted HDLMilano administration on established HF in this model. The HSHF diet was initiated at the age of 12 weeks and continued for 16 weeks. To investigate the effect of reconstituted HDLMilano on HF, eight intraperitoneal administrations of MDCO-216 (100 mg/kg protein concentration) or of an identical volume of control buffer were executed with a 48-h interval starting at the age of 28 weeks...
March 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ju Yeon Kim, Jeong Hyun Cho, Eun Mi Kim, Hyun-Jin Shin, Sang-Gu Hwang, Jie-Young Song, Hong-Duck Um, Jong Kuk Park
AIMS: In this study, we examined whether β-apopicropodophyllin (APP) could act as a radiosensitizer in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. MAIN METHODS: The in vitro radiosensitizing activity of APP was demonstrated with clonogenic assay, immunoblotting, Annexin V-Propidium iodide (PI) assay, BrdU incorporation, detection of mitochondrial ROS/intracellular of H2 O2 , mitochondrial membrane potential detection, and performing of isolation of mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions...
March 11, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Jakob Usemann, Fabienne Decrue, Insa Korten, Elena Proietti, Olga Gorlanova, Danielle Vienneau, Oliver Fuchs, Philipp Latzin, Martin Röösli, Urs Frey
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of higher air pollution levels before and after birth on subsequent lung function are often reported in the literature. We assessed whether low-to-moderate levels of air pollution during preschool-age impact upon lung function at school-age. METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort of 304 healthy term-born infants, 232 (79%) completed lung function at follow-up at six years. Using spatial-temporal models, levels of individual air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and ozone (O3 ), particulate matter with a diameter <10 μm (PM10 )) were estimated for the time windows pregnancy, first up to the sixth year of life separately, and birth until follow-up at six years...
March 11, 2019: Environment International
Nathane S Felix, Cynthia S Samary, Fernanda F Cruz, Nazareth N Rocha, Marcos V S Fernandes, Joana A Machado, Rebecca L Bose-Madureira, Vera L Capelozzi, Paolo Pelosi, Pedro L Silva, John J Marini, Patricia R M Rocco
WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: High tidal volumes and pressures may worsen acute lung injury, sometimes resulting in a trade-off between inflicted damage versus inadequate ventilation WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: In a rat model of experimental lung injury, gradually increasing tidal volume to a known injurious level may result in less (or in some circumstances, more) damage BACKGROUND:: This study hypothesized that, in experimental mild acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung damage caused by high tidal volume (VT) could be attenuated if VT increased slowly enough to progressively reduce mechanical heterogeneity and to allow the epithelial and endothelial cells, as well as the extracellular matrix of the lung to adapt...
March 11, 2019: Anesthesiology
Tetsuya Yumoto, Takahisa Fujita, Sunao Asaba, Shunsuke Kanazawa, Atsunori Nishimatsu, Hideo Yamanouchi, Satoshi Nakagawa, Osamu Nagano
BACKGROUND: Two recent large randomized controlled trials did not show the superiority of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in adults with ARDS. These two trials had differing results, and possible causes could be the different oscillators used and their different settings, including inspiratory time % (IT%). The aims of this study were to obtain basic data about the ventilation characteristics in two adult oscillators and to elucidate the effect of the oscillator and IT% on ventilation efficiency...
March 12, 2019: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Ellen Broberg, Leif Pierre, Mohammed Fakhro, Lars Algotsson, Malin Malmsjö, Snejana Hyllén, Sandra Lindstedt
OBJECTIVES: Noninvasive online monitoring of different particle flows from the airways may serve as an additional tool to assess mechanical ventilation. In the present study, we used a customised PExA, an optical particle counter for monitoring particle flow and size distribution in exhaled air, to analyse airway particle flow for three subsequent days. We compared volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and performed recruitment manoeuvres (RM). METHODS: Six animals were randomised into two groups: half received VCV before PCV and the other half received PCV before VCV...
March 13, 2019: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
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