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Cancer Pathology Pediatric

Hirotsugu Hashimoto, Yuta Tsugeno, Keisuke Sugita, Kentaro Inamura
Lung cancers are mainly composed of epithelial tumors such as carcinomas. Since mesenchymal tumors that arise in the lung are very rare, they have garnered little attention. The 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lung tumors has undergone revision, not only for carcinomas but also for mesenchymal tumors. The current version now includes PEComatous tumors, myoepithelial tumors, and pulmonary myxoid sarcomas with EWSR1-CREB1 translocation as new disease entities. To date, no review article has comprehensively summarized what is known about pulmonary mesenchymal tumors in accordance with the latest WHO classification...
January 2019: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Thomas J Jackson, Richard D Williams, Jesper Brok, Tanzina Chowdhury, Milind Ronghe, Mark Powis, Kathy Pritchard-Jones, Gordan M Vujanić
INTRODUCTION: The International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) protocols recommend preoperative chemotherapy appropriate for Wilms tumors (WTs) in children with renal tumors aged ≥6 months, reserving biopsy for "atypical" cases. The Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group (CCLG) joined the SIOP-WT-2001 study but continued the national practice of biopsy at presentation. METHOD: Retrospective study of concordance between locally reported renal tumor biopsies and central pathology review nephrectomy diagnoses of children enrolled by CCLG centers in the SIOP-WT-2001 study...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Anna J Janss, Claire Mazewski, Briana Patterson
Pathologies of pediatric brain tumors are more varied than those diagnosed in adults and survival outcomes more optimistic. Therapies for pediatric brain tumors are also diverse and treatment options are expanding. The growing number of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors is quite diverse. Medical management of these adults requires understanding the tumor diagnosis and location, the modalities used to treat the tumor, the age of the survivor at the time of diagnosis and treatment, any complications of treatment, and, most importantly, the baseline medical condition and neurological function of each adult survivor...
February 9, 2019: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Gisel A Bedoya, Natali Bello, Laura Moná, Kevin Velásquez, Jairo Sandoval, John F Castro-Alvarez
Extraosseous primitive neuroectodermal tumors are very rare neoplasms. Only a few cases have been published in the literature. This report is about a 9-year-old female patient whose clinical manifestations showed spinal cord compression, so different diagnosis should be considered, including oncology disease. The patient showed a mass of the dorsal spine with spinal cord compression. She was diagnosed with Ewing Sarcoma after surgical intervention and pathology study. It is necessary to highlight the importance of the present case due to the low incidence of the extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma, and its infrequent location at the dorsal spine and the spinal cord compression as initial presentation of pediatric cancer, as well as the poor information related to the best therapeutic strategy to treat this disease at this location...
February 1, 2019: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Shih-Chieh Shao, Yuk-Ying Chan, Yea-Huei Kao Yang, Swu-Jane Lin, Ming-Jui Hung, Rong-Nan Chien, Chi-Chun Lai, Edward Chia-Cheng Lai
PURPOSE: The Chang Gung Research Database (CGRD), the largest multi-institutional electronic medical records (EMR) collection in Taiwan, provides good access for researchers to efficiently use the standardized patient-level data. This study evaluates the capacity and representativeness of the CGRD to promote secondary use of EMR data for clinical research with more accurate estimates. METHODS: The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) which covers over 99...
January 16, 2019: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Zeming Liu, Di Hu, Huang Yi Hui, Chen Si Chao, Zeng Wen, Zhou Ling, Zhou Wei, Wang Min, Feng Hai Feng, Wei Wei, Chao Zhang, Chen Dan Yang, Liang Guo
OBJECTIVES: Controversies regarding factors associated with distant metastasis in pediatric thyroid cancer remain among the scientific community. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing distant metastasis in pediatric thyroid cancer. METHODS: We reviewed 1376 patients (aged 2 to 18 years) with thyroid cancer treated between 2003 and 2014. Data collected and analyzed included sex, race, age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, pathological type, number of tumor foci, tumor extension, T-stage, N-stage, surgical procedure, and radiation...
January 1, 2019: Endocrine Connections
Catalina Correa, Juan P Luengas, Galo Veintemilla
Objective: To present our experience treating 38 patients with pediatric thyroid carcinoma. Method: We received 44 pediatric patients with thyroid cancer between 2008 and 2016 in a specialized cancer center. A team of two surgeons treated all patients. We reviewed patient charts, treatment, pathology report, recurrence, and mortality. Qualitative variables were analyzed using Chi-square. Quantitative variables have a 95% confidence interval. Results: 82% (n = 31) of cases were female...
2019: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Jacob Kinggaard Lilja-Fischer, Henrik Schrøder, Viveque E Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: Childhood cancer is rare and often difficult to diagnose. In the head and neck region, benign diseases are much more common. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of childhood cancer cases with a primary head and neck presentation, to describe symptoms, physical findings, diagnostic interval and tentative diagnoses. METHODS: Registry-based retrospective cohort study, with patients identified in the Danish Childhood Cancer Registry. Review of medical records, imaging reports and pathology reports...
March 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Yessica Sánchez-Ponce, Gustavo Varela-Fascinetto, José Carlos Romo-Vázquez, Briceida López-Martínez, José Luis Sánchez-Huerta, Israel Parra-Ortega, Ezequiel M Fuentes-Pananá, Abigail Morales-Sánchez
Herpesviruses are common components of the human microbiome that become clinically relevant when a competent immunosurveillance is compromised, such as in transplantation. Members of the beta and gamma subfamilies are associated with a wide diversity of pathologies, including end-organ disease and cancer. In this study, we developed a multiplex qPCR technique with high specificity, sensitivity, efficiency and predictability that allowed the simultaneous detection and quantification of beta and gamma human herpesviruses...
December 19, 2018: Viruses
Atsuhiko Handa, Taiki Nozaki, Akari Makidono, Tetsuhiko Okabe, Yuka Morita, Kazutoshi Fujita, Masaki Matsusako, Tatsuo Kono, Yasuyuki Kurihara, Daisuke Hasegawa, Tadashi Kumamoto, Chitose Ogawa, Yuza Yuki, Atsushi Manabe
Children with cancer are at increased risk of life-threatening emergencies, either from cancer itself or related to cancer treatment. These conditions need to be assessed and treated as early as possible to minimize their morbidity and mortality. Cardiothoracic emergencies encompass a variety of pathologies, including pericardial effusions and cardiac tamponade, massive hemoptysis, superior vena cava syndrome, pulmonary embolism, and pneumonia. Abdominal emergencies include bowel obstruction, intussusception, perforation, tumor rupture, intestinal graft-versus-host disease, acute pancreatitis, neutropenic colitis, and obstructive uropathy...
December 19, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Samuel A Gold, Vikram K Sabarwal, Chirag Gordhan, Graham R Hale, Andrew Winer
Pediatric renal and suprarenal cancers are relatively rare malignancies, but are not without significant consequence to both the patient and caretakers. These tumors are often found incidentally and present as large abdominal masses. Standard of care management involves surgical excision of the mass, but contemporary treatment guidelines advocate for use of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced stage disease, such as those cases with lymph node involvement (LNI). However, LNI detection is based primarily on surgical pathology and performing extended lymph node dissection can add significant morbidity to a surgical case...
October 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Z J Gao, Q Jiang, X L Chen, Q Chen, X N Ji, Y Y Mao, S Feng, J J Dong, K M Xu
Objective: To analyze the de novo point mutations in known genes among patients with unexplained intellectual disability (ID) or developmental retardation (DD). Methods: A total of 120 outpatients with ID or DD were recruited in the Department of Neurology, Affiliated Children's Hospital of Capital Institute of Pediatrics between September 2015 and April 2017. Target gene sequencing was used to screen the candidate gene. The sequencing data were analyzed by a variety of bioinformatics software. Combining with the phenotypes of the patients, the candidate genetic/genomic variants were identified from next-generation sequencing data...
November 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Yuehui Liu, Haiping Liu, Dongwei Zhang
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is one of the most devastating types of pediatric cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that the dysregulated expression of long non-coding (lnc)-RNAs is associated with various pathologies of the CNS. However, the expression patterns and prognostic roles of lncRNAs in DIPG have not yet been systematically determined. In the present study, lncRNA expression profiles were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database using the lncRNA-mining approach and a differential expression analysis for lncRNAs was performed between DIPG and low-grade brainstem glioma and DIPG and normal pediatric brainstem tissue...
November 2018: Oncology Letters
Jill C Rubinstein, Catherine Dinauer, Kayleigh Herrick-Reynolds, Raffaella Morotti, Glenda G Callender, Emily R Christison-Lagay
BACKGROUND: Regional lymph node (LN) metastasis at the time of presentation plays a significant role in predicting recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Multiple studies in the adult population have demonstrated that the lymph node ratio (LNR) in both the central and lateral neck can improve the accuracy of recurrence prediction, but this ratio has not been studied in the pediatric population. In this study, we sought to investigate the LNR in the central and lateral compartments as a prognostic predictor for recurrence in pediatric patients with PTC...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Honglai Zhang, Rork Kuick, Sung-Soo Park, Claire Peabody, Justin Yoon, Ester Calvo Fernández, Junying Wang, Dafydd Thomas, Benoit Viollet, Ken Inoki, Sandra Camelo-Piragua, Jean-François Rual
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that has a dual role in cancer, i.e., pro- or anti-tumorigenic, depending on the context. In medulloblastoma, the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor, several in vitro studies previously showed that AMPK suppresses tumor cell growth. The role of AMPK in this disease context remains to be tested in vivo. Here, we investigate loss of AMPKα2 in a genetically engineered mouse model of sonic hedgehog (SHH)-medulloblastoma. In contrast to previous reports, our study reveals that AMPKα2 KO impairs SHH medulloblastoma tumorigenesis...
October 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ana Creo, Fares Alahdab, Alaa Al Nofal, Kristen Thomas, Amy Kolbe, Siobhan Pittock
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid cancer is the most common pediatric endocrine cancer; accurate diagnosis and prompt management of pediatric thyroid nodules is critical. The McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS), based upon clinical, ultrasound (US), and cytology criteria has recently been modified and studied in a pilot pediatric group with good results. We aim to describe the diagnostic accuracy of the pediatric modified MTNS (PMTNS) in a large pediatric cohort. METHODS: We utilized an established retrospective cohort between 1996 and 2015 of 99 patients ≤ 21 years old with 131 thyroid nodules...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
María Sol Brassesco, Julia Alejandra Pezuk, Maria Angelica Cortez, Karina Bezerra Salomão, Carlos Alberto Scrideli, Luiz Gonzaga Tone
PURPOSE: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of cancer in children, and despite the high rate of cure (over 80%) it still has a big impact on morbidity and mortality. The Transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1), a transcriptional corepressor, has been described as dysregulated and recently emerged as a tumor marker in several cancer types, including hematologic malignancies. METHODS: In the present study TLE1 gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR...
September 26, 2018: Leukemia Research
Benjamin P Keith, Jasmine B Barrow, Takahiko Toyonaga, Nevzat Kazgan, Michelle Hoffner O'Connor, Neil D Shah, Matthew S Schaner, Elisabeth A Wolber, Omar K Trad, Greg R Gipson, Wendy A Pitman, Matthew Kanke, Shruti J Saxena, Nicole Chaumont, Timothy S Sadiq, Mark J Koruda, Paul A Cotney, Nancy Allbritton, Dimitri G Trembath, Francisco Sylvester, Terrence S Furey, Praveen Sethupathy, Shehzad Z Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is highly heterogeneous, due in large part to variability in cellular processes that underlie the natural history of CD, thereby confounding effective therapy. There is a critical need to advance understanding of the cellular mechanisms that drive CD heterogeneity. METHODS: We performed small RNA sequencing of adult colon tissue from CD and NIBD controls. Colonic epithelial cells and immune cells were isolated from colonic tissues, and microRNA-31 (miR-31) expression was measured...
October 4, 2018: JCI Insight
Jared W Garlick, Kristofor A Olson, Erinn Downs-Kelly, Brian T Bucher, Cindy B Matsen
Secretory breast carcinoma (SBC) is a rare form of breast cancer found in both children and adults, and is the most common breast cancer in the pediatric population. Although SBC usually carries a favorable prognosis, there have been reported cases of axillary and distant metastases. Surgery is the primary mode of treatment, however, there exists variability within the literature surrounding the management of SBC. We report a case of an 8-year-old girl who presented with a firm, mobile, palpable breast mass...
September 24, 2018: Breast Journal
Lorna Renner, Shivani Shah, Nickhill Bhakta, Avram Denburg, Sue Horton, Sumit Gupta
PURPOSE: No published study to date has examined total cost and cost-effectiveness of maintaining a pediatric oncology treatment center in an African setting, thus limiting childhood cancer advocacy and policy efforts. METHODS: Within the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana, costing data were gathered for all inputs related to operating a pediatric cancer unit. Cost and volume data for relevant clinical services (eg, laboratory, pathology, medications) were obtained retrospectively or prospectively...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
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