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Péter Judák, Peter Van Eenoo, Koen Deventer
The tendency of peptides to adsorb to surfaces can raise a concern in variety of analytical fields where the qualitative/quantitative measurement of low concentration analytes (ng/mL-pg/mL) is required. To demonstrate the importance of using the optimal glassware/plasticware, four doping relevant model peptides (GHRP 5, TB-500, Insulin Lispro, Synachten) were chosen and their recovery from various surfaces were evaluated. Our experiments showed that choosing expensive consumables with low-bind characteristics is not beneficial in all cases...
November 15, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
Irina Zvereva, Ekaterina Semenistaya, Grigory Krotov, Grigory Rodchenkov
Small peptides with a molecular weight of <2kDa represent a performance-enhancing substances. However, in vivo studies with human volunteers are limited because most of these peptides are not approved for human consumption. Thus, relevant in vitro models are a basic tool to study their metabolism for anti-doping purposes. To choose the best in vitro model the biotransformation of growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs), Desmopressin and TB-500 was investigated using various in vitro systems. High metabolic activity was observed during incubation of GHRPs and TB-500 with human kidney microsomes (HKM) and liver S9 fraction...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Andreas Thomas, Christian Görgens, Sven Guddat, Detlef Thieme, Frank Dellanna, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
The analysis of low-molecular-mass peptides in doping controls has become a mandatory aspect in sports drug testing and, thus, the number of samples that has to be tested for these analytes has been steadily increasing. Several peptides <2 kDa with performance-enhancing properties are covered by the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency including Desmopressin, LH-RH, Buserelin, Triptorelin, Leuprolide, GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-3, GHRP-4, GHRP-5,GHRP-6, Alexamorelin, Ipamorelin, Hexarelin, ARA-290, AOD-9604, TB-500 and Anamorelin...
January 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Ekaterina Semenistaya, Irina Zvereva, Grigory Krotov, Grigory Rodchenkov
Currently liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis after solid-phase extraction (SPE) on weak cation-exchange cartridges is a method of choice for anti-doping analysis of small bioactive peptides such as growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs), desmoporessin, LHRH, and TB-500 short fragment. Dilution of urine samples with phosphate buffer for pH adjustment and SPE on weak cation exchange microelution plates was tested as a means to increase throughput of this analysis. Dilution using 200 mM phosphate buffer provides good buffering capacity without affecting the peptides recoveries...
September 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Simone Esposito, Koen Deventer, Lore Geldof, Peter Van Eenoo
Peptide hormones represent an emerging class of potential doping agents. Detection of their misuse is difficult due to their short half-life in plasma and rapid elimination. Therefore, investigating their metabolism can improve detectability. Unfortunately, pharmacokinetic studies with human volunteers are often not allowed because of ethical constraints, and therefore alternative models are needed. This study was performed in order to evaluate in vitro models (human liver microsomes and S9 fraction) for the prediction of the metabolism of peptidic doping agents and to compare them with the established models...
January 2015: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Mario Thevis, Andreas Thomas, Wilhelm Schänzer
With the growing availability of mature systems and strategies in biotechnology and the continuously expanding knowledge of cellular processes and involved biomolecules, human sports drug testing has become a considerably complex field in the arena of analytical chemistry. Proving the exogenous origin of peptidic drugs and respective analogs at lowest concentration levels in biological specimens (commonly blood, serum and urine) of rather limited volume is required to pursue an action against cheating athletes...
December 2014: Expert Review of Proteomics
Mario Thevis, Wilhelm Schänzer
The number and diversity of potentially performance-enhancing substances is continuously growing, fueled by new pharmaceutical developments but also by the inventiveness and, at the same time, unscrupulousness of black-market (designer) drug producers and providers. In terms of sports drug testing, this situation necessitates reactive as well as proactive research and expansion of the analytical armamentarium to ensure timely, adequate, and comprehensive doping controls. This review summarizes literature published over the past 5 years on new drug entities, discontinued therapeutics, and 'tailored' compounds classified as doping agents according to the regulations of the World Anti-Doping Agency, with particular attention to analytical strategies enabling their detection in human blood or urine...
December 2014: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Wai Him Kwok, Emmie N M Ho, Ming Yip Lau, Gary N W Leung, April S Y Wong, Terence S M Wan
In recent years, there has been an ongoing focus for both human and equine doping control laboratories on developing detection methods to control the misuse of peptide therapeutics. Immunoaffinity purification is a common extraction method to isolate peptides from biological matrices and obtain sufficient detectability in subsequent instrumental analysis. However, monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies for immunoaffinity purification may not be commercially available, and even if available, such antibodies are usually very costly...
March 2013: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Emmie N M Ho, W H Kwok, M Y Lau, April S Y Wong, Terence S M Wan, Kenneth K H Lam, Peter J Schiff, Brian D Stewart
A veterinary preparation known as TB-500 and containing a synthetic version of the naturally occurring peptide LKKTETQ has emerged. The peptide segment (17)LKKTETQ(23) is the active site within the protein thymosin β(4) responsible for actin binding, cell migration and wound healing. The key ingredient of TB-500 is the peptide LKKTETQ with artificial acetylation of the N-terminus. TB-500 is claimed to promote endothelial cell differentiation, angiogenesis in dermal tissues, keratinocyte migration, collagen deposition and decrease inflammation...
November 23, 2012: Journal of Chromatography. A
Simone Esposito, Koen Deventer, Jan Goeman, Johan Van der Eycken, Peter Van Eenoo
The formulation TB-500 is suspected to be used as doping agent in sport. This work describes the detection and the identification of the N-terminal acetylated 17-23 fragment of human thymosin beta 4 (Ac-LKKTETQ) in TB-500 by means of high-performance liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry using an Orbitrap Exactive benchtop mass spectrometer. Ac-LKKTETQ was also synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis, and an analytical strategy for detection in plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography/low resolution triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry was suggested...
September 2012: Drug Testing and Analysis
D B Ambikar, U N Harle, R A Khandare, V V Bore, N S Vyawahare
Effect of hydroalcoholic extract T. bispinosa (TB) was studied on fluorescence product and biochemical parameter like lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and glutathione peroxidase activity in the brain of female albino mice. Ageing was accelerated by the treatment of 0.5 ml 5% D-galactose for 15 days. This resulted in increased fluorescence product, increase lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant enzyme like glutathione peroxides and catalase in cerebral cortex. After cotreatment with hydroalcoholic extract of TB (500 mg/kg, po) there was decrease in fluorescence product in cerebral cortex...
April 2010: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
N Rodopoulos, L Höjvall, A Norman
The metabolism of theobromine (TB) (500 mg per os) was determined by measuring plasma and saliva concentrations of TB and its metabolites 0-24 h after the load, and urinary excretion 0-48 h after the load. TB and its six metabolites were separated and quantified by combining high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The urine analyses showed that unchanged TB accounted for 21 +/- 4% (mean +/- SD) of total excretion, the remainder being 7-methylxanthine (7-X, 36 +/- 5%), 3-methylxanthine (3-X, 21 +/- 4%), 6-amino-5[N-methylformylamino]-1-methyluracil (6-AMMU, 11 +/- 4%), 7-methyluric acid (7-U, 10 +/- 2%), 3,7-dimethyluric acid (3,7-U, 1...
July 1996: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
E Oppenheimer, E Akavia, S Shavit, A D Korczyn
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the arrhythmogenic properties of several sympathomimetic amines and their antagonism by adrenergic blocking drugs. DESIGN: Arrhythmia was induced by the investigated drugs, injected intravenously: adrenaline (ADR); noradrenaline (NA); phenylephrine (PE); isoprenaline (IP); terbutaline (Tb) and salbutamol (Sb). ADR and PE were also tested for their arrhythmogenic properties after the administration of the adrenergic antagonists propranolol, phentolamine, or both...
September 1990: Cardiovascular Research
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