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Chemotherapy Review

Jennifer Tse, Rashed Ghandour, Nirmish Singla, Yair Lotan
Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) and upper tracts (UTUC) is often regarded as one entity and is managed generally with similar principles. While neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by radical cystectomy (RC) is an established standard of care in UCB, strong evidence for a similar approach is lacking in UTUC. The longest survival is seen in patients with complete response (pT0) on pathological examination of the RC specimen, but impact of delayed RC in nonresponders may be detrimental. The rate of pT0 following NAC in UTUC is considerably lower than that in UCB due to differences in access and instrumentation...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Madhumita Dey, Madhurima Das, Anindita Chowhan, Tapan Kumar Giri
Oral chemotherapy is the most preferred drug administration method due to noninvasive administration, more convenient, low healthcare cost, and patient compliance in comparison to intravenous chemotherapy. However, oral chemotherapy poses numerous hurdles to drug absorption through the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, nanocarriers have been extensively used for delivering anticancer drugs orally. Nanocarriers present distinctive advantages that comprise aiding drug dissolution owing to high surface to volume ratio, surface modifiability, protecting drugs from the harsh gastrointestinal environments and other features, all of which contribute to enhanced drugs bioavailability...
February 16, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Gregory Kaltsas, Dionysia Kolomodi, Harpal Randeva, Ashley Grossman
CONTEXT: Although the majority of sellar lesions are related to pituitary adenomas, the region gives rise to a variety of neoplasms that can be associated with substantial morbidity and/or mortality. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Information from reviews and guidelines of relevant societies dealing with such neoplasms, and articles that have provided new developments which made important contributions in their pathogenesis and treatment up to 2018, were obtained: public indexes such as PubMed/MEDLINE were used with the search items...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Francesco Perri, Giuseppina Della Vittoria Scarpati, Franco Ionna, Francesco Longo, Massimo Montano, Paolo Muto, Vincenzo Ravo, Mario Giuliano, Francesco Caponigro
Undifferentiated sinonasal carcinoma (SNUC) is defined as a small round blue cell tumor that is immunohistochemically distinct from other sinonasal malignancies, such as lymphoma, mucosal melanoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and olfactory neuroblastoma. SNUCs are very aggressive malignancies, provoking quick destruction of the splanchnocranium structures. Being a very rare neoplasm, there are no prospective clinical trials assessing their treatment strategies, so lots of data are derived by small retrospective trials...
March 2019: Anti-cancer Drugs
Paul Daniel, Siham Sabri, Ahmad Chaddad, Brian Meehan, Bertrand Jean-Claude, Janusz Rak, Bassam S Abdulkarim
Glioma are the most common type of malignant brain tumor, with glioblastoma (GBM) representing the most common and most lethal type of glioma. Surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy using the alkylating agent Temozolomide (TMZ) remain the mainstay of treatment for glioma. While this multimodal regimen is sufficient to temporarily eliminate the bulk of the tumor mass, recurrence is inevitable and often poses major challenges for clinical management due to treatment resistance and failure to respond to targeted therapies...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Qiang Su, Emily C Zhu, Jing-Bo Wu, Teng Li, Yan-Li Hou, Di-Ya Wang, Zu-Hua Gao
Background: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of pneumonitis and pneumonia associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for solid tumors. Methods: The following keywords were used in searching the Embase and PubMed database: pneumonitis, pneumonia, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. The data was analyzed by using the R software and Metafor package. Results: Among 3,436 studies, 23 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) met our selection criteria which included data from 12,876 patients...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Jonathan J Duplisea, Firas G Petros, Roger Li, Bryan Fellman, Charles C Guo, Bogdan A Czerniak, Arlene O Siefker-Radtke, John C Araujo, Colin P N Dinney, Surena F Matin
PURPOSE: Micropapillary variant upper tract urothelial cancer (MP-UTUC) is a rare malignancy with little known regarding its clinical course and/or optimal treatment. In this case series, we describe patient characteristics, surgical treatment, oncologic outcomes, and response to perioperative chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a review to identify patients with MP-UTUC treated at our center between January 1994 and October 2017. Clinicopathologic data was obtained...
February 15, 2019: Urologic Oncology
C Lan, J Li, X Huang, A Heindl, Y Wang, S Yan, Y Yuan
BACKGROUND: Identifying high-risk patients for platinum resistance is critical for improving clinical management of ovarian cancer. We aimed to use automated image analysis of hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) stained sections to identify the association between microenvironmental composition and platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. METHODS: Ninety-one patients with ovarian cancer containing the data of automated image analysis for H&E histological sections were initially reviewed...
February 18, 2019: BMC Cancer
Cristina Corno, Paola Perego
Metastatic dissemination of tumor cells represents a major obstacle towards cancer cure. Tumor cells with metastatic capacity are often resistant to chemotherapy. Experimental efforts revealed that the metastatic cascade is a complex process that involves multiple positive and negative regulators. In this respect, several metastasis suppressor genes have been described. Here, we review the role of the metastasis suppressor KiSS1 in regulation of metastasis and in response to antitumor agents. Physiologically, KiSS1 plays a key role in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulating puberty and reproductive functions...
February 11, 2019: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Milita Zaheed, Nicholas Wilcken, Melina L Willson, Dianne L O'Connell, Annabel Goodwin
BACKGROUND: Anthracyclines and taxanes are chemotherapeutic agents widely used in a sequential regimen in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment of early breast cancer to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. Standard practice is to administer anthracycline-based chemotherapy followed by a taxane. Anthracyclines tend to be administered first as they were established before taxanes for treatment of early breast cancer. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the sequence in which anthracyclines and taxanes are administered affects outcomes for people with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy...
February 18, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Joseph Cioccio, David Claxton
Tyrosine kinases (TKs) drive cell survival and proliferation in many normal and malignant cell types. TKs are frequently mutated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and hence are increasingly targeted. The management of AML has dramatically improved because of TKI-targeted treatment. Areas Covered: This review provides a biological background for TK inhibitors (TKIs) in AML and reviews their use in the clinic. TK expression and mutation in AML are explored with a focus on TKs associated with specific AML subsets and treatment outcomes...
February 18, 2019: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Elizabeth M Anderson, Jin Zhang, Greg Russell, Isai G Bowline, Braghadheeswar Thyagarajan, DengFeng Li, Lijun Ma, Erica R Anderson, Mariana Murea
Introduction: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in the pathophysiology of kidney disease. Inhibitors of mitochondrial metabolism are being developed for the treatment of solid organ and hematologic malignancies. We describe the incidence and clinical features of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients treated with the antimitochondrial drug CPI-613. Methods: We identified 33 patients with relapsed or refractory malignancy, previously enrolled in 3 open-label phase II studies, who received single-agent CPI-613 chemotherapy...
February 2019: KI Reports
Haley Dicken, Patrick J Hensley, Natasha Kyprianou
The long-standing challenge in the treatment of prostate cancer is to overcome therapeutic resistance during progression to lethal disease. Aberrant transforming-growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling accelerates prostate tumor progression in a transgenic mouse model via effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and neuroendocrine differentiation driving tumor progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is highly aggressive exhibiting reactivation of developmental programs associated with EMT induction and stem cell-like characteristics...
January 2019: Asian Journal of Urology
Gina Chia-Yi Chu, Leland W K Chung, Murali Gururajan, Chia-Ling Hsieh, Sajni Josson, Srinivas Nandana, Shian-Ying Sung, Ruoxiang Wang, Jason Boyang Wu, Haiyen E Zhau
This article describes cell signaling network of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) to bone and visceral organs in the context of tumor microenvironment and for the development of novel therapeutics. The article focuses on our recent progress in the understanding of: 1) The plasticity and dynamics of tumor-stroma interaction; 2) The significance of epigenetic reprogramming in conferring cancer growth, invasion and metastasis; 3) New insights on altered junctional communication affecting PCa bone and brain metastases; 4) Novel strategies to overcome therapeutic resistance to hormonal antagonists and chemotherapy; 5) Genetic-based therapy to co-target tumor and bone stroma; 6) PCa-bone-immune cell interaction and TBX2-WNTprotein signaling in bone metastasis; 7) The roles of monoamine oxidase and reactive oxygen species in PCa growth and bone metastasis; and 8) Characterization of imprinting cluster of microRNA, in tumor-stroma interaction...
January 2019: Asian Journal of Urology
Pichaya Thanindratarn, Dylan C Dean, Scott D Nelson, Francis J Hornicek, Zhenfeng Duan
Bone sarcomas are a collection of sporadic malignancies of mesenchymal origin. The most common subtypes include osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and chordoma. Despite the use of aggressive treatment protocols consisting of extensive surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, outcomes have not significantly improved over the past few decades for osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcoma patients. In addition, chondrosarcoma and chordoma are resistant to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. There is, therefore, an urgent need to elucidate which novel new therapies may affect bone sarcomas...
April 2019: Journal of Bone Oncology
Ronja Fierz, Gian-Piero Ghisu, Daniel Fink
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the neovagina after genital reconstruction surgery is a rare occurrence with only very few cases published up to the present. We report a case of a 43-year-old transgender woman who developed neovaginal SCC 23 years after vaginoplasty. The patient tested positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). At the time of diagnosis, radiological investigations revealed already existing lymph node and osseous metastases. The treatment consisted of various cycles of chemotherapy and radiation therapy...
2019: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Yuncong Liu, Li Wu, Ruizhan Tong, Feiyue Yang, Limei Yin, Mengqian Li, Liting You, Jianxin Xue, You Lu
Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological tumors, and the majority of early-stage cervical cancer patients achieve good recovery through surgical treatment and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). However, for patients with recurrent, persistent, metastatic cervical cancer, effective treatment is rare, except for bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy. Programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors might be a novel choice to improve the clinical outcomes of these patients...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Francis T Delaney, Emma L Gray, Joseph C Lee
We present a case of lung cancer incidentally detected as a pulmonary nodule on computed tomography attenuation correction (CTAC) images during myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Unfortunately, the incidental lesion was not fully investigated following MPS report and had developed into metastatic lung carcinoma when diagnosed over 1 year later, with failure of subsequent emergent chemotherapy. The disease appeared to be localized when initially detected during MPS. This case highlights the importance and potential clinical value of routine review of CTAC images in MPS with appropriate reporting and further investigation of suspicious incidental findings...
January 2019: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Xiao-Ping Zou, Yao-Ying Jiang, Yan Liao, Yi-Wu Dang, Gang Chen, Zhen-Bo Feng, Yun Ma
A combination of a Wilms' tumor (WT) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an extremely rare pediatric renal neoplasm. Its prognosis and clinicopathological features remain unclarified. Herein, we describe a case of the coexistence of a WT and an RCC in a male child aged 5 years and 10 months. The child had symptoms of hematuria for more than 1 month. Although his irises were clear, medical imaging revealed a potential malignant tumor in the left kidney. The patient underwent resection of the left kidney. The pathological diagnosis was the coexistence of a WT and papillary RCC...
2019: OncoTargets and Therapy
Miaomiao Gou, Yong Zhang, Haiyan Si, Guanghai Dai
Objective: PD-1 inhibitors have improved efficacy in many cancers. There are currently no reports of the use of PD-1 inhibitors, such as nivolumab, for metastatic biliary tract cancer (mBTC). This study reviewed the efficacy and safety of nivolumab for mBTC with the aim of exploring ways to improve efficacy and survival. Methods: Thirty patients with mBTC were voluntarily treated with nivolumab at the PLA General Hospital. Nivolumab 3 mg/kg was administered. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out for clinical characteristics...
2019: OncoTargets and Therapy
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