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Peripherial Neuromodulation

Thomas Schwitzer, Marie-Laure Henrion, Daphné Sarre, Eliane Albuisson, Karine Angioi-Duprez, Anne Giersch, Laurence Lalanne, Raymund Schwan, Vincent Laprevote
Widely used in industrialized countries, cannabis is a neuromodulator substance. The cannabinoid system is present at critical stages of retinal processing. We have recently shown a delay in bipolar and ganglion cell responses in regular cannabis users, as observed using flash (fERG) and pattern (PERG) electroretinogram. Although the results obtained during these tests provide information about global retinal responses, they do not give any indication about the spatial localization of the anomalies that were detected...
January 26, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Marianne O Klein, Daniella S Battagello, Ariel R Cardoso, David N Hauser, Jackson C Bittencourt, Ricardo G Correa
The dopaminergic system plays important roles in neuromodulation, such as motor control, motivation, reward, cognitive function, maternal, and reproductive behaviors. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, synthesized in both central nervous system and the periphery, that exerts its actions upon binding to G protein-coupled receptors. Dopamine receptors are widely expressed in the body and function in both the peripheral and the central nervous systems. Dopaminergic signaling pathways are crucial to the maintenance of physiological processes and an unbalanced activity may lead to dysfunctions that are related to neurodegenerative diseases...
November 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
L Lénárd, K László, E Kertes, T Ollmann, L Péczely, A Kovács, V Kállai, O Zagorácz, R Gálosi, Z Karádi
Substance P (SP) and neurotensin (NT) are neuropeptides isolated in the periphery and in the central nervous system. They are involved in various regulatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract, in the circulatory and respiratory systems, kidney and endocrine system. In addition to the peripheral effects, SP and NT act as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system, regulating various behavioural actions, such as general and motor activity, pain, food and water intake, anxiety, reward/reinforcement and memory consolidation...
February 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Qing Ouyang, Ji Zhou, Wei Yang, Hongjuan Cui, Minhui Xu, Liang Yi
Neurotensin (NTS) has long been recognized as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the central nervous system and as an endocrine agent in the periphery via actions mediated through neurotensin receptors (NTSRs). Many studies support a role for NTS in the endocrine, autocrine and paracrine growth stimulation of cancer, with oncogenic actions described for NTS in different types of cancers and cancer cell lines at each step of cancer progression, ranging from tumour growth and survival to metastatic spread...
August 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Gareth Leng, Nancy Sabatier
Mammalian neurons that produce oxytocin and vasopressin apparently evolved from an ancient cell type with both sensory and neurosecretory properties that probably linked reproductive functions to energy status and feeding behavior. Oxytocin in modern mammals is an autocrine/paracrine regulator of cell function, a systemic hormone, a neuromodulator released from axon terminals within the brain, and a 'neurohormone' that acts at receptors distant from its site of release. In the periphery oxytocin is involved in electrolyte homeostasis, gastric motility, glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, and osteogenesis, and within the brain it is involved in food reward, food choice, and satiety...
May 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
M L Ramos-Romero, F E Sobrino-Mejia
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide produced as a consequence of alternative RNA processing of the calcitonin gene. CGRP is widely distributed in the nervous system, particularly at anatomical areas thought to be involved with migraine pathophysiology, including the trigeminovascular nociceptive system. Over the past two decades, a convergence of basic and clinical evidence has established the CGRP as a key player in migraine. CGRP enhances sensitivity to sensory input at multiple levels in both the periphery and central nervous system...
November 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Jason E Pope, Jonathan D Carlson, William S Rosenberg, Konstantin V Slavin, Timothy R Deer
Pain in extremities may occur in a variety of central and peripheral neuropathic and nociceptive syndromes, some of which may respond to central neuromodulation procedures. Peripheral neuromodulation techniques, either as a stand-alone therapy or as an adjuvant to spinal cord stimulation, may be particularly effective when the pain is localized to a part of a single extremity or when the source of the pain is related to the malfunction of a known peripheral nerve. Further, peripheral neuromodulation is used to treat disorders in which central simulation fails to provide discrete therapeutic paresthesia...
2015: Progress in Neurological Surgery
Gilmer Vanegas, Jérôme Leprince, Frédéric Lancien, Nagi Mimassi, Hubert Vaudry, Jean-Claude Le Mével
The urotensin II (UII) gene family consists of four paralogous genes called UII, UII-related peptide (URP), URP1 and URP2. UII and URP peptides exhibit the same cyclic hexapeptide core sequence (CFWKYC) while the N- and C-terminal regions are variable. UII, URP1, and URP2 mRNAs are differentially expressed within the central nervous system of teleost fishes, suggesting that they may exert distinct functions. Although the cardiovascular, ventilatory and locomotor effects of UII have been described in teleosts, much less is known regarding the physiological actions of URPs...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Anastasia Hodes, David Lichtstein
Natriuretic hormones (NH) include three groups of compounds: the natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP), the gastrointestinal peptides (guanylin and uroguanylin), and endogenous cardiac steroids. These substances induce the kidney to excrete sodium and therefore participate in the regulation of sodium and water homeostasis, blood volume, and blood pressure (BP). In addition to their peripheral functions, these hormones act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain. In this review, the established information on the biosynthesis, release and function of NH is discussed, with particular focus on their role in brain function...
2014: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Luiz G S Branco, Renato N Soriano, Alexandre A Steiner
Deep body temperature (Tb) is kept relatively constant despite a wide range of ambient temperature variation. Nevertheless, in particular situations it is beneficial to decrease or to increase Tb in a regulated manner. Under hypoxia for instance a regulated drop in Tb (anapyrexia) is key to reduce oxygen demand of tissues when oxygen availability is diminished, leading to an increased survival rate in a number of species when experiencing low levels of inspired oxygen. On the other hand, a regulated rise in Tb (fever) assists the healing process...
October 2014: Comprehensive Physiology
Kimanh D Nguyen, Donald Mowlds, Ivan A Lopez, Seiji Hosokawa, Akira Ishiyama, Gail Ishiyama
Opioid peptides and their receptors have been localized to the inner ear of the rat and guinea pig mammalian models. The expression of mu opioid receptor (MOR) in the human and mouse cochlea is not yet known. We present MOR protein localization by immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression by in situ hybridization in the human and mouse spiral ganglia (SG) and organ of Corti. In the human most of the (SG) neurons were immunoreactive; a subset was non-immunoreactive. In situ hybridization revealed a similar labeling pattern across the neurons of the SG...
November 24, 2014: Brain Research
Je Won Jung, Jin-Hee Kim, Rita Pfeiffer, Young-Joon Ahn, Terry L Page, Hyung Wook Kwon
Olfactory sensitivity exhibits daily fluctuations. Several studies have suggested that the olfactory system in insects is modulated by both biogenic amines and neuropeptides. However, molecular and neural mechanisms underlying olfactory modulation in the periphery remain unclear since neuronal circuits regulating olfactory sensitivity have not been identified. Here, we investigated the structure and function of these signaling pathways in the peripheral olfactory system of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, utilizing in situ hybridization, qRT-PCR, and electrophysiological approaches...
2013: PloS One
Jean-Claude Le Mével, Frédéric Lancien, Nagi Mimassi, Marc Kermorgant, J Michael Conlon
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), a neuropeptide initially isolated from porcine stomach, shares sequence similarity with bombesin. GRP and its receptors are present in the brains and peripheral tissues of several species of teleost fish, but little is known about the ventilatory and cardiovascular effects of this peptide in these vertebrates. The goal of this study was to compare the central and peripheral actions of picomolar doses of trout GRP on ventilatory and cardiovascular variables in the unanesthetized rainbow trout...
2013: Biology Open
Jürgen Bohlender, Beat Pfarrer, Jaspal Patil, Jürg Nussberger, Georg N Thalmann, Hans Imboden
We describe an angiotensin (Ang) II-containing innervation of the kidney. Cryosections of rat, pig and human kidneys were investigated for the presence of Ang II-containing nerve fibers using a mouse monoclonal antibody against Ang II (4B3). Co-staining was performed with antibodies against synaptophysin, tyrosine 3-hydroxylase, and dopamine beta-hydroxylase to detect catecholaminergic efferent fibers and against calcitonin gene-related peptide to detect sensory fibers. Tagged secondary antibodies and confocal light or laser scanning microscopy were used for immunofluorescence detection...
November 2012: Histology and Histopathology
Dayna R Loyd, Michael A Henry, Kenneth M Hargreaves
Nociception, the encoding and processing of noxious environmental stimuli by sensory neurons, functions to protect an organism from bodily damage. Activation of the terminal endings of certain sensory neurons, termed nociceptors, triggers a train of impulses to neurons in the spinal cord. Signals are integrated and processed in the dorsal spinal cord and then projected to the brain where they elicit the perception of pain. A number of neuromodulators that can affect nociceptors are released in the periphery during the inflammation that follows an initial injury...
January 2013: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Sandra P Welch, Laura J Sim-Selley, Dana E Selley
Lysolipids are important mediators of cellular communication in multiple physiological processes. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a major lysolipid in many organs, including the central nervous system (CNS). This commentary discusses recent findings on the role of S1P in regulating pain perception, and highlights advances and challenges in the field. S1P interacts with multiple cellular targets, including G-protein-coupled receptors. Known S1P receptors include five types, four of which are expressed in the CNS (S1P(1,2,3,5)) where they are localized on neurons and glia...
December 15, 2012: Biochemical Pharmacology
Wei-Wei Hu, Zhong Chen
Histamine is recognized as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the brain, and it plays a major role in the pathogenic progression after cerebral ischemia. Extracellular histamine increases gradually after ischemia, and this may come from histaminergic neurons or mast cells. Histamine alleviates neuronal damage and infarct volume, and it promotes recovery of neurological function after ischemia; the H1, H2, and H3 receptors are all involved. Further studies suggest that histamine alleviates excitotoxicity, suppresses the release of glutamate and dopamine, and inhibits inflammation and glial scar formation...
April 18, 2012: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Frédéric Lancien, Marty Wong, Ali Al Arab, Nagi Mimassi, Yoshio Takei, Jean-Claude Le Mével
In the brains of teleosts, angiotensin II (ANG II), one of the main effector peptides of the renin-angiotensin system, is implicated in various physiological functions notably body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation, but nothing is known regarding the potential action of ANG II and other angiotensin derivatives on ventilation. Consequently, the goal of the present study was to determine possible ventilatory and cardiovascular effects of intracerebroventricular injection of picomole doses (5-100 pmol) of trout [Asn(1)]-ANG II, [Asp(1)]-ANG II, ANG III, ANG IV, and ANG 1-7 into the third ventricle of unanesthetized trout...
August 1, 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Jean-Claude Le Mével, Frédéric Lancien, Nagi Mimassi, Marc Kermorgant, J Michael Conlon
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptors are widely distributed in the tissues of teleost fish, including the brain, but little is known about the ventilatory and cardiovascular effects of the peptide in these vertebrates. The present study was undertaken to compare the central and peripheral actions of graded doses (5-50 pmol) of trout CGRP on ventilatory and cardiovascular variables in unanesthetized rainbow trout. Compared with vehicle, intracerebroventricular injection of CGRP significantly elevated the ventilation frequency (f(V)) and the ventilation amplitude (V(AMP)) and, consequently, the total ventilation (V(TOT))...
June 1, 2012: Journal of Experimental Biology
P Navarra, M Vairano, A Costa, A Grossman
There is widespread evidence in favour of nitric oxide (NO) acting as a gaseous neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, diffusing from its cells of origin and affecting surrounding neuronal tissue in evanescent three-dimensional waves. This is also true of the hypothalamus, where amongst other activities NO inhibits stimulation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin release by inflammatory stressors, effects thought to be mediated by binding with soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). Carbon monoxide is being increasingly recognised as another gaseous neuromodulator, but with principal effects on other hemoproteins such as cyclo-oxygenase, and a distinctly different profile of localisation...
March 2001: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
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