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Douglas Heaven
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Nature
Péter L Juhász, József Stéger, Dániel Kondor, Gábor Vattay
Bitcoin is a digital currency and electronic payment system operating over a peer-to-peer network on the Internet. One of its most important properties is the high level of anonymity it provides for its users. The users are identified by their Bitcoin addresses, which are random strings in the public records of transactions, the blockchain. When a user initiates a Bitcoin transaction, his Bitcoin client program relays messages to other clients through the Bitcoin network. Monitoring the propagation of these messages and analyzing them carefully reveal hidden relations...
2018: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Nature
Yuan Wu, Xiangxu Chen, Jiajun Shi, Kejie Ni, Liping Qian, Liang Huang, Kuan Zhang
Blockchain has emerged as a decentralized and trustable ledger for recording and storing digital transactions. The mining process of Blockchain, however, incurs a heavy computational workload for miners to solve the proof-of-work puzzle (i.e., a series of the hashing computation), which is prohibitive from the perspective of the mobile terminals (MTs). The advanced multi-access mobile edge computing (MEC), which enables the MTs to offload part of the computational workloads (for solving the proof-of-work) to the nearby edge-servers (ESs), provides a promising approach to address this issue...
October 15, 2018: Sensors
Leif-Nissen Lundbæk, Daniel Janes Beutel, Michael Huth, Stephen Jackson, Laurence Kirk, Robert Steiner
We adjust the Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism used in Bitcoin and Ethereum so that we can build on its strength while also addressing, in part, some of its perceived weaknesses. Notably, our work is motivated by the high energy consumption for mining PoW, and we want to restrict the use of PoW to a configurable, expected size of nodes, as a function of the local blockchain state. The approach we develop for this rests on three pillars: (i) Proof of Kernel Work (PoKW), a means of dynamically reducing the set of nodes that can participate in the solving of PoW puzzles such that an adversary cannot increase his attack surface because of such a reduction; (ii) Practical Adaptation of Existing Technology , a realization of this PoW reduction through an adaptation of existing blockchain and enterprise technology stacks; and (iii) Machine Learning for Adaptive System Resiliency , the use of techniques from artificial intelligence to make our approach adaptive to system, network and attack dynamics...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
D McGinn, D McIlwraith, Y Guo
Bitcoin is the first implementation of a technology that has become known as a 'public permissionless' blockchain. Such systems allow public read/write access to an append-only blockchain database without the need for any mediating central authority. Instead, they guarantee access, security and protocol conformity through an elegant combination of cryptographic assurances and game theoretic economic incentives. Not until the advent of the Bitcoin blockchain has such a trusted, transparent, comprehensive and granular dataset of digital economic behaviours been available for public network analysis...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Conrad Burchert, Christian Decker, Roger Wattenhofer
The Bitcoin network has scalability problems. To increase its transaction rate and speed, micropayment channel networks have been proposed; however, these require to lock funds into specific channels. Moreover, the available space in the blockchain does not allow scaling to a worldwide payment system. We propose a new layer that sits in between the blockchain and the payment channels. The new layer addresses the scalability problem by enabling trustless off-blockchain channel funding. It consists of shared accounts of groups of nodes that flexibly create one-to-one channels for the payment network...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Xuanwu Yue, Xinhuan Shu, Xinyu Zhu, Xinnan Du, Zheqing Yu, Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Siyuan Liu
The emerging prosperity of cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, has come into the spotlight during the past few years. Cryptocurrency exchanges, which act as the gateway to this world, now play a dominant role in the circulation of Bitcoin. Thus, delving into the analysis of the transaction patterns of exchanges can shed light on the evolution and trends in the Bitcoin market, and participants can gain hints for identifying credible exchanges as well. Not only Bitcoin practitioners but also researchers in the financial domains are interested in the business intelligence behind the curtain...
August 20, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Jiaqi Liang, Linjing Li, Daniel Zeng
Cryptocurrency is a well-developed blockchain technology application that is currently a heated topic throughout the world. The public availability of transaction histories offers an opportunity to analyze and compare different cryptocurrencies. In this paper, we present a dynamic network analysis of three representative blockchain-based cryptocurrencies: Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Namecoin. By analyzing the accumulated network growth, we find that, unlike most other networks, these cryptocurrency networks do not always densify over time, and they are changing all the time with relatively low node and edge repetition ratios...
2018: PloS One
Reney A Henderson, Michael A Mazzeffi, Kenichi A Tanaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
I Stewart, D Ilie, A Zamyatin, S Werner, M F Torshizi, W J Knottenbelt
Quantum computers are expected to have a dramatic impact on numerous fields due to their anticipated ability to solve classes of mathematical problems much more efficiently than their classical counterparts. This particularly applies to domains involving integer factorization and discrete logarithms, such as public key cryptography. In this paper, we consider the threats a quantum-capable adversary could impose on Bitcoin, which currently uses the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) to sign transactions...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Stephen Armstrong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Amy Maxmen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Nature
Spyros Foteinis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Nature
Mark D Iannettoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Abeer ElBahrawy, Laura Alessandretti, Anne Kandler, Romualdo Pastor-Satorras, Andrea Baronchelli
The cryptocurrency market surpassed the barrier of $100 billion market capitalization in June 2017, after months of steady growth. Despite its increasing relevance in the financial world, a comprehensive analysis of the whole system is still lacking, as most studies have focused exclusively on the behaviour of one (Bitcoin) or few cryptocurrencies. Here, we consider the history of the entire market and analyse the behaviour of 1469 cryptocurrencies introduced between April 2013 and May 2017. We reveal that, while new cryptocurrencies appear and disappear continuously and their market capitalization is increasing (super-)exponentially, several statistical properties of the market have been stable for years...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
John Pavlus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Scientific American
Tsung-Ting Kuo, Hyeon-Eui Kim, Lucila Ohno-Machado
Objectives: To introduce blockchain technologies, including their benefits, pitfalls, and the latest applications, to the biomedical and health care domains. Target Audience: Biomedical and health care informatics researchers who would like to learn about blockchain technologies and their applications in the biomedical/health care domains. Scope: The covered topics include: (1) introduction to the famous Bitcoin crypto-currency and the underlying blockchain technology; (2) features of blockchain; (3) review of alternative blockchain technologies; (4) emerging nonfinancial distributed ledger technologies and applications; (5) benefits of blockchain for biomedical/health care applications when compared to traditional distributed databases; (6) overview of the latest biomedical/health care applications of blockchain technologies; and (7) discussion of the potential challenges and proposed solutions of adopting blockchain technologies in biomedical/health care domains...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Matthew B Hoy
The blockchain is a relatively new technology used to verify and store transaction records for online cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. The system is redundant and distributed, making it difficult for transactions to be rescinded, duplicated, or faked. Beyond online currencies, the blockchain has potential uses in health care, education, and many other fields. This column will briefly describe what the blockchain is and how it is being used, potential future uses that may be of interest to librarians and medical practitioners, and some of the problems with the system...
July 2017: Medical Reference Services Quarterly
Zac Zimmer
Bitcoin, the digital cryptocurrency, has been celebrated as the future of money on the Internet. Although Bitcoin does present several forward-looking innovations, it also integrates a very old concept into its digital architecture: the mining of precious metals. Even though Bitcoin explicitly invokes mining as a metaphor and gold as an example for understanding the cryptocurrency, there has been little critical work on the connections between Bitcoin and previous metalist currency regimes. The following essay proposes a historical comparison with colonial South American silver mining and the global currency regime based on the New World silver peso it created as a way to interrogate Bitcoin...
2017: Technology and Culture
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