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Dual energy computed tomography

Brent van der Heyden, Patrick Wohlfahrt, Daniëlle B P Eekers, Christian Richter, Karin Terhaag, Esther G C Troost, Frank Verhaegen
In radiotherapy, computed tomography (CT) datasets are mostly used for radiation treatment planning to achieve a high-conformal tumor coverage while optimally sparing healthy tissue surrounding the tumor, referred to as organs-at-risk (OARs). Based on CT scan and/or magnetic resonance images, OARs have to be manually delineated by clinicians, which is one of the most time-consuming tasks in the clinical workflow. Recent multi-atlas (MA) or deep-learning (DL) based methods aim to improve the clinical routine by an automatic segmentation of OARs on a CT dataset...
March 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Maciej Guziński, Konrad Kubicki, Łukasz Waszczuk, Monika Morawska-Kochman, Andrzej Kochman, Marek Sąsiadek
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assess potential endoprosthesis loosening in patients after revision total hip arthroplasty, based on monochromatic dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) images obtained with and without metal artifact reduction software (MARS) and comparison with the clinical examination and hip function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive patients underwent DECT examinations. Two monochromatic data sets were generated: with MARS (75-keV MARS) and without MARS (140-keV non-MARS) and evaluated for signs of loosening, using a dedicated radiological score...
February 27, 2019: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Artor Niccoli Asabella, Corinna Altini, Anna G Nappi, Valentina Lavelli, Cristina Ferrari, Andrea Marzullo, Alessandra Loiodice, Giuseppe Rubini
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the best known haemoglobinopathy, caused by a mutation substituting valina for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta-globin chain of adult hemoglobin A, resulting in hemoglobin S (HbS). The homozygous HbS disease (HbSS), an autosomal recessive disorder, is the most common form and the Mediterranean area, along with sub-Saharian African and India, have the highest prevalence (1%-15%). In particular, Sicily with a prevalence of 2%-5%, is among the most interested regions. However, migratory flows have led to a wider diffusion of the disease no longer confined to endemic areas...
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Jesús Pérez-Rey, Raúl Roncero-Martín, Sergio Rico-Martín, Purificación Rey-Sánchez, Juan D Pedrera-Zamorano, María Pedrera-Canal, Fidel López-Espuela, Jesús M Lavado García
The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with an improvement in health and an increase in longevity. Certain components of a MD can play a role in the prevention of osteoporosis and/or hip fracture. We investigated the association between the degree of adherence to a MD and bone mineral density (BMD) measured in several bone areas in a population of Spanish premenopausal women. We analyzed 442 premenopausal women aged 42.73 ± 6.67 years. Bone measurements were obtained using quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) for the phalanx, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the lumbar spine, Ward's triangle, trochanter, and hip, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) for the non-dominant distal forearm...
March 5, 2019: Nutrients
Anton Jansson, Lars Pejryd
In this work, aluminium-carbon-fibre reinforced plastic joints have been studied. Three types of samples were designed as double lap joints where the aluminium inserts were fabricated using both classical methods (milling) and additive manufacturing. Two versions of the joint were fabricated using additive manufacturing, one flat, and the other with small teeth designed to hook into the carbon-fibre plies. The joints were characterised using a non-linear, dual-energy computed tomography method to evaluate the bond between the composite and the metal inserts...
February 2019: Heliyon
Michael P Whyte, William H McAlister, Steven Mumm, Andrew J Bierhals
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn-error-of-metabolism characterized enzymatically by insufficient activity of the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) and caused by either mono- or bi-allelic loss-of-function mutation(s) of the gene ALPL that encodes this cell surface phosphomonoester phosphohydrolase. In HPP, the natural substrates of TNSALP accumulate extracellularly and include inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a potent inhibitor of biomineralization. This PPi excess leads to rickets or osteomalacia in all but the most mild "odonto" form of the disease...
February 27, 2019: Bone
Jessica Mumford, Michael Kohn, Julie Briody, Jane Miskovic-Wheatley, Sloane Madden, Simon Clarke, Andrew Biggin, Aaron Schindeler, Craig Munns
PURPOSE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic and life-threatening eating disorder that can have a considerable negative impact on the growing skeleton. We hypothesized that the long-term impact on bone health may persist even after normalization of body weight. METHODS: 41 females (mean age 21.2 ± 2.9 years) with a history of adolescent-onset AN attended a follow-up bone health assessment at 5 years (T5, n = 28) or 10 years (T10, n = 13) after their first AN-related hospital admission...
March 2019: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Seong Won Jang, Bo Mi Chung, Wan Tae Kim, Jea Ryung Gil
BACKGROUND: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) virtual non-calcium (VNCa) imaging can demonstrate bone marrow edema. PURPOSE: To evaluate the added value of DECT VNCa imaging for detection of non-displaced fractures on hip CT and to determine the attenuation value cut-off to identify bone marrow edema around fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified 35 patients who underwent DECT due to suspicion of a non-displaced fracture of the proximal femur or pelvic bone...
February 28, 2019: Acta Radiologica
Christine M Friedenreich, Yibing Ruan, Aalo Duha, Kerry S Courneya
Background: Exercise interventions can result in weight loss, which is associated with reductions in disease risk. It is unknown how the volume of exercise prescribed in a one-time exercise intervention impacts long-term body fatness. We compared 24-month body fat changes among postmenopausal women previously prescribed 300 versus 150 minutes/week of exercise in a year-long exercise intervention trial. Methods: The Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta (BETA) was a two-centred randomized controlled trial in Alberta, Canada...
2019: Journal of Obesity
Lindsay T Fourman, Emma M Kileel, Jane Hubbard, Tara Holmes, Ellen J Anderson, Sara E Looby, Kathleen V Fitch, Meghan N Feldpausch, Martin Torriani, Janet Lo, Takara L Stanley, Steven K Grinspoon
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individuals with HIV are susceptible to visceral fat accumulation, which confers an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. Advanced software to ascertain visceral fat content from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has not been validated among this population. We sought to compare DXA with computed tomography (CT) in the measurement of visceral fat cross-sectional area (VAT) in HIV and non-HIV using Bland-Altman analyses. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data were combined from five previously conducted studies of individuals with HIV (n = 313) and controls without HIV (n = 144) in which paired DXA and CT scans were available...
February 25, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
Chuang-Bo Yang, Nan Yu, Yong-Jun Jian, Yong Yu, Hai-Feng Duan, Xi-Rong Zhang, Guang-Ming Ma, Youmin Guo, Xiaoyi Duan
PURPOSE: To investigate the value of dual-energy spectral computed tomography (CT) imaging in the differential diagnosis of small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) from primary small intestinal lymphoma (PSIL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the images of 27 SBA cases and 15 PSIL cases. These patients underwent spectral CT imaging in the arterial phase (AP) and venous phase (VP). CT attenuation values of tumors at different energy levels were measured to generate spectral attenuation curve and to calculate curve slope (λHU )...
February 22, 2019: Academic Radiology
Guangming Ma, Yuequn Dou, Shan Dang, Nan Yu, Yanbing Guo, Chuangbo Yang, Shuanhong Lu, Dong Han, Chenwang Jin
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of monoenergetic images of different energy levels in spectral computed tomography (CT) on the accuracy of computer aided detection (CAD) for pulmonary embolism (PE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT images of 20 PE patients who underwent spectral CT pulmonary angiography were retrospectively analyzed. Nine sets of monochromatic images from 40 to 80 keV at 5 keV interval were reconstructed and then independently analyzed for detecting PE using a commercially available CAD software...
February 22, 2019: Academic Radiology
Hyungjin Kim, Jin Mo Goo, Yoshiharu Ohno, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Eric A Hoffman, James C Gee, Edwin J R van Beek
Quantitative features obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans are being explored for clinical applications. Various classes of quantitative features exist for chest CT including radiomics features, emphysema measurements, lung nodule volumetric measurements, dual energy quantification, and perfusion parameters. A number of research articles have shown promise in diagnosis and prognosis prediction of oncologic patients or those with diffuse lung diseases using these feature classes. Nevertheless, a prerequisite for the quantification is the evaluation of variation in measurements in terms of repeatability and reproducibility, which are distinct aspects of precision but are often not separable from each other...
March 2019: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Ching-Sheng Hsu, Jia-Horng Kao
INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, which is commonly associated with various chronic diseases, including chronic liver diseases. Growing lines of evidence indicate that sarcopenia not only correlates with the clinical outcomes and survival of patients undergoing liver transplant, but also serves as a prognostic factor for candidates of liver transplantation and patients with hepatocellular carcinoma...
December 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
H Kopf, W Schima, S Meng
CLINICAL ISSUE: Due to the high prevalence of clinically suspected cholecystitis or cholecystolithiasis the gallbladder is one of the organs examined the most by imaging. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: In most clinical settings ultrasound is the primary imaging method because of its wide availability, speed and superior spatial resolution. In cases of ambiguous findings or potential complications computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used...
February 21, 2019: Der Radiologe
R Wakolbinger, C Muschitz, G Scheriau, G Bodlaj, R Kocijan, X Feichtinger, J E Schanda, J Haschka, H Resch, P Pietschmann
Liver cirrhosis leads to bone loss. To date, information on bone quality (three-dimensional microarchitecture) and, thus, bone strength is scarce. We observed decreased bone quality at both assessed sites, independent of disease severity. Therefore, all patients should undergo early-stage screening for osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: Recent studies found low bone mineral density in cirrhosis, but data on bone microstructure are scarce. This study assessed weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bones in patients with cirrhosis and healthy controls...
February 20, 2019: Osteoporosis International
Iara Inácio Botega, Ariane Zamarioli, Patrícia Madalena San Gregório Guedes, Raquel Assed Bezerra da Silva, João Paulo Mardegan Issa, Mariana Maloste Butezloff, Yara Terezinha Corrêa Silva Sousa, João Paulo Bianchi Ximenez, José Batista Volpon
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of food restriction on fracture healing in growing rats. METHODS: Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: (1) Control and (2) Dietary restriction. After weaning the dietary restricted animals were fed ad libitum for 42 days with 50% of the standard chow ingested by the control group. Subsequently, the animals underwent bone fracture at the diaphysis of the right femur, followed by surgical stabilization of bone fragments...
February 14, 2019: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Andrew Murphy, Jeffrey Cheng, Jit Pratap, Renae Redman, John Coucher
INTRODUCTION: Optimal opacification of the pulmonary vasculature is a fundamental factor of a diagnostic quality computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA). This retrospective study examined the feasibility of utilising a noise-optimised monoenergetic reconstruction of the dual-energy computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (DE-CTPA) as an additional protocol to increase vessel opacification. METHOD: The study involved a retrospective analysis of 129 patients, 69 males (average age 58 years), 60 females (average age 56 years) who underwent a DE-CTPA at a tertiary referral hospital...
March 2019: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
Ho Sung Kim, Eun Sun Jeong, Myung Hwa Yang, Seoung-Oh Yang
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has become the most common method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) of small animals in metabolic bone disease research, and errors should be minimized in all procedures involved in research studies in order to increase the accuracy of the study results. DXA is simpler and rapid compared to micro-computed tomography for quantitative analysis of change in trabecular bone of test subject. In human research, measuring BMD is widely used; postoperative evaluation on orthopedic surgery, evaluation of osteoporosis medication in menopause and many other areas of study...
September 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Issam Al-Najami, Hussam Mahmoud Sheta, Gunnar Baatrup
INTRODUCTION: To assess the performance of Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) in the differentiation between benign and malignant tumors in the rectum. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We enrolled 8 subjects with rectal tumors suspected to be an early rectal cancer during colonoscopy. All subjects underwent Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Endorectal Ultrasound (ERUS) for staging. Furthermore, all subjects underwent fast switching of tube voltage between 80 and 140 kVp DECT of the pelvis...
February 15, 2019: Acta Oncologica
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