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Valentin A Semenov, Dmitry O Samultsev, Leonid B Krivdin
A systematic DFT study of the accuracy factors (functionals, basis sets, solvent effects) for the computation of 15 N NMR chemical shifts has been performed in the series of condensed nitrogen containing heterocycles. The behavior of the most representative functionals was examined based on the benchmark calculations of 15 N NMR chemical shifts in the reference set of compounds. It was found that the best agreement with experiment was achieved with OLYP functional in combination with aug-pcS-3(N)//pc-2 locally dense basis set scheme providing MAE of 5...
February 15, 2019: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Adam Gyedu, Micah Katz, Kwabena Agbedinu, Peter Donkor, Charles Mock
BACKGROUD: Groin hernia repairs (GHR), though classified as clean surgeries, are associated with varying rates of surgical site infections. We assessed the practices of surgeons in Ghana regarding antibiotic use for GHR in comparison to evidence-based international guidelines (EBIG). METHODS: We interviewed surgeons trained by the Ghana College of Physicians and Surgeons (GCPS), from inception (2003) through 2016, about their use of antibiotics for GHR. We defined the outcome variable of consistently following EBIG in antibiotics use for GHR...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Kassiani Theodoraki, Panagiota Papacharalampous, Athanasia Tsaroucha, Antonios Vezakis, Eriphilli Argyra
BACKGROUND: This prospective double-blind randomized study aimed at evaluating the short- and long-term postoperative analgesic efficacy of the ultrasound-guided tranversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in inguinal hernia repair under general anesthesia. METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair were allocated to TAP block with either ropivacaine 0.75% 20 mL or placebo 20 mL. Postoperatively, they had access to a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device administering 1 mg doses of morphine as rescue analgesia...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Surgery
Naghmeh Mahmoodian, Anna Schaufler, Ali Pashazadeh, Axel Boese, Michael Friebe, Alfredo Illanes
Artery perforation during a vascular catheterization procedure is a potentially life threatening event. It is of particular importance for the surgeons to be aware of hidden or non-obvious events. To minimize the impact it is crucial for the surgeon to detect such a perforation very early. We propose a novel approach to identify perforations based on the acquisition and analysis of audio signals on the outside proximal end of a guide wire. The signals were acquired using a stethoscope equipped with a microphone and attached to the proximal end of the guide wire via a 3D printed adapter...
February 7, 2019: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Sinéad Lydon, Cathriona Greally, Omar Tujjar, Kiran Reddy, Kathryn Lambe, Caoimhe Madden, Chloe Walsh, Susan Fox, Paul O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Although the hand hygiene (HH) procedure is simple, the related behaviour is complex and is not readily understood, explained, or changed. There is a need for practical tools to provide data that can guide healthcare managers and practitioners not only on the 'what' (the standards that must be met), but also the 'how' (guidance on how to achieve the standards). AIM: To develop a valid questionnaire to evaluate attitudes to the factors that influence engagement in HH behaviour that can be readily completed, administered, and analysed by healthcare professionals to identify appropriate intervention strategies...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Jake P Newsom, Karin A Payne, Melissa D Krebs
Biopolymer microgels are emerging as a versatile tool for aiding in the regeneration of damaged tissues due to their biocompatible nature, tunable microporous structure, ability to encapsulate bioactive factors, and tailorable properties such as stiffness and composition. These properties of microgels, along with their injectability, have allowed for their utilization in a multitude of different tissue engineering applications. Controlled release of growth factors, antibodies, and other bioactive factors from microgels have demonstrated their capabilities as transporters for essential bioactive molecules necessary for guiding tissue reconstruction...
February 12, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Judith Schmitz, Julian Packheiser, Tim Birnkraut, Nina-Alisa Hinz, Patrick Friedrich, Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
Handedness is the most investigated form of functional hemispheric asymmetries, but its neural correlates remain unclear. Functional imaging studies suggest differences between left- and right-handers in ipsilateral activation during unilateral hand movements, but do not allow for conclusions on the temporal dimension. In the Tapley and Bryden task, subjects have to draw as many dots as possible on a paper within 20 seconds using either the left or the right hand. We adapted the task for use during EEG in 36 left-and 36 right-handers...
February 12, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Zhihua Gong, Qingzhu Jia, Junying Chen, Xinwei Diao, Jianbao Gao, Xinxin Wang, Bo Zhu
INTRODUCTION: Whether the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors declines with senescence remains controversial for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Responsiveness to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy is thought to rely on neoantigen exposure and immune elements in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we explored the features of the tumor immune microenvironment in elderly patients with treatment-naïve LUAD. METHODS: Transcriptome profiles and clinical characteristics of patients with LUAD were retrieved from TCGA as a discovery cohort...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Katsuya Nagaoka, Xuewei Bai, Kosuke Ogawa, Xiaoqun Dong, Songhua Zhang, Yanmei Zhou, Rolf I Carlson, Zhi-Gang Jiang, Steve Fuller, Michael S Lebowitz, Hossein Ghanbari, Jack R Wands
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an extremely aggressive malignancy with very limited treatment options. Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are promising cytotoxic agents capable of highly selective delivery. Aspartate-β-hydroxylase (ASPH) is a type II transmembrane protein highly expressed in PDACs (97.1%) but not normal pancreas. We investigated anti-tumor effects of an ADC guided by a human monoclonal antibody (SNS-622) against ASPH in human PDAC cell lines and derived subcutaneous (s.c.) xenograft as well as a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) murine model with spontaneous pulmonary metastasis...
February 12, 2019: Cancer Letters
Roberta E Redfern, Kevin Fleming, Rebekah L March, Nathan Bobulski, Michael Kuehne, John T Chen, Michael Moront
BACKGROUND: Transfusion of allogenic blood products is associated with significant morbidity and increased risk of mortality. Thrombelastography (TEG) to direct transfusion management during and immediately following cardiothoracic surgery reduced blood product usage in our institution. The goal of this study was to quantify the impact of TEG on postoperative outcomes. METHODS: All patients who underwent cardiac surgery before and after implementation of TEG were retrospectively analyzed...
February 12, 2019: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Jordan T Noe, Robert A Mitchell
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a mitochondrial metabolic hub that coordinates the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into carbon dioxide and ATP. At specific points in the cycle, the diversion, import, or export of TCA metabolites allows for the dynamic regulation of a variety of tissue and/or cell-specific phenotypic processes. Recent studies have identified that a number of TCA metabolites are important in controlling monocyte/macrophage phenotypes and effector functions while specific macrophage activation or polarization states functionally determine the relative utilization of each...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Keren Cohen, Liat Leibovich, Rayna Markin, Sigal Zilcha-Mano
AIM: Despite research suggesting increased anxiety and depressive symptoms after a perinatal loss and during future pregnancies, little knowledge exists to guide clinicians treating pregnant women after perinatal loss. This case study explores processes that facilitated therapeutic change for a pregnant patient with major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder after perinatal losses. METHOD: The study integrated quantitative and narrative analyses in a single case derived from the pilot phase of a randomized controlled trial on supportive-expressive therapy for MDD...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Catherine G Russell, Alan Russell
Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in many countries. There is consensus that both biological (especially genetic) and environmental (including psychosocial) factors contribute to weight gain and obesity in childhood. Research has identified extensive risk or predictive factors for childhood obesity from both of these domains. There is less consensus about the developmental processes or pathways showing how these risk factors lead to overweigh/obesity (OW/OB) in childhood. We outline a biopsychosocial process model of the development of OW/OB in childhood...
February 15, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
C Herion, L Egger, R Greif, C Violato
AIM: To investigate whether the CanMEDS-based International Federation of Nurse Anesthetists' Standards could adequately define the scope of practice and reliably be used to train and evaluate Swiss nurse anesthetists (NAs). BACKGROUND: Although nurse anesthetists represent a majority of the global workforce in anesthesia, policies that define the scope of practice are frequently non-existent. In low- and middle-income countries, the lack of anesthesia providers with adequate training is a major challenge...
February 15, 2019: International Nursing Review
Michelle A Wood-Trageser, Andrew J Lesniak, Anthony J Demetris
INTRODUCTION: Traditional histopathological allograft biopsy evaluation provides, within hours, diagnoses, prognostic information, and mechanistic insights into disease processes. However, proponents of an array of alternative monitoring platforms, broadly classified as "invasive" or "noninvasive" depending on whether allograft tissue is needed, question the value proposition of tissue histopathology. The authors explore the pros and cons of current analytical methods relative to the value of traditional and next generation histopathological evaluation of tissue biopsies...
February 6, 2019: Transplantation
Elizabeth Fearon, Andrew Phillips, Sibongile Mtetwa, Sungai T Chabata, Phillis Mushati, Valentina Cambiano, Joanna Busza, Sue Napierala, Bernadette Hensen, Stefan Baral, Sharon S Weir, Brian Rice, Frances M Cowan, James R Hargreaves
BACKGROUND: 'HIV prevention cascades' have been proposed to support programmes by identifying gaps in demand for, access to and capability to adhere to HIV prevention tools, but there are few empirical examples to guide development. We apply a prevention cascade framework to examine prevention coverage and factors associated with condoms and/or PrEP adherence among female sex workers (FSW). SETTING: Seven sites across Zimbabwe. METHODS: Seven respondent-driven sampling (RDS) surveys from the intervention sites of a pragmatic cluster-randomised trial in Zimbabwe in 2016 were analysed, and 611/1439 women testing HIV-negative included...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
David A Edwards, Traci L Hedrick, Jennifer Jayaram, Charles Argoff, Padma Gulur, Stefan D Holubar, Tong J Gan, Michael G Mythen, Timothy E Miller, Andrew D Shaw, Julie K M Thacker, Matthew D McEvoy
Enhanced recovery pathways have quickly become part of the standard of care for patients undergoing elective surgery, especially in North America and Europe. One of the central tenets of this multidisciplinary approach is the use of multimodal analgesia with opioid-sparing and even opioid-free anesthesia and analgesia. However, the current state is a historically high use of opioids for both appropriate and inappropriate reasons, and patients with chronic opioid use before their surgery represent a common, often difficult-to-manage population for the enhanced recovery providers and health care team at large...
February 12, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
V Guadilla, A Algora, J L Tain, M Estienne, M Fallot, A A Sonzogni, J Agramunt, J Äystö, J A Briz, A Cucoanes, T Eronen, L M Fraile, E Ganioğlu, W Gelletly, D Gorelov, J Hakala, A Jokinen, D Jordan, A Kankainen, V Kolhinen, J Koponen, M Lebois, L Le Meur, T Martinez, M Monserrate, A Montaner-Pizá, I Moore, E Nácher, S E A Orrigo, H Penttilä, I Pohjalainen, A Porta, J Reinikainen, M Reponen, S Rinta-Antila, B Rubio, K Rytkönen, T Shiba, V Sonnenschein, E Valencia, V Vedia, A Voss, J N Wilson, A-A Zakari-Issoufou
Even mass neutron-rich niobium isotopes are among the principal contributors to the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum. They are also among the most challenging to measure due to the refractory nature of niobium, and because they exhibit isomeric states lying very close in energy. The β-intensity distributions of ^{100gs,100m}Nb and ^{102gs,102m}Nb β decays have been determined using the total absorption γ-ray spectroscopy technique. The measurements were performed at the upgraded Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line facility at the University of Jyväskylä...
February 1, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Sarah Guerin, Joseph O'Donnell, Ehtsham U Haq, Cian McKeown, Christophe Silien, Fernando M F Rhen, Tewfik Soulimane, Syed A M Tofail, Damien Thompson
Single crystal L-amino acids can exhibit technologically useful piezoelectric and nonlinear optical properties. Here we predict, using density functional theory, the piezoelectric charge and strain and voltage tensors of the racemic amino acid DL alanine, and use the modeling data to guide the first macroscopic and nanoscopic piezoelectric measurements on DL-alanine single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates. We demonstrate voltage generation of up to 0.8 V from DL-alanine crystal films under simple manual compression, twice as high as other amino acid crystals...
February 1, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Linda A Cernichiaro-Espinosa, Nimesh A Patel, Mislen S Bauer, Catherin I Negron, Brenda Fallas, Alexander Pogrebniak, Audina M Berrocal
No consensus exists for the treatment of retinopathy in incontinentia pigmenti (IP). Vascular ischemia leads to tractional retinal detachments if untreated. Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (FA) is used to follow the vascular status of the retina. A 13-week-old female with IP presented with bilateral retinal vascular occlusions in both eyes. Ultra-widefield FA showed reperfusion after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) and angiography-guided laser to the avascular retina. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment reduces neovascularization and allows for growth of retinal vessels...
February 1, 2019: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
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