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xylem taper

Valentin Couvreur, Glenn Ledder, Stefano Manzoni, Danielle A Way, Erik B Muller, Sabrina E Russo
Trees grow by vertically extending their stems, so accurate stem hydraulic models are fundamental to understanding the hydraulic challenges faced by tall trees. Using a literature survey, we showed that many tree species exhibit continuous vertical variation in hydraulic traits. To examine the effects of this variation on hydraulic function, we developed a spatially explicit, analytical water transport model for stems. Our model allows Huber ratio, stem-saturated conductivity, pressure at 50% loss of conductivity, leaf area, and transpiration rate to vary continuously along the hydraulic path...
August 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
A L Filartiga, R C Vieira, A Mantovani
In this work, we analyse morpho-physiological modifications presented during the allomorphic growth of the aroid vine Rhodospatha oblongata Poepp throughout its ascent into the forest canopy. We test the hypothesis that morphological modifications in the root, shoot and leaf are followed by a gradual improvement of the xylem vascular system in order to increase water acquisition and transport as body size increases. The characterisation of these structural modifications was based on 30-35 specimens divided into six size classes...
January 2014: Plant Biology
Bernhard Schuldt, Christoph Leuschner, Nicolai Brock, Viviana Horna
It is generally assumed that the largest vessels are occurring in the roots and that vessel diameters and the related hydraulic conductance in the xylem are decreasing acropetally from roots to leaves. With this study in five tree species of a perhumid tropical rainforest in Sulawesi (Indonesia), we searched for patterns in hydraulic architecture and axial conductivity along the flow path from small-diameter roots through strong roots and the trunk to distal sun-canopy twigs. Wood density differed by not more than 10% across the different flow path positions in a species, and branch and stem wood density were closely related in three of the five species...
February 2013: Tree Physiology
Mark E Olson, Julieta A Rosell
Variation in angiosperm vessel diameter is of major functional significance. In the light of recent models predicting optimal vessel taper given resistance imposed by conductive path length, we tested the prediction that plant size should predict vessel diameter, with dryland plants having narrower vessels for their stem sizes. We assembled a comparative dataset including vessel and stem diameter measurements from 237 species from over 40 angiosperm orders across a wide range of habits and habitats. Stem diameter predicted vessel diameter across self-supporting plants (slope 0...
March 2013: New Phytologist
Daniele Bettiati, Giai Petit, Tommaso Anfodillo
In plants, water flows from roots to leaves through a complex network of xylem conduits. The xylem architecture is characterized by the conduit enlargement towards the stem base and the multiplication of conduits near the apices of lateral branches. The xylem architecture of a small ash tree was analysed by measuring the vessel hydraulic diameter (Dh) and number (N) at different heights along the stem and branches. Along the stem, Dh and N increased from the apex to the point of crown insertion. Below, Dh and N decreased and remained constant, respectively...
February 2012: Tree Physiology
Yubing Liu, Xinrong Li, Meiling Liu, Bo Cao, Huijuan Tan, Jin Wang, Xiaojun Li
The adaptational characteristics due to long-term adaptation in the natural habitats of common reed (Phragmites communis Trin.) contrasted considerably among three different ecotypes: dune reed (DR), Gobi salt reed (GSR) and swamp reed (SR). The micromorphologies of leaf adaxial surfaces showed tapered setae and a non-smooth surface in DR, compound papillose structures with wax and hairs in GSR, but only papillose structures for the smooth surface of SR. Anatomical analysis showed that DR and GSR had higher bundle-sheath cell areas and a lower xylem/phloem ratio than SR...
February 2012: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Giai Petit, Tommaso Anfodillo
A recent paper by Meinzer et al. (Oecologia, 2010, 164:287-296) has reviewed the topic of conflicts between hydraulic efficiency and safety in vascular plants. The authors raised the question that reliable interpretations of results on the mechanisms behind this trade-off requires an integrated approach that considers the variations in hydraulic traits throughout the entire plant and between different individuals, species and environments. Nonetheless, the literature review was only partial. Here, we discuss that an important feature of the whole tree xylem architecture, conduit tapering, is one of traits that must be considered when planning analyses of hydraulic properties of plants and interpreting the results...
February 2011: Oecologia
V M Savage, L P Bentley, B J Enquist, J S Sperry, D D Smith, P B Reich, E I von Allmen
Plant vascular networks are central to botanical form, function, and diversity. Here, we develop a theory for plant network scaling that is based on optimal space filling by the vascular system along with trade-offs between hydraulic safety and efficiency. Including these evolutionary drivers leads to predictions for sap flow, the taper of the radii of xylem conduits from trunk to terminal twig, and how the frequency of xylem conduits varies with conduit radius. To test our predictions, we use comprehensive empirical measurements of maple, oak, and pine trees and complementary literature data that we obtained for a wide range of tree species...
December 28, 2010: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Anna Lintunen, Tuomo Kalliokoski
We studied the effect of tree architecture on xylem anatomy in three Betula pendula Roth., three Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and three Pinus sylvestris (L.) trees (mean age 35 years). First, the analysis of conduit anatomy in different tree parts showed that conduits tapered and their frequency increased from roots (≥ 2 mm) to stem, from stem to branches and further to leaf petioles in B. pendula. Conduit anatomy in lateral and main roots, as well as lateral and main branches, significantly differed from each other in all the studied species...
November 2010: Tree Physiology
I Kasik, J Mrazek, T Martan, M Pospisilova, O Podrazky, V Matejec, K Hoyerova, M Kaminek
Determining the pH values of microscopic plant samples may help to explain complex processes in plants, so it is an area of interest to botanists. Fiber-optic probes with small dimensions can be used for this purpose. This paper deals with the fiber-optic detection of the pH values of droplets of plant xylem exudate based on ratiometric fluorescence intensity measurements with an internal reference. For this purpose, novel V-taper sensing probes with a minimum diameter of around 8 μm were prepared that enable the delivery of fluorescence signal from the detection site on the taper tip to the detector...
November 2010: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Giai Petit, Sebastian Pfautsch, Tommaso Anfodillo, Mark A Adams
*Recent research suggests that increasing conduit tapering progressively reduces hydraulic constraints caused by tree height. Here, we tested this hypothesis using the tallest hardwood species, Eucalyptus regnans. *Vertical profiles of conduit dimensions and vessel density were measured for three mature trees of height 47, 51 and 63 m. *Mean hydraulic diameter (Dh) increased rapidly from the tree apex to the point of crown insertion, with the greatest degree of tapering yet reported (b > 0.33). Conduit tapering was such that most of the total resistance was found close to the apex (82-93% within the first 1 m of stem) and the path length effect was reduced by a factor of 2000...
September 2010: New Phytologist
Athena D McKown, Hervé Cochard, Lawren Sack
Leaf venation architecture is tremendously diverse across plant species. Understanding the hydraulic functions of given venation traits can clarify the organization of the vascular system and its adaptation to environment. Using a spatially explicit model (the program K_leaf), we subjected realistic simulated leaves to modifications and calculated the impacts on xylem and leaf hydraulic conductance (K(x) and K(leaf), respectively), important traits in determining photosynthesis and growth. We tested the sensitivity of leaves to altered vein order conductivities (1) in the absence or (2) presence of hierarchical vein architecture, (3) to major vein tapering, and (4) to modification of vein densities (length/leaf area)...
April 2010: American Naturalist
Katherine McCulloh, John S Sperry, Barbara Lachenbruch, Frederick C Meinzer, Peter B Reich, Steven Voelker
*Coniferous, diffuse-porous and ring-porous trees vary in their xylem anatomy, but the functional consequences of these differences are not well understood from the scale of the conduit to the individual. *Hydraulic and anatomical measurements were made on branches and trunks from 16 species from temperate and tropical areas, representing all three wood types. Scaling of stem conductivity (K(h)) with stem diameter was used to model the hydraulic conductance of the stem network. *Ring-porous trees showed the steepest increase in K(h) with stem size...
April 2010: New Phytologist
Katherine A McCulloh, John S Sperry, Frederick C Meinzer, Barbara Lachenbruch, Cristian Atala
There are two optima for maximizing hydraulic conductance per vasculature volume in plants. Murray's law (ML) predicts the optimal conduit taper for a fixed change in conduit number across branch ranks. The opposite, the Yarrum optimum (YO), predicts the optimal change in conduit number for a fixed taper. We derived the solution for YO and then evaluated compliance with both optima within the xylem of compound leaves, where conduits should have a minimal mechanical role. We sampled leaves from temperate ferns, and tropical and temperate angiosperms Leaf vasculature exhibited greater agreement with ML than YO...
2009: New Phytologist
Ning Du, Jintu Fan, Shuo Chen, Yang Liu
Although recent investigations [Ryan, M.G., Yoder, B.J., 1997. Hydraulic limits to tree height and tree growth. Bioscience 47, 235-242; Koch, G.W., Sillett, S.C.,Jennings, G.M.,Davis, S.D., 2004. The limits to tree height. Nature 428, 851-854; Niklas, K.J., Spatz, H., 2004. Growth and hydraulic (not mechanical) constraints govern the scaling of tree height and mass. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 101, 15661-15663; Ryan, M.G., Phillips, N., Bond, B.J., 2006. Hydraulic limitation hypothesis revisited. Plant Cell Environ...
July 21, 2008: Journal of Theoretical Biology
John S Sperry, Frederick C Meinzer, Katherine A McCulloh
Tree hydraulic architecture exhibits patterns that propagate from tissue to tree scales. A challenge is to make sense of these patterns in terms of trade-offs and adaptations. The universal trend for conduits per area to decrease with increasing conduit diameter below the theoretical packing limit may reflect the compromise between maximizing the area for conduction versus mechanical support and storage. Variation in conduit diameter may have two complementary influences: one being compromises between efficiency and safety and the other being that conduit tapering within a tree maximizes conductance per growth investment...
May 2008: Plant, Cell & Environment
Giai Petit, Tommaso Anfodillo, Maurizio Mencuccini
Vertical conduit tapering is proposed as an effective mechanism to almost eliminate the increase in hydraulic resistance with increased height. Despite this potential role, very little is known about its changes during ontogeny. Here, conduit tapering and stem morphology of young/small and old/tall individuals of Acer pseudoplatanus in the field, as well as 3-yr-old grafted trees from both age classes, were analysed. The distribution of hydraulic resistance along stems was also determined in a subsample of trees...
2008: New Phytologist
Maurizio Mencuccini, Teemu Hölttä, Giai Petit, Federico Magnani
Early observations led Sanio [Wissen. Bot., 8, (1872) 401] to state that xylem conduit diameters and lengths in a coniferous tree increase from the apex down to a height below which they begin to decrease towards the tree base. Sanio's law of vertical tapering has been repeatedly tested with contradictory results and the debate over the scaling of conduit diameters with distance from the apex has not been settled. The debate has recently acquired new vigour, as an accurate knowledge of the vertical changes in wood anatomy has been shown to be crucial to scaling metabolic properties to plant and ecosystem levels...
November 2007: Ecology Letters
David A Coomes, Kerry L Jenkins, Lydia E S Cole
A recent metabolic scaling theory predicts that plants minimize resistance to hydraulic conduction in the bulk transport network by narrowing the diameter of xylem conduits distally. We hypothesized that trees growing at high altitude or on nutrient-depleted soils would prioritize survival over minimizing hydraulic resistance, and that their vascular systems would be structured differently from those of trees growing under more benign conditions. In fact, conduits were observed to narrow towards the periphery of vascular system within all 45 trees of three species we investigated, and scaling relationships were indistinguishable across a range of environments...
February 22, 2007: Biology Letters
Tommaso Anfodillo, Vinicio Carraro, Marco Carrer, Claudio Fior, Sergio Rossi
A recent theoretical model (the West, Brown and Enquist, WBE model) hypothesized that plants have evolved a network of xylem conduits with a tapered structure (narrower conduits distally) which should minimize the cost of water transport from roots to leaves. Specific measurements are required to test the model predictions. We sampled both angiosperms and gymnosperms (50 trees) growing in different environments with heights ranging from 0.5 to 44.4 m, measuring variations of the xylem-conduit diameter from tree top to stem base...
2006: New Phytologist
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