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Tension Pneumocephalus

Zora Gorissen, Karlijn Hakvoort, Mark van den Boogaart, Sylvia Klinkenberg, Olaf Schijns
Pneumocephalus, the presence of intracranial air, is a complication especially seen after neurotrauma or brain surgery. When it leads to a pressure gradient, a so-called tension pneumocephalus, it may require emergency surgery. Clinical symptomatology, especially in young children, does not differentiate between a pneumocephalus and a tension pneumocephalus. An additional CT scan is therefore warranted. Here, we report on a rare case of pneumocephalus after penetrating lumbar injury. Additionally, the pathophysiology of pneumocephalus, as well as its recommendations for diagnosis and treatment, will be elucidated...
January 17, 2019: Acta Neurochirurgica
Jennifer Healy, Matthew Grant, Stephen Melnyk, Brian Boldt
Three months following a craniectomy and cranioplasty indicated for intraperenchymal hemorrhage, a 74-year-old male suffered a cerebrospinal fluid leak complicated by delayed tension pneumocephalus and declining neurologic status demonstrating a particularly rare complication of neurologic trauma and surgery. While with symptoms of a space occupying mass is the most common presentation, the patient presented cerebrospinal fluid leak prompting CT imaging and diagnosis. Urgent surgical decompression is necessary and was performed resulting in improved mental status...
March 2019: Radiology Case Reports
Jeremiah Maupin, Zackary Burrow, Cameron Shirazi, Santaram Vallurupalli
This is the case of a 66-year-old male with cervical myelopathy secondary to severe cervical stenosis manifesting as worsening dexterity and numbness in his right hand. The patient underwent C3-C6 laminoplasty with bilateral foraminotomies. During the procedure an incidental durotomy occurred which was patched intraoperatively with Duragen and Tisseel. At 1 month follow-up, the patient reported that he was doing well and skin sutures were removed. Two days later, the patient presented to the emergency department with postoperative wound dehiscence, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, altered mental status and lethargy...
October 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
Vivek Kumar Kankane, Tarun Kumar Gupta
Aim: Delayed intracerebral tension pneumatocele (DITP) is an uncommon cause of raised intracranial pressure following trauma. However, it can cause herniation syndrome due to a sudden increase in intracranial pressure which requires emergent intervention. Pneumocephalus is a complication of head injury in 3.9%-9.7% of the cases. The accumulation of intracranial air can be acute (<72 h) or delayed (≥72 h). Method: When intracranial air causes intracranial hypertension and has a mass effect with neurological deterioration, it is called tension pneumocephalus...
October 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Subhanudh Thavaraputta, Eman N Attaya, Joaquin Lado-Abeal, Ana M Rivas
Pneumocephalus (PNC) is a rare complication of transsphenoidal surgery that can result from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, allowing air entry into the CSF. We report the case of a 49-year-old female patient who presented to the emergency department three weeks after a transsphenoidal pituitary tumor resection, with symptoms of generalized throbbing headache associated with nausea. The patient was alert and oriented without any focal neurological deficit. A head computed tomography (CT) scan showed air in the subarachnoid space and ventricles...
August 5, 2018: Curēus
Mohammad Rasouli, Stephen Honeybul
Pneumocephalus is defined as a collection of air in the cranial cavity and is a common finding following intracranial neurosurgical procedures or following skull base fractures. The term tension pneumocephalus describes the accumulation of air under pressure such that it exerts mass effect and leads to a neurological deterioration. Whilst this is a rare event it can be life threatening and requires prompt intervention. We describe a case that occurred in a delayed fashion following a decompressive craniectomy for a severe traumatic brain injury...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Sean P Polster, Shirlene Obuobi, Victor J Del Brutto, Kenneth Avner, Aikaterini Markopoulou, Ricky H Wong
Background: Pneumocephalus is a common finding following intracranial procedures, typically asymptomatic and resolves within several days. However, in some cases, pneumocephalus presents with headache, encephalopathy, or symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure. Here, we present a case of iatrogenic tension pneumocephalus following endoscopic sinus surgery, presenting as abnormal involuntary movements resembling a movement disorder with choreiform movements. Case Description: A 67-year-old previously healthy male presented with new onset chorea and dystonia associated with headache, encephalopathy, and postural instability 4 days after undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Komal A Chughtai, Omar P Nemer, Alexander T Kessler, Alok A Bhatt
Craniotomy and craniectomy are widely performed emergent neurosurgical procedures and are the prescribed treatment for a variety of conditions from trauma to cancer. It is vital for the emergency radiologist to be aware of expected neuroimaging findings in post-craniotomy and craniectomy patients in order to avoid false positives. It is just as necessary to be familiar with postsurgical complications in these patients to avoid delay in lifesaving treatment. This article will review the commonly encountered normal and abnormal findings in post-craniotomy and craniectomy patients...
February 2019: Emergency Radiology
Charlotte Yin, Bi Yi Chen
Background: Tension pneumocephalus from skull base surgery is a rare occurrence that mandates urgent neurosurgical attention. Case Description: We describe a case of tension pneumocephalus secondary to an endoscopic endonasal resection of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma and how it was successfully managed at our institution. Conclusion: Our experience reflects that definitive treatment of tension pneumocephalus is required with multilayered dural repair, but temporising measures should be used immediately to prevent neurological deterioration prior to the definitive repair...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
N K Sahoo, N Mohan Rangan, Harish Bajaj, Rahul Kumar
The term tension pneumocephalus (TP) means raised intracranial pressure due to air in the cranial cavity. This presentation is a rare case report and review on TP. Decompressing this raising intracranial pressure is a surgical emergency. Therefore, this presentation emphasises the importance of timely identification and management of TP in saving life. In this case, the acute signs of raising intracranial pressure were identified and promptly addressed surgically along with the maxillofacial injury management...
September 2018: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
Giuseppe Visconti, Domenico Pagliara, Alessandro Bianchi, Giuseppe La Rocca, Alessandro Olivi, Marzia Salgarello
Pneumocephalus is an air collection in cranial cavity caused by accidental exposition of intracranial compartment after trauma or surgery. Skull base reconstruction with free flap is a useful surgical tool to avoid cerebral herniation or intracranial infection. The authors describe a patient of pneumocephalus following anterior skull base meningioma resection, unsuccessfully treated with 2 attempts of fascia lata grafts harvested from both thighs. A free-style chimeric anterolateral thigh free flap was performed using middle third of rectus femoris muscle to fill the planum spheno-ethmoidalis defect and adipocutaneous paddle for postoperative monitoring and for favoring a tension free skin closure...
October 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Samer S Hoz, Khatab Baban, Mohamad Sabah, Awfa Aktham, Alexis Rafael Narvaez-Rojas, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar
Pneumocephalus is defined as the presence of air in the intracranial cavity. In most cases, its evolution is asymptomatic and benign. Pneumocephalus post-surgery is a frequent complication of cranial surgery. We herein report delayed tension pneumocephalus after craniotomy for pituitary macroadenoma. A 73-year-old man with recurrent pituitary macroadenoma underwent subtotal resection via subfrontal approach. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patients regained his normal daily living activities...
April 2018: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
Hussam Metwali, Venelin Gerganov, Madjid Samii
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: World Neurosurgery
Hsu Shu-Shong, Hsu Huang-I, Hsing-Lin Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: World Neurosurgery
Maria Licci, Christian Zweifel, Jürgen Hench, Raphael Guzman, Jehuda Soleman
BACKGROUND: Paranasal sinus osteoma is a common, asymptomatic, histologically benign, slow-growing tumor. However, it can give rise to secondary pathologies such as a mucocele in about 50% of the cases. Rarely, intracranial and orbital extension is present, leading to rhinoliquorrhea, pneumocephalus, or neurologic and visual impairment, which might be potentially life-threatening. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 49-year-old man presented with an acute frontal lobe syndrome and rhinoliquorrhea...
July 2018: World Neurosurgery
Alhusain Nagm, Toshihiro Ogiwara, Akihiro Nishikawa, Shunsuke Ichinose, Kazuhiro Hongo
A 73-year-old man with a petroclival tumor (metastatic renal cell carcinoma) presented with a progressive consciousness disturbance attributed to tension pneumocephalus during molecular-targeted therapy following low-dose fractionated radiotherapy for a petroclival tumor. The skull base defect was successfully reconstructed vi an endoscopic endonasal approach.
April 2, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Michael Young, Matthew Putty, Keith Schaible
BACKGROUND: Intracranial pneumocephalus is a well-known clinical entity most frequently caused by trauma and intracranial surgery. A less frequent cause of intracranial pneumocephalus is spontaneous pneumocephalus. Spontaneous pneumocephalus can have an intraventricular extension, causing tension intraventricular pneumocephalus. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present an exceptionally rare case of spontaneous otogenic intraventricular pneumocephalus in a 58-year-old female that resulted in a decline in mentation and neurologic deficit...
June 2018: World Neurosurgery
Caroline Miranda, Ali Mahta, Lee Adam Wheeler, A John Tsiouris, Hooman Kamel
Tension pneumocephalus can lead to rapid neurologic deterioration. We report for the first time its association with aseptic systemic inflammatory response syndrome mimicking septic shock and the efficacy of prompt neurosurgical intervention and critical care support in treating this condition. A 64-year-old man underwent 2-stage olfactory groove meningioma resection. The patient developed altered mental status and gait instability on postoperative day 6. Imaging showed significant pneumocephalus. The patient subsequently developed worsening mental status, respiratory failure, and profound shock requiring multiple vasopressors...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Murat Kutlay, Abdullah Durmaz, İlker Özer, Cahit Kural, Çağlar Temiz, Serdar Kaya, İlker Solmaz, Mehmet Daneyemez, Yusuf Izci
OBJECTIVE: With the use of multiple endoscopic endonasal surgical corridors, extended endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEEAs) are now being used to treat a wide range of ventral skull base lesions. Our aim was to present our experience with EEEAs to the ventral skull base lesions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 106 patients (57 men and 49 women) who underwent surgery for skull base lesions using EEEAs from 2010 to 2017. The EEEA was most commonly used for giant pituitary macroadenomas, sinonasal malignancies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, meningiomas, craniopharyngiomas, and fibro-osseous lesions...
April 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Souha S Elabd, Maswood M Ahmad, Sameer Q Qetab, Mussa Hussain Almalki
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea is rarely reported as the first presenting feature of giant invasive macroprolactinomas. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea is usually reported as a complication of trauma, neurosurgical, and skull-based procedures (such as pituitary surgery or radiations), and less frequently after medical treatment with dopamine agonists (DAs) for macroprolactinomas. This phenomenon results from fistula creation that communicates between the subarachnoid space and the nasal cavity. Meanwhile, pneumocephalus is another well-recognized complication after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary macroadenomas...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Endocrinology and Diabetes
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