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Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

R Masoudi, M Sharafi, A Zare Shahneh, M Khodaei-Motlagh
The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of reduced glutathione (GSH) for cryopreservation of rooster semen. In experiment 1, semen samples were collected from 15 roosters and diluted in the Lake extender that contained various concentrations of GSH as follows: Lake without GSH (control, GSH 0), Lake containing 0.5 mM (GSH 0.5), 1 mM (GSH 1), 2 mM (GSH 2), 4 mM (GSH 4) and 8 mM (GSH 8) GSH. Viability, membrane functionality, morphology, mitochondrial activity, acrosome integrity, motion parameters, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation were assessed after thawing...
January 15, 2019: Theriogenology
Liping Liao, Jinguo Shi, Caibao Jiang, Liantao Zhang, Lisi Feng, Jiayong Liu, Jingxia Zhang
Oxidative stress is an important cause of neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidant is an potential important method to treat such diseases. The aim of this study is to discover new and effective antioxidants and their mechanism. The neuroprotective effect of six curcumin pyrozole compounds were first evaluated on sodium nitroprusside (SNP) - induced PC12 cell injury by testing cell viability and LDH release. The results showed that four compounds (C1-C4) have more significant protective effects compared to curcumin and edaravone...
February 13, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Wenli Xu, Ye Wu, Li Wang, Yan Bai, Yunhui Du, Yang Li, Ning Cao, Yuhui Zhao, Youyi Zhang, Huirong Liu
Therapeutic adoptive transfer of natural regulatory T cells (nTreg, CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ T cells) or in vivo selective expansion of nTreg cells has been demonstrated to improve the cardiac function in various cardiovascular disease models. The differentiation of nTreg cells is mediated by catecholamines via β1 -adrenergic receptor (β1 -AR) activation. Autoantibody against β1 -adrenoceptor (β1 -AA) as a β1 -AR agonist is closely associated with the occurrence and deterioration of cardiac dysfunction. However, whether β1 -AA has any impact on nTreg cells has not been reported...
February 15, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Yan Zhou, Jianghua Ming, Yaming Li, Ming Deng, Qing Chen, Yonggang Ma, Zhonghui Chen, Yubiao Zhang, Shiqing Liu
Ligustilide (LIG) is the main lipophilic component of the Umbelliferae family of pharmaceutical plants, including Radix angelicae sinensis and Ligusticum chuanxiong. LIG shows various pharmacological properties associated with anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis in several kinds of cell lines. However, the therapeutic effects of LIG on chondrocyte apoptosis remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether LIG had an anti-apoptotic activity in sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-stimulated chondrocyte apoptosis and could delay cartilage degeneration in a surgically induced rat OA model, and elucidated the potential mechanisms...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Braj Raj Singh, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Farah Deeba, Rajesh Bajpai, Vivek Pandey, Alim H Naqvi, Dalip Kumar Upreti, Nicholas Gathergood, Yueming Jiang, Hesham A El Enshasy, Essam Nageh Sholkamy, Ashraf A Mostafa, Abd El-Latif Hesham, Brahma N Singh
Silver-based nanostructures are suitable for many biomedical applications, but to be useful therapeutic agents, the high toxicity of these nanomaterials must be eliminated. Here, we biosynthesize nontoxic and ultra-small silver nanoclusters (rsAg@NCs) using metabolites of usnioid lichen (a symbiotic association of algae and fungi) that exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity against fluconazole (FCZ)-resistant Candida albicans that is many times higher than chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and FCZ...
January 29, 2019: Biomolecules
Wan-Gen Liu, Li-Li Han, Rong Xiang
OBJECTIVE: To study the role and mechanism of microRNA 19b (miR-19b) in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injury by targeting PTEN. METHODS: PC12 and BV2 cells induced by H/R were treated with miR-19b mimics/inhibitors or small interfering PTEN (si-PTEN), respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) content was detected. Besides, cell viability and apoptosis were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, Hoechst33342 staining, and flow cytometry, whereas mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) tested by JC-1 assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) evaluated by the dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Oluwaseun B Ogunbona, Steven M Claypool
The mitochondrial carrier family (MCF) is a group of transport proteins that are mostly localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane where they facilitate the movement of various solutes across the membrane. Although these carriers represent potential targets for therapeutic application and are repeatedly associated with human disease, research on the MCF has not progressed commensurate to their physiologic and pathophysiologic importance. Many of the 53 MCF members in humans are orphans and lack known transport substrates...
2019: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Dong-Yung Kim, Jun-Hyung Kim, Jae-Chul Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Se-Ran Yang, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Myung-Bok Wie
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been recognized as both useful tools and potentially toxic materials in various industrial and medicinal fields. Previously, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs that are neurotoxic to human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells are mediated by lipoxygenase (LOX), not cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Here, we examined whether human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are different from neuroblastoma cells, might exhibit COX-2- and/or LOX-dependent cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
Ping Wang, Jing Geng, Jiahui Gao, Hao Zhao, Junhong Li, Yiran Shi, Bingying Yang, Chen Xiao, Yueyue Linghu, Xiufeng Sun, Xin Chen, Lixin Hong, Funiu Qin, Xun Li, Jau-Song Yu, Han You, Zengqiang Yuan, Dawang Zhou, Randy L Johnson, Lanfen Chen
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in phagocytes is a major defense mechanism against pathogens. However, the cellular self-protective mechanism against such potential damage from oxidative stress remains unclear. Here we show that the kinases Mst1 and Mst2 (Mst1/2) sense ROS and maintain cellular redox balance by modulating the stability of antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2. Site-specific ROS release recruits Mst1/2 from the cytosol to the phagosomal or mitochondrial membrane, with ROS subsequently activating Mst1/2 to phosphorylate kelch like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) and prevent Keap1 polymerization, thereby blocking Nrf2 ubiquitination and degradation to protect cells against oxidative damage...
February 14, 2019: Nature Communications
Tao Zhang, Yanqing Chi, Yunzhuo Ren, Chunyang Du, Yonghong Shi, Ying Li
BACKGROUND PGC-1α can be activated by deacetylation reactions catalyzed by SIRT1. Resveratrol is currently known as a potent activator of SIRT1. However, it is unknown whether the renal-protective effect of resveratrol is further related to activation of the podocyte SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS High glucose was used to stimulate mouse podocytes. Resveratrol and PGC-1α siRNA transfection were used to perform co-intervention treatments. The protein and mRNA expression levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1, and TFAM were detect by immunofluorescence, Western blot analysis, and qRT-PCR in the podocytes, respectively...
February 15, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Kunal Pal, Dipranjan Laha, Pravat Kumar Parida, Shubham Roy, Souravi Bardhan, Ananya Dutta, Kuladip Jana, Parimal Karmakar
Among the different types of polymeric vehicles, (PLGA) is biodegradable and has emerged as promising tool for the delivery of cancer therapeutics. The salient features of PLGA micro carriers include prolonged circulation time, increased tumor localization and biodegradability and effectiveness of the therapeutics. We have synthesized PLGA microspheres where curcumin can be loaded and thereby increases its bioavailability. The cytotoxicity of curcumin (PLGA@CCM) microspheres was evaluated on triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Hsiu-Chi Ting, Li-Tzu Chen, Jo-Yu Chen, Yi-Li Huang, Rui-Cheng Xin, Jui-Fen Chan, Yuan-Hao Howard Hsu
BACKGROUND: Supplemented fatty acids can incorporate into cardiolipin (CL) and affect its remodeling. The change in CL species may alter the mitochondrial membrane composition, potentially disturbing the mitochondrial structure and function during inflammation. METHOD: To investigate the effect of the unsaturation of fatty acids on CL, we supplemented macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells with 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid (OA, 18:1), linoleic acid (LA, 18:2), α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3), γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3), and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4)...
February 14, 2019: Lipids in Health and Disease
Yi-Ting Lin, Ping-Hsun Wu, Yi-Chun Tsai, Ya-Ling Hsu, Han Ying Wang, Mei-Chuan Kuo, Po-Lin Kuo, Shang-Jyh Hwang
Uremic toxins accumulated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk of cognitive impairment. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a well-known protein-bound uremic toxin that is correlated with several systemic diseases, but no studies on human brain cells are available. We investigated the effect of IS on primary human astrocytes through next-generation sequencing and cell experiment confirmation to explore the mechanism of IS-associated brain damage. Total RNAs extracted from IS-treated and control astrocytes were evaluated by performing functional and pathway enrichment analysis...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Mei-Fen Chen, Shorong-Shii Liou, Shung-Te Kao, I-Min Liu
Erianin is the major bibenzyl compound found in Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. The current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of erianin on high glucose-induced injury in cultured renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E cells) and determine the possible mechanisms for its effects. NRK-52E cells were pretreated with erianin (5, 10, 25 or 50 nmol/L) for 1 h followed by further exposure to high glucose (30 mmol/L, HG) for 48 h. Erianin concentration dependently enhanced cell viability followed by HG treatment in NRK-52E cells...
February 11, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
J Key, A K Mueller, S Gispert, L Matschke, I Wittig, O Corti, C Münch, N Decher, G Auburger
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder in the old population. Among its monogenic variants, a frequent cause is a mutation in the Parkin gene (Prkn). Deficient function of Parkin triggers ubiquitous mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in the brain, but it remains unclear how selective neural circuits become vulnerable and finally undergo atrophy. We attempted to go beyond previous work mostly done in peripheral tumor cells, which identified protein targets of Parkin activity, an ubiquitin E3 ligase...
February 11, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Majid Sharifi, Sara Haji Hosseinali, Ali Akbar Saboury, Eva Szegezdi, Mojtaba Falahati
With the expansion of the field of nanomedicine, the use of nanomaterials in cancer treatment has raised questions about their safety and unpredictable adverse effects. To date, the hazardous effects of nanomaterials have been investigated based on cell survival and cellular functionality, such as membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and cell morphology. It is increasingly noted that more detailed analysis of regulated cell death pathways (RCD) triggered by nanomaterials is essential to understand their full mechanism of action...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Rebecca D Ganetzky, Claudia Stendel, Elizabeth M McCormick, Zarazuela Zolkipli-Cunningham, Amy C Goldstein, Thomas Klopstock, Marni J Falk
Mitochondrial complex V (CV) generates cellular energy as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondrial disease caused by the m.8993T>G pathogenic variant in CV subunit gene, MT-ATP6, was among the first described human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases. Due to a lack of clinically-available functional assays, validating the definitive pathogenicity of additional MT-ATP6 variants remains challenging. We reviewed all reported MT-ATP6 disease cases (n=218) to date, to assess for MT-ATP6 variants, heteroplasmy levels, and inheritance correlation with clinical presentation and biochemical findings...
February 14, 2019: Human Mutation
Ana Luiza Sereia, Marcelo Tempesta de Oliveira, Adrivanio Baranoski, Leila Larisa Medeiros Marques, Fabianne Martins Ribeiro, Raquel Garcia Isolani, Daniela Cristina de Medeiros, Danielly Chierrito, Danielle Lazarin-Bidóia, Acácio Antonio Ferreira Zielinski, Cláudio Roberto Novello, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Mário Sérgio Mantovani, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and has no cure. Therapeutic strategies focusing on the reduction of oxidative stress, modulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) toxicity and inhibition of tau protein hyperphosphorylation are warranted to avoid the development and progression of AD. The aim of this study was to screen the crude extracts (CEs) and ethyl-acetate fractions (EAFs) of Guazuma ulmifolia, Limonium brasiliense, Paullinia cupana, Poincianella pluviosa, Stryphnodendron adstringens and Trichilia catigua using preliminary in vitro bioassays (acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content) to select extracts/fractions and assess their protective effects against Aβ25-35 toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells...
2019: PloS One
Hyo Min Cho, Woong Sun
Mitochondrial morphology is known to be continuously changing via fusion and fission, but it is unclear what the biological importance of this energy-consuming process is and how it develops. Several data have suggested that mitochondrial fission executed by Drp1 is necessary to select out a damaged spot from the interconnected mitochondrial network, but the precise mechanism for the recognition and isolation of a damaged sub-mitochondrial region during mitochondrial fission is yet unclear. Recently, Cho et al...
February 14, 2019: BMB Reports
Loh Teng-Hern Tan, Kok-Gan Chan, Priyia Pusparajah, Wai-Fong Yin, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Learn-Han Lee, Bey-Hing Goh
BACKGROUND: Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, with a commensurately high mortality rate. The search for novel antioxidants and specific anticancer agents which may inhibit, delay or reverse the development of colon cancer is thus an area of great interest; Streptomyces bacteria have been demonstrated to be a source of such agents. RESULTS: The extract from Streptomyces sp. MUM265- a strain which was isolated and identified from Kuala Selangor mangrove forest, Selangor, Malaysia- was analyzed and found to exhibit antioxidant properties as demonstrated via metal-chelating ability as well as superoxide anion, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities...
February 13, 2019: BMC Microbiology
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