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Neuronal Cells

Seungil Paik, Rishi K Somvanshi, Ujendra Kumar
Somatostatin (SST) is a growth hormone inhibitory peptide involved in regulation of several physiological responses of cells including neurotransmission, cell migration, maturation, and neurite formation. In the present study, we examined the role of SST in all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced progression of neurite outgrowth in SH-SY5Y cells. We also determined the morphological and developmental changes in prominent intracellular markers of neurite growth including microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), neuron-specific III β-tubulin (TUJ1), and Tau...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Laura V Vandervore, Rachel Schot, Esmee Kasteleijn, Renske Oegema, Katrien Stouffs, Alexander Gheldof, Martyna M Grochowska, Marianne L T van der Sterre, Leontine M A van Unen, Martina Wilke, Peter Elfferich, Peter J van der Spek, Daphne Heijsman, Anna Grandone, Jeroen A A Demmers, Dick H W Dekkers, Johan A Slotman, Gert-Jan Kremers, Gerben J Schaaf, Roy G Masius, Anton J van Essen, Patrick Rump, Arie van Haeringen, Els Peeters, Umut Altunoglu, Tugba Kalayci, Raymond A Poot, William B Dobyns, Nadia Bahi-Buisson, Frans W Verheijen, Anna C Jansen, Grazia M S Mancini
Recessive mutations in RTTN, encoding the protein rotatin, were originally identified as cause of polymicrogyria, a cortical malformation. With time, a wide variety of other brain malformations has been ascribed to RTTN mutations, including primary microcephaly. Rotatin is a centrosomal protein possibly involved in centriolar elongation and ciliogenesis. However, the function of rotatin in brain development is largely unknown and the molecular disease mechanism underlying cortical malformations has not yet been elucidated...
March 16, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Sowmyalakshmi Rasika, Sandrine Passemard, Alain Verloes, Pierre Gressens, Vincent El Ghouzzi
The Golgi apparatus (GA) is involved in a whole spectrum of activities, from lipid biosynthesis and membrane secretion to the posttranslational processing and trafficking of most proteins, the control of mitosis, cell polarity, migration and morphogenesis, and diverse processes such as apoptosis, autophagy, and the stress response. In keeping with its versatility, mutations in GA proteins lead to a number of different disorders, including syndromes with multisystem involvement. Intriguingly, however, > 40% of the GA-related genes known to be associated with disease affect the central or peripheral nervous system, highlighting the critical importance of the GA for neural function...
March 15, 2019: Developmental Neuroscience
Eliana Stanganello, Eitan Erez Zahavi, Mithila Burute, Jasper Smits, Ingrid Jordens, Madelon M Maurice, Lukas C Kapitein, Casper C Hoogenraad
The establishment of neuronal polarity is driven by cytoskeletal remodeling that stabilizes and promotes the growth of a single axon from one of the multiple neurites. The importance of the local microtubule stabilization in this process has been revealed however, the external signals initiating the cytoskeletal rearrangements are not completely understood. In this study, we show that local activation of the canonical Wnt pathway regulates neuronal polarity and axonal outgrowth. We found that in the early stages of neuronal polarization, Wnt3a accumulates in one of the neurites of unpolarized cells and thereby could determine axon positioning...
March 2, 2019: IScience
Vijay Swahari, Anne E West
For more than 40 years after its discovery, histone methylation was thought to be largely irreversible. However, the first histone demethylase (HDM) was identified in 2004, challenging this notion. Since that time, more than 20 HDMs have been identified and characterized, and many have been shown to have critical roles in organismal development, cell fate, and disease. Here, we highlight some of the recent advances in our understanding of the function of HDMs in the context of neuronal development, plasticity, and disease...
March 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Honglei Wang, Liqun Zhou, Xinjun Liao, Zhen Meng, Juhua Xiao, Fuyan Li, Shouhua Zhang, Zigang Cao, Huiqiang Lu
Oxine-copper (OxCu) is generally used as an agricultural pesticide and induces harmful effects on ecosystems. In this study, zebrafish was used to assess the aquatic toxicity of OxCu. To detect the effects on development, embryos of 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) were exposed to 10 μg/L, 20 μg/L, 40 μg/L OxCu for 18 h; meanwhile, to evaluate the effects on the behavior, larval fish at 6 days post-fertilization (dpf) were exposed to the same concentrations for 24 h. Here, we show that there are embryonic developmental defects, including abnormalities of head and trunk, brain ventricle atrophy, reduced newborn neurons, disordered neurons, increased intercellular space, concentrated cytoplasm, decreased heart beat and blood flow velocity, and developmental delay of the vascular system; in addition, some embryos exposed to the high concentration of OxCu degraded from the tail...
February 27, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Xiao Chang, Huiqi Qu, Yichuan Liu, Joseph Glessner, Cuiping Hou, Fengxiang Wang, Jin Li, Patrick Sleiman, Hakon Hakonarson
Microduplication at 15q11.2 have been reported in genetic association studies of schizophrenia and autism. Given the potential overlap in psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia and autism with anorexia nervosa (AN), we were inspired to test the association of this CNV locus with the genetic susceptibility of AN using ParseCNV, a highly quality controlled CNV pipeline developed by our group. The CNV analysis was performed in 1017 AN cases and 7250 controls using the Illumina HumanHap610 SNP arrays data. We uncovered association of the 15q11...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Yanqiu Han, Shanji Nan, Jia Fan, Qiuhui Chen, Yizhi Zhang
Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOPS) was initially separated and purified via precipitation from an aqueous extract with 80% alcohol, a DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange column, and a Sephadex G-100 gel permeation chromatography system. IOPS was found to have a molecular weight of 111.9 kDa. In L-glutamic acid (L-Glu)-damaged HT22 cells, a 3-h pre-incubation with IOPS enhanced cell viability, inhibited apoptosis and caspase-3 activity, reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase, restored the dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, and suppressed the excess accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species...
March 13, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jieying Yu, Dian-Shi Wang, Robert P Bonin, Antonello Penna, Ali Alavian-Ghavanini, Agnieszka A Zurek, Gail Rauw, Glen B Baker, Beverley A Orser
BACKGROUND: Gabapentin is a structural analog of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Its anticonvulsant, analgesic and anxiolytic properties suggest that it increases GABAergic inhibition; however, the molecular basis for these effects is unknown as gabapentin does not directly modify GABA type A (GABAA ) receptor function, nor does it modify synaptic inhibition. Here, we postulated that gabapentin increases expression of δ subunit-containing GABAA (δGABAA ) receptors that generate a tonic inhibitory conductance in multiple brain regions including the cerebellum and hippocampus...
March 13, 2019: EBioMedicine
Chao Cong, Lan Kluwe, Shengnan Li, Xiaofei Liu, Yang Liu, Huicong Liu, Wenjia Gui, Te Liu, Lianwei Xu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Paeoniflorin (PF) exerts a significant protective effect against neurotoxicity and mitochondrial damage in neurons. However, the mechanisms underlying PF-mediated rescue remain elusive. Therefore, we endeavored to further research the molecular mechanisms underlying PF-mediated inhibition of tributyltin chloride (TBTC)-induced apoptosis of neurons. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the influence and possible mechanism of action of PF in TBTC-induced neurodegenerative disease...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Xiaobo Wang, Ya Hou, Qiuyue Li, Xuanhao Li, Wenxiang Wang, Xiaopeng Ai, Tingting Kuang, Xiaorui Chen, Yi Zhang, Jing Zhang, Yao Hu, Xianli Meng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhodiola crenulata, a traditional Tibetan medicine, has shown promise in the treatment of hypobaric hypoxia (HH)-induced brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the protective effects of R. crenulata aqueous extract (RCAE) on HH-induced brain injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An animal model of high-altitude hypoxic brain injury was established in SD rats using an animal decompression chamber for 24 h...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Blanca I Aldana
The high energetic demand of the brain deems this organ rather sensitive to changes in energy supply. Therefore, even minor alterations in energy metabolism may underlie detrimental disturbances in brain function, contributing to the generation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Considerable evidence supports the key role of deficits in cerebral energy metabolism, particularly hypometabolism of glucose and mitochondrial dysfunction, in the pathophysiology of brain disorders. Major breakthroughs in the field of bioenergetics and neurodegeneration have been achieved through the use of in vitro and in vivo models of disease as well as sophisticated neuroimaging techniques in patients, yet these have been mainly focused on neuron and astrocyte function...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Molecular Biology
Ekaterina Subbotina, Hua-Qian Yang, Ivan Gando, Nori Williams, Barbara A Sampson, Yingying Tang, William A Coetzee
BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in ion channel genes ('channelopathies') are often associated with inherited arrhythmias and sudden death. Genetic testing ('molecular autopsies') of channelopathy genes can be used to assist in determining the likely causes of sudden unexpected death. However, different in silico approaches can yield conflicting pathogenicity predictions and assessing their impact on ion channel function can assist in this regard. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed genetic testing of cases of sudden expected death in the New York City metropolitan area and found four rare or novel variants in ABCC9, which codes for the regulatory SUR2 subunit of KATP channels...
February 27, 2019: Forensic Science International
Sarah E Daniel, Aurélie Menigoz, Jidong Guo, Steven J Ryan, Shivani Seth, Donald G Rainnie
Distinct regions and cell types in the anterolateral group of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTALG ) act to modulate anxiety in opposing ways. A history of chronic stress increases anxiety-like behavior with lasting electrophysiological effects on the BNSTALG . However, the opposing circuits within the BNSTALG suggest that stress may have differential effects on the individual cell types that comprise these circuits to shift the balance to favor anxiogenesis. Yet, the effects of stress are generally examined by treating all neurons within a particular region of the BNST as a homologous population...
March 13, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Fabio Bianchi, Julian H George, Majid Malboubi, Antoine Jerusalem, Mark S Thompson, Hua Ye
Peripheral nerves are continuously subjected to mechanical strain during everyday movements, but excessive stretch can lead to damage and neuronal cell functionality can also be impaired. To better understand cellular processes triggered by stretch, it is necessary to develop in vitro experimental methods that allow multiple concurrent measurements and replicate in vivo mechanical conditions. Current commercially available cell stretching devices do not allow flexible experimental design, restricting the range of possible multi-physics measurements...
March 13, 2019: Medical Engineering & Physics
Eva Troyano-Rodriguez, Celeste R Wirsig-Wiechmann, Mohiuddin Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Investigations in the neocortex have revealed that the balance of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission (E/I ratio) is important for proper information processing. The disturbance of this balance underlies many neuropsychiatric illnesses, including autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. However, little is known about the contribution of E/I balance to the functioning of subcortical brain regions, such as the lateral septum (LS), a structure that plays important roles in regulating anxiety-related behavior...
February 4, 2019: Biological Psychiatry
Jeba Jesudoss Chelladurai, Matthew T Brewer
Macrocyclic lactone-resistant Parascaris have been reported throughout the world. In part, the drug resistant phenotype is hypothesized to be associated with ATP-binding cassette transporters known as P-glycoproteins. In many systems, P-glycoproteins efflux drugs out of cells thereby precluding drug binding to target receptors. Parascaris may evade macrocyclic lactone-mediated death by effluxing drugs away from target receptors in the nervous system. Alternatively, P-glycoprotein expression in the gut or body wall could prevent penetration of drugs into the body of the parasite altogether...
March 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Biswanath Dinda, Manikarna Dinda, Goutam Kulsi, Ankita Chakraborty, Subhajit Dinda
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders, affecting several millions of aged people globally. Among these disorders, AD is more severe, affecting about 7% of individuals aged 65 and above. AD is primarily a dementia-related disorder from progressive cognitive deterioration and memory impairment, while PD is primarily a movement disorder illness having three major kinesia or movement disorder symptoms, bradykinesia (slowness of movements), hypokinesia (reduction of movement amplitude), and akinesia (absence of normal unconscious movements) along with muscle rigidity and tremor at rest...
March 8, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Xin Zhao, Fengjiao Du, Xiaolin Liu, Qiuyan Ruan, Zhulian Wu, Chuan Lei, Yanfei Deng, Chan Luo, Jianrong Jiang, Deshun Shi, Fenghua Lu
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been discovered and characterized for several decades, yet its expression pattern in non-neuronal tissues like ovary and potential mechanism during oocyte maturation are still poorly understood. Thus the present study was devised to determine the expression pattern and mechanism of BDNF during buffalo oocyte maturation. The results revealed that BDNF was presented at different stages of buffalo ovarian follicles as well as during oocyte maturation and early embryo development...
February 23, 2019: Theriogenology
Elena Tzekaki, Magda Tsolaki, Anastasia Pantazaki
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disorder that manifests itself as progressive damage to memory and knowledge and is the main cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid-β plate (Aβ) and by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein. These modifications lead to neuronal cell death, vascular dysfunction and inflammatory disorders. Described as "elderly disease", AD is an escalating threat to developed countries as life expectancy is increasing...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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