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Dynamic elastance

Xiaojian Zhong, Hongyi Jiang, Chen Zhang, Rui Shi
This study attempts to investigate the relationship among electricity consumption, economic growth, and employment in China. Distinct from most of the previous studies, our empirical research identifies a long-run equilibrium cointegration relationship among the three covariates during the period of 1971-2009 with the recently developed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach. The parameters are estimated through a long-run static solution of the estimated ARDL model and short-run dynamic solutions of the error correction model...
March 15, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Enda Zhu, Xing Yuan, Andrew W Wood
A reliable decadal prediction of terrestrial water storage (TWS) is critical for a sustainable management of freshwater resources and infrastructures. However, the dependence of TWS forecast skill on the accuracy of initial hydrological conditions and decadal climate forecasts is not clear, and the baseline skill remains unknown. Here we use decadal climate hindcasts and perform hydrological ensemble simulations to estimate a benchmark decadal forecast skill for TWS over global major river basins with an elasticity framework that considers varying skill of initial conditions and climate forecasts...
March 15, 2019: Nature Communications
Muhammed Rasi M, Ravi Kumar Pujala, Surajit Dhara
Robust control over the position, orientation and self-assembly of nonspherical colloids facilitate the creation of new materials with complex architecture that are important from technological and fundamental perspectives. We study orientation, elastic interaction and co-assembly of surface functionalized silica nano-rods in thin films of nematic liquid crystal. With homeotropic boundary condition, the nano-rods are predominantly oriented perpendicular to the nematic director which is different than the mostly parallel orientation of the micro-rods...
March 15, 2019: Scientific Reports
S Brennan Brown, A E Gleason, E Galtier, A Higginbotham, B Arnold, A Fry, E Granados, A Hashim, C G Schroer, A Schropp, F Seiboth, F Tavella, Z Xing, W Mao, H J Lee, B Nagler
Under rapid high-temperature, high-pressure loading, lattices exhibit complex elastic-inelastic responses. The dynamics of these responses are challenging to measure experimentally because of high sample density and extremely small relevant spatial and temporal scales. Here, we use an x-ray free-electron laser providing simultaneous in situ direct imaging and x-ray diffraction to spatially resolve lattice dynamics of silicon under high-strain rate conditions. We present the first imaging of a new intermediate elastic feature modulating compression along the axis of applied stress, and we identify the structure, compression, and density behind each observed wave...
March 2019: Science Advances
Adolfo B Poma, Horacio V Guzman, Mai Suan Li, Panagiotis E Theodorakis
We perform molecular dynamics simulation on several relevant biological fibrils associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Aβ40 , Aβ42 , and α-synuclein systems to obtain a molecular understanding and interpretation of nanomechanical characterization experiments. The computational method is versatile and addresses a new subarea within the mechanical characterization of heterogeneous soft materials. We investigate both the elastic and thermodynamic properties of the biological fibrils in order to substantiate experimental nanomechanical characterization techniques that are quickly developing and reaching dynamic imaging with video rate capabilities...
2019: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Hung-Yi Liu, Chien-Chi Lin
Hydrogels with spatiotemporally tunable mechanical properties have been increasingly employed for studying the impact of tissue mechanics on cell fate processes. These dynamic hydrogels are particularly suitable for recapitulating the temporal stiffening of a tumor microenvironment. To this end, we have reported an enzyme-mediated stiffening hydrogel system where tyrosinase ( Tyrase ) was used to stiffen orthogonally crosslinked cell-laden hydrogels. Herein, a mathematical model was proposed to describe enzyme diffusion and reaction within a highly swollen gel network, and to elucidate the critical factors affecting the degree of gel stiffening...
March 13, 2019: Gels
Huiliang Cao, Yu Liu, Zhiwei Kou, Yingjie Zhang, Xingling Shao, Jinyang Gao, Kun Huang, Yunbo Shi, Jun Tang, Chong Shen, Jun Liu
This study presents a new microelectromechanical system, a vibration ring gyroscope with a double U-beam (DUVRG), which was designed using a combination of mathematical analysis and the finite element method. First, a ring vibration resonator with eight double U-beam structures was developed, and 24 capacitive electrodes were designed for drive and sense according to the advantageous characteristics of a thin-shell vibrating gyroscope. Then, based on the elastic mechanics and thin-shell theory, a mathematical stiffness model of the double U-beam was established...
March 13, 2019: Micromachines
Honghao Hou, Jie Yin, Xuesong Jiang
Patterned surfaces are fundamentally important to physics, chemistry, materials, and biology science, endowing significant functions and thus bearing broad and fantastic applications whether in natural or man-made events. Among the various methods for patterning surfaces, wrinkling or buckling offers a powerful alternative to prepare surface patterns because of its spontaneous nature, versatility, easy preparation in large-scale, and capability to be responsive to various stimuli. In particular, patterned surfaces with dynamic wrinkles can tailor the encoded surface properties on demand and can provide a promising alternative for smart surfaces, which has potential for wide applications in enhanced and tunable optical or photoelectric devices, responsive microstructures, switchable wettability, smart adhesion and friction, and so on...
March 14, 2019: Accounts of Chemical Research
Fabrizio Camerin, Miguel Angel Fernandez-Rodriguez, Lorenzo Rovigatti, Maria-Nefeli Antonopoulou, Nicoletta Gnan, Andrea Ninarello, Lucio Isa, Emanuela Zaccarelli
Soft particles display highly versatile properties with respect to hard colloids, even more so at fluid-fluid interfaces. In particular, microgels, consisting of a crosslinked polymer network, are able to deform and flatten upon adsorption at the interface due to the balance between surface tension and internal elasticity. Despite the existence of experimental results, a detailed theoretical understanding of this phenomenon is still lacking due to the absence of appropriate microscopic models. In this work, we propose an advanced modelling of microgels at a flat water-oil interface...
March 13, 2019: ACS Nano
Tie Li, Lili Li, Yuanyuan Bai, Yudong Cao, Qifeng Lu, Yue Li, Gengzhao Xu, Ting Zhang
To detect micro-vibration, flexible pressure sensors require that the sensing materials possess superior sensitivity in non-contact sensing mode. One type of matter, nanovesicles, has the characteristics of hollow spheres and crack junctions in a single body, and provides an exciting bionic idea to explore high-sensitivity sensing materials. Hence, in this study, novel hollow microspheres with a hierarchical nanovesicle-like architecture are designed, prepared via a controlled strategy of adjusting the surface energy, and employed to fabricate multiscale flexible pressure sensors that display a high response sensitivity of 11...
March 13, 2019: Nanoscale
Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna Addor
Purpose: This was an open-label, single-center clinical study to evaluate a topical association of SCA® ( Cryptomphalus aspersa secretion) with regenerative and antioxidant ingredients, according to the type and area of the face, on the improvement of signs of skin aging. Patients and methods: One hundred and twenty female participants aged between 40 and 65 years, with facial aging complaints (presence of static, dynamics wrinkles, loss of elasticity, and skin firmness) were randomized into two groups according to the type of skin: normal-oily and normal-dry, and 40 participants were randomized for evaluation of the periocular area (with the presence of wrinkles, expression lines, and dark circles) with both types of skin...
2019: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Rajarshi P Ghosh, J Matthew Franklin, Will E Draper, Quanming Shi, Bruno Beltran, Andrew J Spakowitz, Jan T Liphardt
We describe three optical tags, ArrayG, ArrayD and ArrayG/N, for intracellular tracking of single molecules over milliseconds to hours. ArrayG is a fluorogenic tag composed of a green fluorescent protein-nanobody array and monomeric wild-type green fluorescent protein binders that are initially dim but brighten ~26-fold on binding with the array. By balancing the rates of binder production, photobleaching and stochastic binder exchange, we achieve temporally unlimited tracking of single molecules. High-speed tracking of ArrayG-tagged kinesins and integrins for thousands of frames reveals novel dynamical features...
March 11, 2019: Nature Chemical Biology
Filippo Cellini, Yang Gao, Elisa Riedo
During conventional nanoindentation measurements, the indentation depths are usually larger than 1-10 nm, which hinders the ability to study ultra-thin films (<10 nm) and supported atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials. Here, we discuss the development of modulated Å-indentation to achieve sub-Å indentations depths during force-indentation measurements while also imaging materials with nanoscale resolution. Modulated nanoindentation (MoNI) was originally invented to measure the radial elasticity of multi-walled nanotubes...
March 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Tamara C Bidone, Anirban Polley, Jaehyeok Jin, Tristan Driscoll, Daniel V Iwamoto, David A Calderwood, Martin A Schwartz, Gregory A Voth
Integrin conformational dynamics are critical to their receptor and signaling functions in many cellular processes, including spreading, adhesion, and migration. However, assessing integrin conformations is both experimentally and computationally challenging because of limitations in resolution and dynamic sampling. Thus, structural changes that underlie transitions between conformations are largely unknown. Here, focusing on integrin αvβ3 , we developed a modified form of the coarse-grained heterogeneous elastic network model (hENM), which allows sampling conformations at the onset of activation by formally separating local fluctuations from global motions...
February 22, 2019: Biophysical Journal
Weidi Zhu, Bruce G Aitken, Sabyasachi Sen
Shear relaxation in supercooled selenium liquid near its glass transition over the viscosity range of 106 Pa s-1012 Pa s is studied using oscillatory parallel plate rheometry. The results demonstrate the presence of a slow, Debye-like relaxation process and a fast, cooperative relaxation process that are attributed, respectively, to the Se-Se bond scission/renewal dynamics and the segmental motion of selenium chains. The slow process displays a nearly-Arrhenius temperature dependence, while the fast process is strongly non-Arrhenius, and their combined contribution to viscosity is estimated using the Maxwell relation...
March 7, 2019: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mohammed M Obeid, Hamad Rahman Jappor, Shaker J Edrees, Majid M Shukur, Rabah Khenata, Y Mogulkoc
The electronic, structural, and magnetic characteristics of Cr atom substituting Ca atom in rocksalt CaS have been investigated within the formalism of (GGA + PBE) and PBE with Hubbard correction (GGA + U). Our findings point out that the ternary alloys are dynamically stable depending on the obtained results of elastic constants. For structural properties, it is clear that the lattice constants decrease and bulk modulus increases with increasing concentration of chromium impurity. Interestingly, the perceived total magnetic moments increase with the Cr concentration and reaches the maximum for Ca0...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Mats Simmermacher, Niels E Henriksen, Klaus B Møller, Andrés Moreno Carrascosa, Adam Kirrander
Simulations of nonresonant ultrafast x-ray scattering from a molecular wave packet in H_{2} are used to examine and classify the components that contribute to the total scattering signal. The elastic component, which can be used to determine the structural dynamics of the molecule, is also found to carry a strong signature of an adiabatic electron transfer that occurs in the simulated molecule. The inelastic component, frequently assumed to be constant, is found to change with the geometry of the molecule. Finally, a coherent mixed component due to interferences between different inelastic transitions is identified and shown to provide a direct probe of transient electronic coherences...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Elisabete Martins, Rita Cordovil, Raul Oliveira, Joana Pinho, Ana Diniz, Joao R Vaz
This study analyzes the immediate effects of wearing a Therasuit on sagittal plane lower limb angular displacements during gait in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (US-CP). Seven participants (median age = 7.00 years; ranging from 5.83 to 9.00 years) with US-CP, levels I and II of the Gross Motor Function Classification System, were assessed with kinematic gait analysis in three different conditions: (A) Baseline; (B) Therasuit without elastics and (C) Therasuit with elastics. Significant improvements were observed at the hip joint of both lower limbs during most of the gait cycle in participants wearing a Therasuit, including a decrease in the flexion pattern at the initial contact and swing phase in both lower limbs, and an increase in the extension pattern in the paretic lower limb during the stance phase...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Anna Lappala, Luke Sefton, Paul W Fenimore, Eugene M Terentjev
The glass transition is one of the few unsolved problems in condensed matter physics: agreement on the cause of the slowing down of structural relaxation in glass-forming liquids is lacking. Glasses are amorphous solids, which do not possess the long-range crystalline order, yet display arrested dynamics and the shear elastic modulus characteristic of equilibrium elasticity. It has been suggested that due to the influence of intramolecular interactions and chain connectivity, the nature of the glass transition in polymers and in standard glass-formers is fundamentally different...
March 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Sílvio Leão Vieira, Lucas Nonato de Oliveira, Antonio Adilton O Carneiro
Commonly dose-responses of conventional dosimetric methods are affected by a saturation dose and are known to be limited when the delivered dose is relatively high. In contrast, elastic properties of polymer-gel dosimeter phantoms play major roles in a new dosimetry technique using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). A single volume of polymer-gel dosimeter solution containing methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper was prepared. The material was subsequently stored in cylindrical containers for future use as a biological tissue-mimicking phantom material...
March 4, 2019: Medical Engineering & Physics
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