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Rasha H Dosh, Nicola Jordan-Mahy, Christopher Sammon, Christine L Le Maitre
The in vitro study of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) requires a cell model which closely reflects the characteristics of the in vivo intestinal epithelium. This study aimed to investigate the application of L-pNIPAM hydrogel as a scaffold to develop a long-term 3D co-culture model of Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells under conditions analogous to inflammation, to determine its potential use in studying IBD. Monocultures and co-cultures were layered on L-pNIPAM hydrogel scaffolds and maintained under dynamic culture conditions for up to 12 weeks...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jun-Hui Yu, Jian-Bao Zheng, Jie Qi, Kui Yang, Yun-Hua Wu, Kai Wang, Chun-Bao Wang, Xue-Jun Sun
Bile acids serve a critical role in the induction of gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric carcinogenesis. The present study investigated the effects of bile acids on the induction of gastric IM formation. The results demonstrated that the expression levels of caudal‑related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2), mucin 2 (MUC2) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) were increased in vitro and in vivo following treatment with bile acids, and CDX2 transcriptionally activated MUC2 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of FXR attenuated bile acid‑enhanced CDX2 promoter activity and protein expression...
January 22, 2019: International Journal of Oncology
Ji Eun Kim, Woo Bin Yun, Mi Lim Lee, Jun Young Choi, Jin Ju Park, Hye Ryeong Kim, Bo Ram Song, Jin Tae Hong, Hyun Keun Song, Dae Youn Hwang
Constipation is an acute or chronic illness attributed to various causes, ranging from lifestyle habits to side effects of a disease. To improve the laxative effects of some traditional medicines, herbal mixtures of Liriope platyphylla, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Cinnamomum cassia (LGC) were evaluated for their mechanism of action and therapeutic effects in loperamide (Lop)-induced constipated Sprague Dawley rats by examining alterations in excretion parameters, histological structure, mucin secretion, and related protein levels...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Food
Satoshi Kawai, Yutaka Torii, Iwao Kukimoto, Takuma Fujii
We herein present a case of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the cervix. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 38-mm cervical tumor, and computed tomography revealed no findings suggestive of distal metastasis or other tumor origins. Gastrointestinal endoscopy showed no abnormal findings. Histopathology revealed signet-ring cell-type mucinous adenocarcinoma. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were negative for the mammary neoplasm marker, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 and gastrointestinal neoplasm markers, MUC2, MUC6, and CDX2, but positive for p16...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Jiao Song, Xin Lei, Jingxian Luo, Nadia Everaert, Guiping Zhao, Jie Wen, Ye Yang
This study was to investigate the effects of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on intestinal morphology, antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory response in heat-stressed broiler. A total of 192 2-week-old Arbour Acres broilers chickens were divided into four groups with six replicates per group and eight chickens per replicate: one thermoneutral control group (28°C, group TN), which was fed the basal diet; and three cyclic high-temperature groups (35°C from 7:00 to 19:00 hr; 28°C from 19:00 hr to 7:00 hr, heat stress group), which were fed the basal diet supplementation with EGCG 0 mg/kg (group HS0), 300 mg/kg (group HS300) and 600 mg/kg (group HS600)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Bo Li, Alison Hock, Richard Y Wu, Adam Minich, Steven R Botts, Carol Lee, Lina Antounians, Hiromu Miyake, Yuhki Koike, Yong Chen, Augusto Zani, Philip M Sherman, Agostino Pierro
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is characterized by intestinal injury and impaired mucin synthesis. We recently showed that breast milk exosomes from rodents promote intestinal cell viability, epithelial proliferation, and stem cell activity, but whether they also affect mucus production is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bovine milk-derived exosomes on goblet cell expression in experimental NEC and delineate potential underlying mechanisms of action. Exosomes were isolated from bovine milk by ultracentrifugation and confirmed by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis and through the detection of exosome membrane markers...
2019: PloS One
F F Liu, D H Shen, H L Wang, Y T Ma, F Yuan, J Liu, L Chen, Q J Song, Y Y Zhang
Objective: To investigate the expression of immunomarkers CK7, CK20, CK17, CDX2, MUC1 and MUC2 in primary adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater, to explore the role of these markers in the histopathologic subclassification of ampullary carcinoma; and to provide biologic basis for precision treatment of patients with different types of ampullary carcinoma. Methods: Forty-two cases of primary ampullary carcinoma were collected at Peking University People's Hospital, from 2012 to 2018 year. There were 22 males and 20 females...
February 8, 2019: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Suleyman Bademler, Alisan Zirtiloglu, Murat Sari, Muhammed Zubeyr Ucuncu, Elif Bilgin Dogru, Senem Karabulut
This study was conducted to investigate the serum levels of membrane-bound mucin 2 (MUC2) in breast cancer (BC) patients and the relationship with tumour progression and known prognostic parameters. We enrolled 127 female patients with histopathologically diagnosed BC who did not receive chemotherapy (CT) or radiotherapy. Serum MUC 2 levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and compared with those of 40 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Median age of diagnosis was 50 (range: 26⁻78)...
January 24, 2019: Biomolecules
Ian S Reynolds, Michael Fichtner, Deborah A McNamara, Elaine W Kay, Jochen H M Prehn, John P Burke
Overexpression of mucin glycoproteins has been demonstrated in many epithelial-derived cancers. The significance of this overexpression remains uncertain. The aim of this paper was to define the association of mucin glycoproteins with apoptosis, cell growth, invasion, migration, adhesion, and clonogenicity in vitro as well as tumor growth, tumorigenicity, and metastasis in vivo in epithelial-derived cancers by performing a systematic review of all published data. A systematic review of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed to identify all papers that evaluated the association between mucin glycoproteins with apoptosis, cell growth, invasion, migration, adhesion, and clonogenicity in vitro as well as tumor growth, tumorigenicity, and metastasis in vivo in epithelial-derived cancers...
January 24, 2019: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Pratibha Singh, Pedro Ochoa Allemant, Joanne Brown, George Perides, Steven D Freedman, Camilia R Martin
BACKGROUND: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) play a critical role in neonatal health. We hypothesized that LCPUFAs play an essential role in priming postnatal gut development. We studied the effect of LCPUFAs on postnatal gut development using fat-1 transgenic mice, which are capable of converting n-6 to n-3 LCPUFAs, and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. RESULTS: Fat-1 mice, relative to WT mice, showed increased n-3 LCPUFAs levels (α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid, p < 0...
January 17, 2019: Pediatric Research
Maria Koleva, Dorian Dikov, Veselin Belovejdov, Victoria Sarafian
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic metaplasia (EM) in the prostate is characterized by the presence of eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules in benign prostatic epithelium. These granules show exocrine-type morphology and positive expression for prostate specific antigen (PSA) and some lysosomal markers. The nature and the full immunohistochemical profile of the granules of EM have not been studied in detail yet. AIM: The aim of the current study is to investigate the expression of epithelial mucins (MUCs) in prostatic epithelium with EM...
January 16, 2019: Prostate
Sridevi Ranganathan, Michele Doucet, Christen L Grassel, BreOnna Delaine-Elias, Nicholas C Zachos, Eileen M Barry
The enteric pathogen, Shigella , is one of the leading causes of moderate-to-severe diarrhea and death in young children in developing countries. Transformed cell lines and animal models have been widely used to study Shigella pathogenesis. In addition to altered physiology, transformed cell lines are composed of a single cell type that does not sufficiently represent the complex multi-cellular environment of the human colon. Most available animal models do not accurately mimic human disease. The human intestinal enteroid model, derived from LGR5+ stem cell-containing intestinal crypts from healthy subjects represents a technological leap in human gastrointestinal system modeling and provides a more physiologically relevant system that includes multiple cell types and features of the human intestine...
January 14, 2019: Infection and Immunity
Masayuki Tanaka, Max Heckler, Bing Liu, Ulrike Heger, Thilo Hackert, Christoph W Michalski
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN) can progress to cancer. Biomarkers have been identified that were reported to increase the accuracy of identification of malignant lesions-we performed systematic review of the accuracy of these markers. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of published studies on biomarkers of malignant IPMNs by searching MEDLINE and Web of Science databases from January 2005 through December 2017...
January 7, 2019: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Yun Li, Yue Zhang, Xiaoli Zhang, Xiaoyan Feng, Chenzhe Liu, Xiuneng Zhang, Zhusheng Quan, Jingting Yan, Jinxia Zhu
Dopamine regulates gastrointestinal mucosal barrier. Mucus plays important roles in protection of intestinal mucosa. Here, the regulatory effect of dopamine on rat colonic mucus secretion was investigated. RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, Periodic Acid-Schiff's reagent assay, Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff staining, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to observe the expression of dopamine receptor and the direct effect of dopamine on the colonic mucus. Mice injected intraperitoneally with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) destroying enteric DA neurons, rats microinjected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the bilateral substantia nigra damaging central dopaminergic neurons, and dopamine D5 receptor down-regulated transgenic mice were used to detect the effect of endogenous enteric dopamine or dopamine receptors on distal colonic mucus...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Rakesh Bhatia, Shailendra K Gautam, Andrew Cannon, Christopher Thompson, Bradley R Hall, Abhijit Aithal, Kasturi Banerjee, Maneesh Jain, Joyce C Solheim, Sushil Kumar, Surinder K Batra
Mucins (MUC) protect epithelial barriers from environmental insult to maintain homeostasis. However, their aberrant overexpression and glycosylation in various malignancies facilitate oncogenic events from inception to metastasis. Mucin-associated sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigens bind to various receptors present on the dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and natural killer (NK) cells, resulting in overall immunosuppression by either receptor masking or inhibition of cytolytic activity. MUC1-mediated interaction of tumor cells with innate immune cells hampers cross-presentation of processed antigens on MHC class I molecules...
January 8, 2019: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Wenjuan Yang, Lihua Lai, Qingqing Wang
Goblet cells (GCs) are single-cell glands of humans and mammals, which are distributed in the epithelia of the respiratory tract, digestive tract, reproductive tract and so on. The mucin 2 (MUC2) in the intestine is mainly secreted by GCs. Mucin, water and inorganic salts form a mucous barrier on the surface of the intestinal mucosa, which plays an important role in resisting the invasion of foreign bacteria and intestinal microbes, maintaining the dynamic balance of intestinal mucosa and regulating the microbial-host immune response...
November 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Xing-Jun Xiong, Xiao-Mei Li, Yu-Min He, Xiao-Qin Li, Hai-Yan Xu, Min-Lu Feng, Hai-Bo He, Ji-Hong Zhang, Shu Zhu, Komatsu Katsuko, Kun Zou
To observe the effect of total triterpenoids of Chaenomeles speciosa on PPARγ/SIRT1/NF-κBp65 signaling pathway and intestinal mucosal barrier of ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice, C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, total triterpenoids of C. speciosa (50, 100 mg·kg⁻¹) groups and sulfasalazine (250 mg·kg⁻¹) group. The ulcerative colitis (UC) model was induced by orally administering 2.5% DSS to the experimental mice, and the corresponding drugs were given to each group 3 days before the administration with 2...
November 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Hong Kyu Lee, Mi Jung Kwon, Jinwon Seo, Jeong Won Kim, Mineui Hong, Hye-Rim Park, Soo Kee Min, Ji-Young Choe, Yong Joon Ra, Seung Hun Jang, Yong Il Hwang, Ho Young Kim, Kyueng-Whan Min
ALK-positive (ALK+) lung adenocarcinoma usually shows a more advanced-staged disease with frequent nodal metastasis and highly aggressive outcomes compared with EGFR-mutated lung cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profiles of several mucins in ALK + lung cancers to gain insight into the relationship between the more aggressive biological nature of ALK + lung cancers and the role of mucins. We examined the immunohistochemical profiles of mucins MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 in 19 ALK + lung cancers compared with 42 EGFR-mutated lung cancers...
December 10, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Li Wei, Jing Zhao, Jing Bao, Yanliang Ma, Ying Shang, Zhancheng Gao
To investigate the expression and clinical significance of secretory mucins in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) concentrations of mucins (MUCs) from 27 patients with ILD, 6 patients with lung cancer, 8 patients with pleural effusion and 9 patients with bronchiectasis were determined by ELISA. The concentration of MUC5AC was significantly increased in patients with ILD (12.84±15.02 ng/mL) compared with patients with pleural effusion (4.33±2.51 ng/mL), lung cancer (8...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Irida Palamidi, Konstantinos C Mountzouris
This study was designed to study the effect of diet supplementation with an organic acids-based formulation (OABF) on luminal- and mucosa-associated bacteria, concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA), microbial glycolytic enzyme activity and expression of mucin 2 ( MUC2 ), immunoglobulin A ( IgA ) and tight junction protein, i.e., zonula occludens-1 ( ZO1 ), zonula occludens-2 ( ZO2 ), claudin-1 ( CLDN1 ), claudin-5 ( CLDN5 ) and occludin ( OCLN ), genes at the ileal and cecal level. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used having OABF inclusion and avilamycin as main factors...
December 2018: Animal nutrition
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