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Solar water splitting

Yun Kuang, Michael J Kenney, Yongtao Meng, Wei-Hsuan Hung, Yijin Liu, Jianan Erick Huang, Rohit Prasanna, Pengsong Li, Yaping Li, Lei Wang, Meng-Chang Lin, Michael D McGehee, Xiaoming Sun, Hongjie Dai
Electrolysis of water to generate hydrogen fuel is an attractive renewable energy storage technology. However, grid-scale freshwater electrolysis would put a heavy strain on vital water resources. Developing cheap electrocatalysts and electrodes that can sustain seawater splitting without chloride corrosion could address the water scarcity issue. Here we present a multilayer anode consisting of a nickel-iron hydroxide (NiFe) electrocatalyst layer uniformly coated on a nickel sulfide (NiSx) layer formed on porous Ni foam (NiFe/NiSx-Ni), affording superior catalytic activity and corrosion resistance in solar-driven alkaline seawater electrolysis operating at industrially required current densities (0...
March 18, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jiaxin Zhu, Jinyan Xiong, Gang Cheng, Weijie Li, Shixue Dou
Developing a highly efficient photocatalysis system based on a photocatalyst-cocatalyst host for the hydrogen evolution reaction has potential but is still challenging. Herein, we report enhanced splitting of water achieved by loading copper metal particles on mesoporous TiO2 microrods through involving of dual ligand agents into the reaction system. The composition, structure, and surface characteristics of the TiO2 -Cu hybrid were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Mostafa Afifi Hassan, Muhammad Ali Johar, Aadil Waseem, Indrajit V Bagal, Jun-Seok Ha, Sang-Wan Ryu
A core-shell structure, formed in a nanostructured photoanode, is an effective strategy to achieve high solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency. In this study, we present a facile and simple synthesis of a unique vertically aligned ZnO/ZnS core-shell heterostructure nanowires (NWs) on a Si substrate. Well-aligned ZnO NWs were grown on Si (100) substrates on a low-temperature ZnO buffer layer by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The ZnO NWs were then coated with various thicknesses of ZnS shell layers using atomic layer deposition...
February 18, 2019: Optics Express
Huafan Zhang, Mohamed Ebaid, Jeremy Tan, Guangyu Liu, Jung-Wook Min, Tien Khee Ng, Boon S Ooi
InGaN-based nanowires (NWs) have been investigated as efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting devices. In this work, the InGaN/GaN NWs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) having InGaN segments on top of GaN seeds. Three axial heterojunction structures were constructed with different doping types and levels, namely n-InGaN/n-GaN NWs, undoped (u)-InGaN/p-GaN NWs, and p-InGaN/p-GaN NWs. With the carrier concentrations estimated by Mott-Schottky measurements, a PC1D simulation further confirmed the band structures of the three heterojunctions...
February 18, 2019: Optics Express
Ronglei Fan, Zetian Mi, Mingrong Shen
Solar water splitting using Si photoelectrodes in photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells offers a promising approach to convert sunlight into sustainable hydrogen energy, which has recently received intense research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of efficient and stable Si photoelectrodes for solar water splitting. The definition and representation of efficiency and stability for Si photoelectrodes are firstly introduced. We then present several basic strategies for designing highly efficient and stable Si photoelectrodes, including surface textures, protective layer, catalyst loading and the integration of the system...
February 18, 2019: Optics Express
Songcan Wang, Gang Liu, Lianzhou Wang
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising approach for solar-driven hydrogen production with zero emissions, and it has been intensively studied over the past decades. However, the solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiencies of the current PEC systems are still far from the 10% target needed for practical application. The development of efficient photoelectrodes in PEC systems holds the key to achieving high STH efficiencies. In recent years, crystal facet engineering has emerged as an important strategy in designing efficient photoelectrodes for PEC water splitting, which has yet to be comprehensively reviewed and is the main focus of this article...
March 15, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Jin Hyun Kim, Dharmesh Hansora, Pankaj Sharma, Ji-Wook Jang, Jae Sung Lee
Solar water splitting is a promising approach to transform sunlight into renewable, sustainable and green hydrogen energy. There are three representative ways of transforming solar radiation into molecular hydrogen, which are the photocatalytic (PC), photoelectrochemical (PEC), and photovoltaic-electrolysis (PV-EC) routes. Having the future perspective of green hydrogen economy in mind, this review article discusses devices and systems for solar-to-hydrogen production including comparison of the above solar water splitting systems...
March 11, 2019: Chemical Society Reviews
Wei Zhang, Haili He, Yong Tian, Kun Lan, Qi Liu, Changyao Wang, Yang Liu, Ahmed Elzatahry, Renchao Che, Wei Li, Dongyuan Zhao
As a benchmark photocatalyst, commercial P25-TiO2 has been widely used for various photocatalytic applications. However, the low surface area and poorly porous structure greatly limit its performance. Herein, uniform ordered mesoporous TiO2 microspheres (denoted as Meso-TiO2 - X ; X represents the rutile percentage in the resultant microspheres) with controllable anatase/rutile phase junctions and radially oriented mesochannels are synthesized by a coordination-mediated self-assembly approach. The anatase/rutile ratio in the resultant microspheres can be facilely adjusted as desired (rutile percentage: 0-100) by changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid...
February 14, 2019: Chemical Science
Josep Albero, Diego Mateo, Hermenegildo García
Photocatalysis has been proposed as one of the most promising approaches for solar fuel production. Among the photocatalysts studied for water splitting, graphene and related materials have recently emerged as attractive candidates due to their striking properties and sustainable production when obtained from biomass wastes. In most of the cases reported so far, graphene has been typically used as additive to enhance its photocatalytic activity of semiconductor materials as consequence of the improved charge separation and visible light harvesting...
March 5, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Aveek Dutta, Alberto Naldoni, Francesco Malara, Alexander O Govorov, Vladimir M Shalaev, Alexandra Boltasseva
Hydrogen is a promising alternative renewable fuel for meeting the growing energy demands of the world. Over the past few decades, photoelectrochemical water splitting has been widely studied as a viable technology for the production of hydrogen utilizing solar energy. A solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency of 10% is considered to be sufficient for practical applications. Amongst the wide class of semiconductors that have been studied for their application in solar water splitting, iron oxide (α-Fe2O3), or hematite, is one of the more promising candidate materials, with a theoretical STH efficiency of 15%...
March 1, 2019: Faraday Discussions
Songtao Tang, Mingyang Li, Duan Huang, Weitao Qiu, Shuang Xiao, Yexiang Tong, Shihe Yang
Constructing 3D nanophotonic structures is regarded as an effective means to realize both efficient light absorption and efficient charge separation. However, most of the 3D structures reported so far enhance light trapping beyond the absorption onset wavelength, and thus greatly attentuate or even completely block the long-wavelength light, which could otherwise be efficiently absorbed by narrow-bandgap materials in a Z-scheme or tandem device. In addition, constructing a 3D conductive substrate often involves complex processes causing increased cost and upscaling problems...
February 28, 2019: Small
Zhongbao Feng, Lin Wang, Dagang Li, Shuaibo Gao, Qiang Sun, Pai Lu, Pengfei Xing, Maozhong An
Ni-Co-Se has attracted much attention in the field of solar cells, electrocatalyst water splitting and supercapacitor, and electrodeposition is a simple, convenient and low-cost way to obtain Ni-Co-Se layer. However, up to now, the electrochemical kinetics including the growth and nucleation mechanisms of Ni-Co-Se system are still unclear. In present work NiCoSe2 layer with nanosheet structure was electrodeposited from a chloride bath. The electrochemical mechanisms of Ni-Co-Se system were also studied. It is noted that the electrochemical kinetics of Ni-Co-Se electrodeposition can be influenced by both temperature and electrode material, however the temperature does not change the progressive nucleation process and mixed controlled growth mechanism of Ni-Co-Se...
February 25, 2019: Nanotechnology
Jin Hyun Kim, Jae Sung Lee
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells for solar-energy conversion have received immense interest as a promising technology for renewable hydrogen production. Their similarity to natural photosynthesis, utilizing sunlight and water, has provoked intense research for over half a century. Among many potential photocatalysts, BiVO4 , with a bandgap of 2.4-2.5 eV, has emerged as a highly promising photoanode material with a good chemical stability, environmental inertness, and low cost. Unfortunately, its charge transport properties are modest, at most a hole diffusion length (Lp ) of ≈70 nm...
February 21, 2019: Advanced Materials
Wei Wang, Meigui Xu, Xiaomin Xu, Wei Zhou, Zongping Shao
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is an attractive strategy for the large-scale production of renewable hydrogen from water. Developing cost-effective, active and stable semiconducting photoelectrodes is extremely important for achieving PEC water splitting with high solar-to-hydrogen efficiency. Perovskite oxides as a large family of semiconducting metal oxides are extensively investigated as electrodes in PEC water splitting owing to their abundance, high (photo)electrochemical stability, compositional and structural flexibility allowing the achievement of high electrocatalytic activity, superior sunlight absorption capability and precise control and tuning of band gaps and band edges...
February 20, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Beibei Dong, Junyan Cui, Yuying Gao, Yu Qi, Fuxiang Zhang, Can Li
Heterostructures are widely fabricated for promotion of photogenerated charge separation and solar cell/fuel production. (Oxy)nitrides are extremely promising for solar energy conversion, but the fabrication of heterostructures based on nitrogen-containing semiconductors is still challenging. Here, a simple ammonia thermal synthesis of a heterostructure (denoted as Ta3 N5 /BTON) composed of 1D Ta3 N5 nanorods and BaTaO2 N (BTON) nanoparticles (0D), which is demonstrated to result in a remarkable increase in photogenerated charge separation and solar hydrogen production from water, is introduced...
February 20, 2019: Advanced Materials
Baichuan Lu, Xiaoyan Zheng, Zesheng Li
Photocatalytic water splitting by two-dimensional (2D) material is a promising technology for producing clean and renewable energy. Development of this field requires candidate materials with desirable optoelectronic properties. Here we present a detailed theoretical investigation of the atomic and electronic structure of few-layer P4 O2 systems to predict their optoelectronic properties. We predict that the three-layer P4 O2 with normal packing (α-3), ingeniously combining all desired optoelectronic features, is an ideal candidate for photocatalytic water splitting...
February 20, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yuanxing Fang, Xiaochun Li, Xinchen Wang
Overcoming the sluggish kinetics of the water oxidation is the key to lead a high performance for solar water splitting. Herein, we find that phosphorylated polymeric carbon nitride (PCN) photoanodes present enhanced photocurrent density for solar water splitting, and the photocatalytic efficiency is achieved 120 µA/cm2 in basic solution (1.0 M NaOH) without scarifice agent. In this sytem, phosphates ionically anchor on the surface of PCN, and the modified films show significantly increased density of valance electrons, and thus promoting photoelectrocatalytic efficiency...
February 18, 2019: ChemSusChem
Bo You, Michael T Tang, Charlie Tsai, Frank Abild-Pedersen, Xiaolin Zheng, Hong Li
Electrochemical water splitting driven by sustainable energy such as solar, wind, and tide is attracting ever-increasing attention for sustainable production of clean hydrogen fuel from water. Leveraging these advances requires efficient and earth-abundant electrocatalysts to accelerate the kinetically sluggish hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER). A large number of advanced water-splitting electrocatalysts have been developed through recent understanding of the electrochemical nature and engineering approaches...
February 18, 2019: Advanced Materials
Hanggara Sudrajat, Yizhong Zhou, Takuro Sasaki, Nobuyuki Ichikuni, Hiroshi Onishi
Visible light sensitization of sodium tantalate (NaTaO3), a highly UV-active material, is critical for realizing its practical application in photocatalytic water splitting under solar light. Double doping of a half-filled transition metal together with another metal for cationic charge balance is a promising way of sensitizing NaTaO3 to visible light. One fundamental issue is that the atomic-scale structure of such doubly doped NaTaO3 is not yet fully understood. In this study, we doubly doped NaTaO3 with La3+ and Cr3+ through a solid-state route...
February 18, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ruting Huang, Shoushuang Huang, Dayong Chen, Qian Zhang, Thanh-Tung Le, Qing Wang, Zhangjun Hu, Zhiwen Chen
One-dimensional (1D) heterostructured photocatalysts with controllable texture properties and compositions have attracted increasing interest owing to their unique optical, structural, and electronic advantages. Herein, 1D Co3 O4 -SnO2 heteronanorods were rationally designed and synthesized through a facile solution-based approach. Benefiting from both of their heterostructural and compositional characteristics, the resulting Co3 O4 -SnO2 heteronanorods exhibit high photocatalytic performance for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irridation...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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