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Current concepts

Catharina Majer, Jan Moritz Schüssler, Renate König
SAMHD1 was initially described for its ability to efficiently restrict HIV-1 replication in myeloid cells and resting CD4+ T cells. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that SAMHD1-mediated restriction is by far not limited to lentiviruses, but seems to be a general concept that applies to most retroviruses and at least a number of DNA viruses. SAMHD1 anti-viral activity was long believed to be solely due to its ability to deplete cellular dNTPs by enzymatic degradation. However, since its discovery, several new functions have been attributed to SAMHD1...
March 16, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Tina Kauss, Marie-Hélène Langlois, Alice Guyonnet-Dupérat, Thida Phoeung, Xiao Yu Xie, Anthony Cartwright, Nicholas White, Melba Gomes, Karen Gaudin
Current paediatric antibiotic therapies often use oral and parenteral routes of administration. Neither are suitable for treating very sick neonates who cannot take oral medication and may be several hours away from hospital in developing countries. Here, we report on the development of rectal forms of ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, along with an absorption enhancer, sodium chenodeoxycholate. Recto-dispersible tablets and capsules were developed and successfully passed 6-month accelerated stability tests...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Annie von Eyken, Stéphane Bayen
Non-targeted screening (e.g., suspected-target) is emerging as an attractive tool to investigate the occurrence of contaminants in food. The sample preparation and instrument analysis steps are known to influence the identification of analytes with non-targeted workflows, especially for complex matrices. However, for methods based on mass spectrometry, the impact of the post-analysis data treatment (e.g., feature extraction) on the capacity to correctly identify a contaminant at trace level is currently not well understood...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
R R Bajpai, S Razdan, M A Sanchez-Gonzalez, S Razdan
PURPOSE: Inguinal hernia (IH) is detected in approximately 33% of RALP's either pre or intraoperatively wherein all are repaired during RALP to circumvent future herniorrhaphy (Fukuta et al., Urology 68(2):267-271, 2006; Nielsen, Urology 66(5):1034-1037, 2005). Some debate this policy by quoting the potential risk of mesh lying close to the vesicourethral anastomosis leading to infections and adhesions. The current study was initiated to elucidate the feasibility and outcomes of simultaneous inguinal herniorrhaphy (IHR) during RALP...
March 15, 2019: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Lalathaksha Kumbar, Jerry Yee
Infection-related causes are second only to cardiovascular events for mortality among end-stage renal disease patients. This review will provide an overview of hemodialysis catheter-, graft-, and fistula-related infections with emphasis on diagnosis and management in specific settings. Use of catheters at the initiation of dialysis has remained unchanged at 80%. Of all access-related bloodstream infections (BSIs), 70% occur in patients with catheters. The risk factors for BSIs in tunneled, cuffed catheters include the duration of the catheter, past catheter-related bacteremia, left-sided internal jugular vein catheters, hypoalbuminemia, and immunosuppression...
January 2019: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Amanika Kumar, Katherine M Nesbitt, Jamie N Bakkum-Gamez
Quality improvement in healthcare has accelerated over the past two decades, including in gynecologic oncology. Improvements have been made on a practice, institution, system and national scale, and efforts have focused on improving safety, efficiency, and cost of care. Gynecologic oncology practitioners ought to engage in this work to improve patient outcomes, comply with federal regulation, and continue to meet required educational requirements of training programs. In gynecologic oncology there are already many examples of successful quality improvement initiatives that have resulted in improved patient care, including the implementation of enhanced recovery after surgery programs, reduction in blood transfusion, and increases in guideline adherent cancer care...
March 2019: Gynecologic Oncology
Yuan Cao, Yongli Zhao, Jianquan Wang, Xiaosong Yu, Zhangchao Ma, Jie Zhang
Quantum key distribution (QKD) holds the potential of providing long-term integrity and confidentiality for data and communications. Currently, many fiber-based QKD systems have been commercialized and several QKD networks have been deployed. Given the high cost and complexity of QKD network deployment, QKD as a service (QaaS) becomes a promising pattern for future QKD networks. The QaaS concept is that multiple users can apply for QKD services to obtain their required secret-key rates (SKRs) from the same QKD network infrastructure instead of deploying their dedicated QKD networks...
March 4, 2019: Optics Express
Jon Mariñelarena, Haritz Iribas, Javier Urricelqui, Alayn Loayssa
We demonstrate a technique to compensate the nonlocal effects that appear in Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensors when pump pulses with limited extinction ratio are deployed. These recently discovered nonlocal effects are originated in the interaction between the probe wave and the pulse pedestal. Hence, their compensation method is based on deploying a modulation (dithering) of the optical frequency of the probe and pulse pedestal waves that provides a reduction of the effective interaction length between them...
March 4, 2019: Optics Express
Mozammel Mia, Grzegorz Królczyk, Radosław Maruda, Szymon Wojciechowski
Recently, the concept of smart manufacturing systems urges for intelligent optimization of process parameters to eliminate wastage of resources, especially materials and energy. In this context, the current study deals with optimization of hard-turning parameters using evolutionary algorithms. Though the complex programming, parameters selection, and ability to obtain the global optimal solution are major concerns of evolutionary based algorithms, in the present paper, the optimization was performed by using efficient algorithms i...
March 15, 2019: Materials
Kerstin Denecke, Sandra Lutz Hochreutener, Annkathrin Pöpel, Richard May
OBJECTIVE:  Self-anamnesis is a procedure in which a patient answers questions about the personal medical history without interacting directly with a doctor or medical assistant. If collected digitally, the anamnesis data can be shared among the health care team. In this article, we introduce a concept for digital anamnesis collection and assess the applicability of a conversational user interface (CUI) for realizing a mobile self-anamnesis application. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  We implemented our concept for self-anamnesis for the concrete field of music therapy...
November 2018: Methods of Information in Medicine
Igor Tsaur, Isabel Heidegger, Alexander Kretschmer, Hendrik Borgmann, Giorgio Gandaglia, Alberto Briganti, Pieter de Visschere, Romain Mathieu, Massimo Valerio, Roderick van den Bergh, Piet Ost, Cristian Mirvald, Derya Tilki, Guillaume Ploussard, Cristian Surcel
Recently, adoption of novel drugs for systemic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer has led to a striking improvement of response rate and survival in both hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant disease. In most cases, prostate cancer essentially depends on androgen receptor signaling axis, even in castration-resistant setting, and hence may be targeted by second generation hormonal therapy. However, a subset of patients bears androgen-independent cancer biology with a short-term response to hormonal treatment, early and extensive visceral metastases, low PSA levels and poor outcomes...
March 11, 2019: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Vibeke M Bruinenberg, Danique van Vliet, Els van der Goot, Danielle S Counotte, Mirjam Kuhn, Francjan J van Spronsen, Eddy A van der Zee
INTRODUCTION: In phenylketonuria (PKU), a gene mutation in the phenylalanine metabolic pathway causes accumulation of phenylalanine (Phe) in blood and brain. Although early introduction of a Phe-restricted diet can prevent severe symptoms from developing, patients who are diagnosed and treated early still experience deficits in cognitive functioning indicating shortcomings of current treatment. In the search for new and/or additional treatment strategies, a specific nutrient combination (SNC) was postulated to improve brain function in PKU...
2019: PloS One
Anne Fausto-Sterling
In this review, I explore theoretical and empirical approaches to the development of gender/sex and sexual orientation (SO). Leaving behind the nature versus nurture opposition, I look at both identities as deeply embodied. My approach intertwines sex, gender, orientation, bodies, and cultures without a demand to choose one over the other. First, I introduce basic definitions, focusing on how intertwined the concepts of sex and gender really are. I affirm recent trends to consider a new term-gender/sex-as the best way to think about these deeply interwoven bodily traits...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Sex Research
Julius Steffen, Markus Lenski, Florian E Herrmann, Harald Mückter, Konstantinos Dimitriadis, Martin R Fischer
With rapid progress in medicine, a thorough understanding of pharmacology remains crucial. Currently, lecturers are implementing competency-based learning objectives in medical curricula around the world. Advancing teaching modalities need to be integrated into pharmacology courses in a reasonable way. At Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) Munich Medical Faculty, a systematic evidence-based approach was used to modernize pharmacology classes. The needs assessment was conducted by final-year students. It included focus groups and a large-scale online survey, which was distributed among all medical students at LMU, with 1018 students participating (response rate 20%)...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Eran Gold, Yossi Mizrachi, Amir Shalev, Jacob Farhi, Eran Horowitz, Amir Ravhon, Sarit Alush, David Levran, Arie Raziel, Ariel Weissman
PURPOSE: Screening for blood born viruses is routinely performed before fertility treatment in assisted reproduction technology (ART) clinics worldwide. It involves testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), among others. Identifying patients with positive viral screening allows to refer them and their partners for appropriate counseling and treatment. The need for repeat viral screening and its required frequency have never been clearly established...
March 14, 2019: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
J Lakes, C Arsov
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCA) is the most common type of cancer in men. The significant increase in incidence is most likely caused by the overdiagnosis of prostate cancer by widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. OBJECTIVES: This article reviews the three largest randomized trials of PSA-based prostate cancer screening and the benefits and disadvantages of general PSA screening. It gives an overview about the strategies to avoid the harms from overdetection and overtreatment without missing clinically relevant tumors...
March 14, 2019: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
D N Zhdanok, A A Ovchinnikov
Current concepts of post-psychotic period rarely include posttraumatic context due to the conventional clinical opinion about psychotic disorders and transformation of the typical posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The authors presented the ways of coincidence of dissociative posttraumatic symptoms (dissociative spectra) and psychotic spectra, their reciprocal connection and different variants depending on psychosis dynamic type.
2019: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
O A Klochkova, A L Kurenkov
Botulinum toxin A (BTA) injections are an effective method of spasticity treatment in cerebral palsy (CP) but still there are a lot of questions about the selection of target muscles. The article summarizes currently accepted approaches to the goal setting and prioritizing in CP botulinum toxin therapy according to the form of CP, GMFCS level, age, spasticity level and other factors. The authors discuss the Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) and its possibilities in the BTA injections planning and evaluation of the results...
2019: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Diane Laatz, Tyson Welzel, Willem Stassen
Introduction: Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) are an expensive resource that should be utilised efficiently to optimise the cost-benefit ratio. This is especially true in resource-limited settings, such as South Africa. This may be achieved by implementing call-out criteria that are most appropriate to the healthcare system in which HEMS operate. Currently, there are no published evidence-based HEMS call-out criteria developed for South Africa. By identifying patients that are most likely to benefit from HEMS, their utilisation can be enhanced and adjusted to ensure optimal patient outcome...
March 2019: African Journal of Emergency Medicine Revue
Tobias J Erb
Biology is turning from an analytical into a synthetic discipline. This is especially apparent in the field of metabolic engineering, where the concept of synthetic metabolism has been recently developed. Compared to classical metabolic engineering efforts, synthetic metabolism aims at creating novel metabolic networks in a rational fashion from bottom-up. However, while the theoretical design of synthetic metabolic networks has made tremendous progress, the actual realization of such synthetic pathways is still lacking behind...
2019: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
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