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Manuel A Schmidt, Tobias Engelhorn, Arnd Dörfler, Georg Michelson
MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) enables visualisation of the visual system in glaucoma; it has been shown that the atrophy of the optic radiation is more pronounced in glaucoma than in age-matched controls. The atrophy of the optic radiation thereby correlates with OCT and visual field measures. Diffusion tensor imaging permits quantification of the axonal integrity of the optic radiation by calculation of fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD). Both within and also outside the visual system, there are substantial changes in FA and RD, changes suggesting a complex neurodegenerative disease...
February 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Florian Zweipfenning, Sandra P Toelle, Christina Gerth-Kahlert
BACKGROUND: Evaluation and comparison of the ocular phenotype in patients diagnosed with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Analysis of ocular complications during follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of patients with TSC who had received an ocular examination at the eye clinic of the University Hospital Zurich. Data were analysed on visual acuity (VA) assessment, refraction, anterior and posterior eye examination including the distinction of different types of hamartomas and, when available, visual fields...
February 14, 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Audrey Nguyen, François-Xavier Borruat
BACKGROUND: The Heimann-Bielschowsky phenomenon (HBP) is an unusual form of monocular vertical pendular nystagmus and is usually asymptomatic. It always occurs in an eye with longstanding, profound visual loss. Reports of HBP are few and HBP is probably underdiagnosed. Recognition of HBP could prevent unnecessary and potentially harmful investigations. The purpose of this study was to report a series of patients with HBP and to summarise the international literature on the subject in order to better define the clinical presentation of HBP...
February 14, 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Kevin Gillmann, André Mermoud
PURPOSE: To assess the visual performance, clinical and quality of life outcomes, and subjective patient satisfaction after implantation of a new refractive/extended depth of focus (EDOF) hybrid intraocular lens (IOL). METHODS: This is a monocentric, retrospective study of 29 patients (45 eyes), carried out in a tertiary care glaucoma research centre. All patients underwent implantation of a Lucidis (Swiss Advanced Vision, SAV-IOL SA, Neuchâtel, Switzerland) IOL during cataract surgery...
February 14, 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Gang Seok Jeon, Jae Ryong Han
PURPOSE: To assess treatment efficacy of scleral buckling surgery with wide-field surgical microscope and 27-gauge (G) chandelier illumination for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). METHODS: This study is a retrospective chart review of 29 eyes in 29 patients with RRD who underwent scleral buckling surgery with a wide-field surgical microscope and 27-G chandelier illumination fiber inserted into the sclera at the pars plana. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation...
February 14, 2019: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
Chiara Zecca, Zbyšek Pavelek, Kateřina Přikrylová, Mascia Ghielmetti, Andreas Beeler, Claudio Gobbi
BACKGROUND: Interferon beta (IFNB) and Glatiramer acetate, long-term first line disease modifying treatments (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS), have different injection frequencies crucial for injection site related side effects. We aimed at investigating whether switching to intramuscular IFNB-1a injected once/week with the Avonex®Pen™ device improves treatment tolerability and quality of life in stable MS patients. METHODS: Clinically stable MS patients, whom their treating neurologist switched from high frequency injectable DMTs to weekly intramuscular IFNB-1a because of bothersome injection site reactions, were included...
February 6, 2019: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Junji Hou, Guoqun Zhao, Lei Zhang, Guilong Wang, Bo Li
The preparation of high-expansion open-cell foam for oil spill clean-ups is important, but still challenging with linear isotactic polypropylene (PP). Therefore, a cooling batch foaming method was designed to fabricate the high-expansion PP foams using supercritical CO2 as a blowing agent. To investigate the relation between the crystallization and foaming of PP, an in-situ visualization system was employed. It is found that the CO2 dissolved in polymer melt depresses the crystallization temperature and nucleation of PP...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jon Strunk, Audrey Duarte
Healthy aging is associated with declines in episodic memory performance that are due in part to deficits in encoding. Emerging results from young adult studies suggest that the neural activity during the time preceding stimulus presentation is sensitive to episodic memory performance. It is unknown whether age-related declines in episodic memory are due solely to changes in the recruitment of processes elicited by stimuli during encoding or also in processes recruited in anticipation of these stimuli. Here, we recorded oscillatory electroencephalography while young and old participants encoded visual and auditory words that were preceded by cues indicating the stimulus modality...
January 21, 2019: Neurobiology of Aging
Muhammad Arif, Adriaan Moelker, Theo van Walsum
2D ultrasound (US) image guidance is used in minimally invasive procedures in the liver to visualize the target and the needle. Needle insertion using 2D ultrasound keeping the transducer position to view needle and reach target is challenging. Dedicated needle holders attached to the US transducer help to target in plane and at a specific angle. A drawback of this is that, the probe is fixed to the needle and cannot be rotated to assess the position of the needle in a perpendicular plane. In this study, we propose an automatic needle detection and tracking method using 3D US imaging to improve image guidance and visualization of the target in the liver with respect to the needle during these interventional procedures...
February 2, 2019: Medical Image Analysis
Sonia Crottaz-Herbette, Isabel Tissieres, Eleonora Fornari, Pierre-André Rapin, Stephanie Clarke
Left hemispheric stroke is known to be associated with right neglect and/or not lateralized attentional deficits. The former appears to respond favourably to leftward prismatic adaptation (L-PA), as reported in a case of a large left stroke. In normal subjects, brief exposure to L-PA was shown to enhance the representation of the right visual field within the right inferior parietal lobule, emphasizing thus right hemispheric dominance within the ventral attentional system. We have investigated whether L-PA does the same in left hemispheric stroke by comparing neural responses to left, central and right stimuli before and after a brief exposure to L-PA...
January 24, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Tess Allegra Forest, Alessandra Lichtenfeld, Bryan Alvarez, Amy S Finn
In synesthesia activation in one sensory domain, such as smell or sound, triggers an involuntary and unusual secondary sensory or cognitive experience. In the present study, we ask whether the added sensory experience of synesthesia can aid statistical learning-the ability to track environmental regularities in order to segment continuous information. To investigate this, we measured statistical learning outcomes, using an aurally presented artificial language, in two groups of synesthetes alongside controls and simulated the multimodal experience of synesthesia in non-synesthetes...
February 11, 2019: Cognition
Xiaoling Lin, Dali Lu, Zhixin Huang, Wen Chen, Xia Luo, Yinghua Zhu
BACKGROUND: Patients may present cognitive deficits during all stages of bipolar disorder (BD). Few studies have examined self-reported cognitive difficulties and its relation to neurocognitive dysfunction during symptomatic periods of BD. This study aimed to compare subjective cognitive functioning and explore associations between subjective and objective cognitive functioning across different BD clinical states, and investigate the predicting and moderating roles of mood symptoms. METHODS: Subjective cognitive functioning (measured by Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment, COBRA) and several domains of cognitive functioning (assessed by a neuropsychological battery), including executive functions, attention and processing speed, and visual memory, were examined in 48 hypomanic or manic patients, 42 depressed bipolar patients, 50 euthymic bipolar patients and 60 healthy comparisons...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Yong Ahn, Han Joong Keum, Sang-Gu Lee, Sheen-Woo Lee
OBJECTIVE: The clinical application of endoscopic technique for lumbar lateral recess stenosis (LRS) is still challenging. This study aimed to describe a transforaminal endoscopic decompression (TED) technique for LRS and to demonstrate its clinical results. METHODS: Two-year follow-up data were collected from 45 consecutive patients who underwent TED for LRS. Full-scale endoscopic decompression can be performed in the dorsal and ventral aspects of the lateral recess with combined partial pediculectomy using an articulating bone burr and endoscopic instruments...
February 11, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Barbara Carl, Miriam Bopp, Benjamin Voellger, Benjamin Saß, Christopher Nimsky
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how augmented reality (AR) can be applied to support transsphenoidal surgery. METHODS: AR was established using the head-up displays integrated into operating microscopes. Navigation registration was performed either fiducial-based or by automatic registration applying intraoperative computed tomography (iCT). Correct microscope calibration was ensured by checking the geometric overlap between the AR representation of the reference array and 3-D reality while focusing on the reference array...
February 11, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Giuseppa Renata Mangano, Lisa Cipolotti, Patrizia Turriziani, Isabella Giammusso, Daniela Smirni, Li Zhaoping, Martina Bracco, Massimiliano Oliveri
To investigate the hemispheric lateralization of attentional processes during visual search tasks depending on the stimulus material embedding the target, twelve patients with unilateral left (n = 7) or right (n = 5) parietal lesions and 20 age and education matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. We used a visual search task for a uniquely tilted oblique bar embedded in an object shape 'N' or in its mirror reversal 'И'. The accuracy and the averaged reaction times (RTs) in each stimulus type ('N' or 'И') were analysed...
February 11, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Vaishali Kapoor, Abhay Kumar Singh, Buck E Rogers, Dinesh Thotala, Dennis E Hallahan
Targeted molecular imaging allows specific visualization and monitoring of tumors. Cancer-specific peptides have been developed for imaging and therapy. Peptides that specifically target cancer have several advantages including, ease of synthesis, low antigenicity, and enhanced diffusion into tissues. We developed the HVGGSSV peptide as a molecular targeting/imaging agent. HVGGSSV targets Tax interacting protein 1 (TIP1) which is a 14 kDa PDZ domain-containing protein that is overexpressed in cancer. We docked HVGGSSV in silico using the three-dimensional structure of TIP1 and found the binding energy was -6...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Tobias W Meissner, Marisa Nordt, Sarah Weigelt
Successful navigation of our surroundings is of high environmental relevance and involves processing of the visual scenery. Scene-processing undergoes a major behavioral improvement during childhood. However, possible neural changes that underlie this cognitive development in scene perception are understudied in comparison to other stimulus categories. We used a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scene localizer and behavioral recognition and memory tasks in 7-8-year-olds, 11-12-year-olds, and adults to test whether scene-selective areas-the parahippocampal place area (PPA), the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), and the occipital place area (OPA)-show a change in volume and selectivity with age, and whether this change is correlated with behavioral perception and memory performance...
February 11, 2019: NeuroImage
Zhonglu Zhang, Yu Luo, Chaolun Wang, Christopher M Warren, Qi Xia, Qiang Xing, Bihua Cao, Yi Lei, Hong Li
A wealth of studies have investigated how to overcome experience-based constraints in creative problem solving. One such experience-based constraint is the tendency for people to view tightly organized visual stimuli as single, unified percepts, even when decomposition of those stimuli into component parts (termed chunk decomposition) would facilitate problem solving. The current study investigates the neural underpinnings of chunk decomposition in creative problem solving by analyzing event-related potentials...
February 11, 2019: Biological Psychology
Augusto A L Motta, Maria Teresa B C Bonanomi, Daniel A Ferraz, Rony C Preti, Raafay Sophie, Maria F Abalem, Marcia S Queiroz, Sérgio L G Pimentel, Walter Y Takahashi, Francisco M Damico
AIMS: To analyze contrast sensitivity of intravitreal bevacizumab injections with optimizing glycemic control versus optimizing glycemic control (in combination with sham injections) in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) DESIGN: Prospective, interventional, masked, randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Forty-one eyes of 34 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and DME with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <11% received either intravitreal bevacizumab injection (Group 1) or sham injection (Group 2) at 0 and 6 weeks along with optimizing glycemic control...
February 11, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Alessandro Tomassini, Thomas A Pollak, Mark J Edwards, Sven Bestmann
The prolonged reaction times seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been linked to a dopaminergic-dependent deficit in using prior information to prepare responses, but also have been explained by an altered temporal processing. However, an underlying cognitive mechanism linking dopamine, temporal processing and response preparation remains elusive. To address this, we studied PD patients, with or without medication, and age-matched healthy individuals using a variable foreperiod task requiring speeded responses to a visual stimulus occurring at variable onset-times, with block-wise changes in the temporal predictability of visual stimuli...
February 11, 2019: Neuropsychologia
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