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Benign liver diseases

Lorraine Blaise, Olivier Sutter, Marianne Ziol, Jean-Charles Nault
Benign liver tumors diagnosis. Benign liver tumors are rare events that affect mostly young women. Hepatic hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia are not related to oral contraceptions, nor associated with complications, and consequently should not either be treated or followed-up. Liver imaging (mainly MRI with contrast agent) is often sufficient to perform the diagnosis of these benign liver tumors, but in case of doubtful diagnosis or underlying liver diseases, expert advice is needed to discuss liver biopsy...
December 2018: La Revue du Praticien
E A Hod
Red blood cells (RBCs) can be cleared from the circulation either intravascularly or extravascularly. In the setting of an IgG-mediated delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR), most RBC clearance is typically extravascular, presumably by phagocytosis by liver and splenic macrophages. Animal models of HTRs suggest that this RBC clearance is associated with a pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Although IgG-mediated HTRs are typically benign, they can lead to vaso-occlusive crises and further complications, such as hyperhemolysis, in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD)...
February 22, 2019: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
Michael S Torbenson, Christina A Arnold, Rondell P Graham, Dhanpat Jain, Sanjay Kakar, Dora M Lam-Himlin, Bita V Naini, Tsung-Teh Wu, Matthew Yeh
Extramural consultation for challenging pathology cases is an important part of patient care. The specific reasons why liver cases are submitted in consultation are poorly understood. To study patterns in extramural consultation, data were gathered from 1360 liver/GI/pancreatobiliary consults submitted to 7 academic centers. Liver cases comprised 40% of consults and are the focus of this paper. They were submitted for questions on medical (61%) and tumor pathology (39%). A preliminary diagnosis was provided by the referring pathologist in 65% of cases...
March 8, 2019: Human Pathology
Min Wu, Zhaobo Liu, Aiying Zhang, Ning Li
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a serious health problem worldwide, especially in Asian countries, such as China. However, there are difficulties in diagnosing and treating hepatocellular carcinoma. The alteration of fucosylated proteins was closely associated with carcinogenesis. This study is designed to evaluate the early diagnostic value of associated detection of fucosylated alpha-fetoprotein (fuc-AFP), fucosylated des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (fuc-DCP), and fucosylated glypican 3 (fuc-GPC3) in hepatocellular carcinoma...
March 10, 2019: International Journal of Biological Markers
Julien Matuszak, Cyrille Blondet, Fabrice Hubelé, Jacques-Eric Gottenberg, Jean Sibilia, Caroline Bund, Bernard Geny, Izzie Jacques Namer, Alain Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To devise a simple PET-CT score for measurement of muscle disease activity in patients with inflammatory myopathies (IMs) and to assess its validity. METHODS: A total of 44 PET-CT examinations in 34 IM patients (performed during cancer screening) and 20 PET-CT examinations in matched controls (investigated for pulmonary nodules with a conclusion of benignity) were analysed. Maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were recorded bilaterally in eight proximal muscles...
March 8, 2019: Rheumatology
Samuele Iesari, Milton Eduardo Inostroza Núñez, Juan Manuel Rico Juri, Olga Ciccarelli, Eliano Bonaccorsi-Riani, Laurent Coubeau, Pierre-François Laterre, Pierre Goffette, Chantal De Reyck, Benoît Lengelé, Pierre Gianello, Jan Lerut
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is the treatment for end-stage liver diseases and well-selected malignancies. The allograft shortage may be alleviated with living donation. The initial UCLouvain experience of adult living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is presented. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 64 adult-to-adult LDLTs performed at our institution between 1998 and 2016 was conducted. The median age of 29 (45.3%) females and 35 (54.7%) males was 50.2 years (interquartile range, IQR 32...
February 28, 2019: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Umberto Cillo, Constantino Fondevila, Matteo Donadon, Enrico Gringeri, Federico Mocchegiani, Hans J Schlitt, Jan N M Ijzermans, Marco Vivarelli, Krzysztof Zieniewicz, Steven W M Olde Damink, Bas Groot Koerkamp
Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for patients with cholangiocarcinoma. For both perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA), 5-year overall survival of about 30% has been reported in large series. This review addresses several challenges in surgical management of cholangiocarcinoma. The first challenge is diagnosis: a biopsy is typically avoided because of the risk of seeding metastases and the low yield of a brush of the bile duct. However, about 15% of patients with suspected pCCA are found to have a benign diagnosis after resection...
March 6, 2019: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Nikoletta K Pianou, Petros Z Stavrou, Evangelia Vlontzou, Phivi Rondogianni, Demetrios N Exarhos, Ioannis E Datseris
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common solid cancer affecting men worldwide. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is at present the most commonly used biomarker for PCa screening, as well as a reliable marker of disease recurrence after initial treatment. Bone metastases (BM) are present in advanced stages of the disease. Imaging of BM is important not only for localization and characterization, but also to evaluate their size and number, as well as to follow-up the disease during and after therapy. Bone metastases formation is triggered by cancer initiating cells in the bone marrow and is facilitated by the release of several growth factors...
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
A Bauschke
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Exact diagnostic procedures are prerequisite for surgical treatment of bile duct diseases. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography may be supplemented by computed tomography (CT) for planning surgical interventions, for staging diagnostics in malignancies and for imaging the vascular anatomy in the upper abdomen. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Statements from magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and CT may be supplemented via digital workup in selected cases of transplantation medicine and in liver surgery...
February 28, 2019: Der Radiologe
K Lampichler, M Scharitzer
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Bile duct diseases can be found in all age groups and show an increased prevalence in northern Europe. Pathologies range from benign diseases to malignant tumors with very poor survival. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are the radiological methods of choice for a detailed evaluation of the bile duct system in addition to sonography. By assessing the lumen and the wall of the bile ducts as well as the surrounding structures, both obstructive and nonobstructive pathologies can be diagnosed and differentiated with high sensitivity and specificity...
February 28, 2019: Der Radiologe
Alfred Adiamah, Pavel Skořepa, Arved Weimann, Dileep N Lobo
MINI: This meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials reporting on 1387 patients has shown that preoperative immune-enhancing nutrition significantly reduces infectious complications, but not noninfectious complications, in patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal cancer.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons...
February 26, 2019: Annals of Surgery
Kristin Baumann
Gynecomastia is defined as a unilateral or bilateral persistent benign mammary gland enlargement in men. Prevalence of asymptomatic gynecomastia is up to 65%. True gynecomastia must be distinguished from pseudogynecomastia. Typically, in true gynecomastia, a solid tissue mass is palpable below the nipple-areolar complex. Malignant changes such as male mammary carcinoma must always be ruled out. The causes of gynecomastia are diverse. An imbalance of female to male hormones triggers the onset of the disease...
December 2018: Breast Care
Elif Kadife, Emily Chan, Rodney Luwor, George Kannourakis, Jock Findlay, Nuzhat Ahmed
Approximately seventy percent of ovarian cancer patients succumb to the disease within the first 5 years of diagnosis, even after successful surgery and effective chemotherapy treatment. A small subset of chemotherapy resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) cause relapse of ovarian cancers. This study investigated the association between paclitaxel-mediated Src activation (p-Src) and CSC populations in driving ovarian cancer progression. We demonstrate that patients with high-stage serous ovarian carcinomas have significantly elevated levels of p-Src, compared to patient with low-stage and benign ovarian tumours...
February 19, 2019: Cancers
Pooja Abbey, Devasenathipathy Kandasamy, Priyanka Naranje
Hyperbilirubinemia is a common occurrence in neonates; it may be physiological or pathological. Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia may result from medical or surgical causes, and can result in irreversible liver damage if untreated. The aim of imaging is the timely diagnosis of surgical conditions like biliary atresia and choledochal cysts. Abdominal ultrasound is the first line imaging modality, and Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) also has a role, especially in pre-operative assessment of choledochal cysts (CDCs)...
February 21, 2019: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Takahiro Hosokawa, Yoshitake Yamada, Yutaka Tanami, Yumiko Sato, Mayumi Hosokawa, Eiji Oguma
AIMS: To evaluate ultrasound findings in order to determine potential predictors of prognosis in pediatric patients with portal venous gas (PVG) detected by ultrasound. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine children were included and divided into two groups: benign PVG (n=24) and life-threatening PVG (n=15; 6 surgical interventions and 9 deaths). Possible predictors, i.e., the location of PVG in the liver, the distribution of intestinal pneumatosis, ascites and free air were compared between the two groups...
February 17, 2019: Medical Ultrasonography
Adam Gleason, Kristen Bishop, Yin Xi, David T Fetzer
OBJECTIVE: Unilateral left varicoceles are common and considered benign. Unilateral right varicoceles are reportedly associated with a pathologic process, namely malignancy affecting the retroperitoneum, for which further imaging is often recommended. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that this correlation between unilateral right varicocele and malignancy may be weaker than once suggested, particularly in the absence of other clinical signs of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical charts and imaging at one institution were reviewed for all patients reported to have right varicocele...
February 19, 2019: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Shanmuga S Palaniswamy, Padma Subramanyam
Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common pathological type of thyroid carcinoma, which includes papillary and follicular subtypes. DTC is usually indolent, characterized by good prognosis, and long-term survival. Total thyroidectomy is the mainstay of treatment in DTC which is followed by diagnostic whole body 131I (WBI) scan. Like other primary malignancies of the head and neck, DTC follows a consistent pattern of spread in the cervical LNs. The central compartment, level VI and VII, is the first sentinel node followed by spread to the lateral compartments levels II-V, followed by the contralateral side...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Giuseppe Leonardi, Mariadelina Simeoni, Michele Bozzo, Alfredo Caglioti, Giorgio Fuiano
Biliary hamartomas (BH) are rare benign lesions of the liver characterized by a dilation of a variable number of small biliary ducts, usually surrounded by abundant fibrotic tissue. These malformations are due to an aberrant remodelling of the ductal plate, that is the embryonic structure generating the normal biliary tree. BH are usually asymptomatic, but in rare cases they can be associated with jaundice, heartburn and fever. Evidences for a sharing of similar pathological pathways between BH and adult dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are widely reported...
February 2019: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Kota Sahara, Anghela Z Paredes, Diamantis I Tsilimigras, J Madison Hyer, Katiuscha Merath, Lu Wu, Rittal Mehta, Eliza W Beal, Susan White, Itaru Endo, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND: The impact of cirrhosis on perioperative outcomes for elderly patients undergoing hepatectomy remains not well defined. We sought to determine the influence of underlying cirrhosis and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) on postoperative outcomes among elderly patients who underwent a hepatectomy. METHODS: Patients who underwent hepatectomy between 2013 and 2015 were identified using the Center for Medicare Services (CMS) 100% Limited Data Set (LDS) Standard Analytic Files (SAFs)...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Jun Sato, Tatsunori Shimoi, Akihiko Shimomura, Emi Noguchi, Makoto Kodaira, Mayu Yunokawa, Kan Yonemori, Chikako Shimizu, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Masayuki Yoshida, Kenji Tamura
Objective Few reports have analyzed the diagnostic process of carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP) or have focused on the frequency of nonmalignant lesions among patients with suspected malignant diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and characteristics of nonmalignant diseases that tend to be mistaken for malignant diseases. Patients We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with suspected CUP who were referred to the National Cancer Center Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) between April 2007 and December 2014...
February 1, 2019: Internal Medicine
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