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brain AND network

Megumi Mizuno, Tomoyuki Hiroyasu, Satoru Hiwa
The ability to coordinate one's behavior with the others' behavior is essential to achieve a joint action in daily life. In this paper, the brain activity during synchronized tapping task was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the relationship between time coordination and brain function. Furthermore, using brain functional network analysis based on graph theory, we examined important brain regions and network structures that serve as the hub when performing the synchronized tapping task...
February 15, 2019: Brain Sciences
Tatyana Gavrilchenko, Eleni Katifori
The structure of flow networks determines their function under normal conditions as well as their response to perturbative damage. Brain vasculature often experiences transient or permanent occlusions in the finest vessels, but it is not clear how these microclots affect the large-scale blood flow or to what extent they decrease functionality. Motivated by this, we investigate how flow is rerouted after the occlusion of a single edge in networks with a hierarchy in edge conductances. We find that in two-dimensional networks, vessels formed by highly conductive edges serve as barriers to contain the displacement of flow due to a localized perturbation...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Áine Byrne, Daniele Avitabile, Stephen Coombes
Neural field models are commonly used to describe wave propagation and bump attractors at a tissue level in the brain. Although motivated by biology, these models are phenomenological in nature. They are built on the assumption that the neural tissue operates in a near synchronous regime, and hence, cannot account for changes in the underlying synchrony of patterns. It is customary to use spiking neural network models when examining within population synchronization. Unfortunately, these high-dimensional models are notoriously hard to obtain insight from...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
L Michiels van Kessenich, D Berger, L de Arcangelis, H J Herrmann
Pattern recognition is a fundamental neuronal process which enables a cortical system to interpret visual stimuli. How the brain learns to recognize patterns is, however, an unsolved problem. The frequently employed method of back propagation excels at this task but has been found to be unbiological in many aspects. In this Rapid Communication we achieve pattern recognition tasks in a biologically, fully consistent framework. We consider a neuronal network exhibiting avalanche dynamics, as observed experimentally, and implement negative feedback signals...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Géza Ódor
I provide numerical evidence for the robustness of the Griffiths phase (GP) reported previously in dynamical threshold model simulations on a large human brain network with N=836733 connected nodes. The model, with equalized network sensitivity, is extended in two ways: introduction of refractory states or by randomized time-dependent thresholds. The nonuniversal power-law dynamics in an extended control parameter region survives these modifications for a short refractory state and weak disorder. In case of temporal disorder the GP shrinks and for stronger heterogeneity disappears, leaving behind a mean-field type of critical transition...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Jia Liu, Maoguo Gong, Haibo He
This paper presents a deep associative neural network (DANN) based on unsupervised representation learning for associative memory. In brain, the knowledge is learnt by associating different types of sensory data, such as image and voice. The associative memory models which imitate such a learning process have been studied for decades but with simpler architectures they fail to deal with large scale complex data as compared with deep neural networks. Therefore, we define a deep architecture consisting of a perception layer and hierarchical propagation layers...
February 1, 2019: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Anya Topiwala, Sana Suri, Charlotte Allan, Vyara Valkanova, Nicola Filippini, Claire E Sexton, Verena Heise, Enikő Zsoldos, Abda Mahmood, Archana Singh-Manoux, Clare E Mackay, Mika Kivimäki, Klaus P Ebmeier
BACKGROUND: There is significant heterogeneity in the clinical expression of structural brain abnormalities, including Alzheimer's disease biomarkers. Some individuals preserve their memory despite the presence of risk factors or pathological brain changes, indicating resilience. We aimed to test whether resilient individuals could be distinguished from those who develop cognitive impairment, using sociodemographic variables and neuroimaging. METHODS: We included 550 older adults participating in the Whitehall II study with longitudinal data, cognitive test results, and multi-modal MRI...
2019: PloS One
Meng-Heng Yang, Zai-Fu Yao, Shulan Hsieh
The aims of this study were to determine which cognitive control functions are most sensitive to cross-sectional age differences and to identify neural features in different neuroimaging modalities that associated cognitive control function across the adult lifespan. We employed a joint independent component analysis (jICA) approach to obtain common networks among three different brain-imaging modalities (i.e., structural MRI, resting-state functional MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging) in relation to the cognitive control function...
February 18, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Guillaume Costentin, Stéphane Derrey, Emmanuel Gérardin, Yohann Cruypeninck, Thibaut Pressat-Laffouilhere, Youssef Anouar, David Wallon, Floriane Le Goff, Marie-Laure Welter, David Maltête
Decline of verbal fluency (VF) performance is one of the most systematically reported neuropsychological adverse effects after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). It has been suggested that this worsening of VF may be related to a microlesion due to the electrode trajectories. We describe the disruption of surrounding white matter tracts following electrode implantation in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with STN-DBS and assess whether damage of fiber pathways is associated with VF impairment after surgery...
February 18, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
An-Tao Chen
Cognitive control refers to the brain functions that regulate variously specific mental activities in terms of task goal, forming the basis of goal-guided behaviors. In the last decade, our team devoted to investigating the neural mechanisms of basic functions of cognitive control, i.e., monitoring, controlling, and switching. We published a series of papers on the temporal course of monitoring initiating cognitive control and its mechanisms, the influential scope of controlling and new controlling mechanisms, brain networks related to controlling efficiency, brain hubs and neural dynamic encoding of switching...
February 25, 2019: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Guo-Chun Yang, Zheng-Han Li, Hai-Yan Wu, Xun Liu
As a high-level cognitive function of actively regulating human behaviors, cognitive control plays essential roles in conflict processing, working memory, decision making and so on. However, it is still under debate whether a universal cognitive control mechanism underlies the processing of various conflicts. Many existing theories tend to hold that cognitive control is domain-general; however, this view has been challenged by recent empirical studies. The logics of studying generality/specificity mainly include transferability, parallel comparison, correlation and resources competition, etc...
February 25, 2019: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Josef P Rauschecker
At first glance, the monkey brain looks like a smaller version of the human brain. Indeed, the anatomical and functional architecture of the cortical auditory system in monkeys is very similar to that of humans, with dual pathways segregated into a ventral and a dorsal processing stream. Yet, monkeys do not speak. Repeated attempts to pin this inability on one particular cause have failed. A closer look at the necessary components of language, according to Darwin, reveals that all of them got a significant boost during evolution from nonhuman to human primates...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Jackie L Gottshall, Zoe M Adams, Peter B Forgacs, Nicholas D Schiff
Loss of organized sleep electrophysiology is a characteristic finding following severe brain injury. The return of structured elements of sleep architecture has been associated with positive prognosis across injury etiologies, suggesting a role for sleep dynamics as biomarkers of wakeful neuronal circuit function. In a continuing study of one minimally conscious state patient studied over the course of ~8½ years, we sought to investigate whether changes in daytime brain activation induced by central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT-DBS) influenced sleep electrophysiology...
2019: Frontiers in Neurology
Elena Salillas, Milena Korostenskaja, Tara Kleineschay, Shivani Mehta, Alexandra Vega, Eduardo Martinez Castillo
A common magnitude system for the processing of time and numerosity, supported by areas in the posterior parietal cortex, has been proposed by some authors. The present study aims to investigate possible intersections between the neural processing of non-numerical (time) and numerical magnitudes in the posterior parietal lobe. Using Magnetoencephalography for the comparison of brain source activations during the processing of duration and numerosity contrasts, we demonstrate parietal overlap as well as dissociations between these two dimensions...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Wubing Fang, Fei Chao, Chih-Min Lin, Longzhi Yang, Changjing Shang, Changle Zhou
The brain emotional learning (BEL) system was inspired by the biological amygdala-orbitofrontal model to mimic the high speed of the emotional learning mechanism in the mammalian brain, which has been successfully applied in many real-world applications. Despite of its success, such system often suffers from slow convergence for online humanoid robotic control. This paper presents an improved fuzzy BEL model (iFBEL) neural network by integrating a fuzzy neural network (FNN) to a conventional BEL, in an effort to better support humanoid robots...
2019: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Matthew A Scult, David M Fresco, Faith M Gunning, Conor Liston, Saren H Seeley, Emmanuel García, Douglas S Mennin
Emotion regulation therapy (ERT) is an efficacious treatment for distress disorders (i.e., depression and anxiety), predicated on a conceptual model wherein difficult to treat distress arises from intense emotionality (e.g., neuroticism, dispositional negativity) and is prolonged by negative self-referentiality (e.g., worry, rumination). Individuals with distress disorders exhibit disruptions in two corresponding brain networks including the salience network (SN) reflecting emotion/motivation and the default mode network (DMN) reflecting self-referentiality...
2019: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Ping Li, Gong Wang, Xiao-Liang Zhang, Gen-Lin He, Xue Luo, Ju Yang, Zhen Luo, Ting-Ting Shen, Xue-Sen Yang
Background: The neuroinflammatory responses of microglial cells play an important role in the process of brain dysfunction caused by heat stroke. MicroRNAs are reportedly involved in a complex signaling network and have been identified as neuroinflammatory regulators. In this study, we determined the biological roles of microRNA-155 in the inflammatory responses in heat-stressed microglia and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods: MicroRNA-155 mimic and inhibitor were used to separately upregulate or downregulate microRNA-155 expression...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Benjamin E Yerys, Birkan Tunç, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Ligia Antezana, Maya G Mosner, Jennifer R Bertollo, Lisa Guy, Robert T Schultz, John D Herrington
BACKGROUND: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms have worse functional outcomes and treatment response than those without ADHD symptoms. There is limited knowledge of the neurobiology of ADHD symptoms in ASD. Here, we test the hypothesis that aberrant functional connectivity of two large-scale executive brain networks implicated in ADHD-the frontoparietal and salience/ventral attention networks-also play a role in ADHD symptoms in ASD...
January 9, 2019: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Rola Farah, Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus
The cingulo-opercular (CO) and fronto-parietal (FP) networks are parts of the cognitive-control system of the brain. Evidence suggests that over the course of development, brain regions supporting cognitive-control functions become more integrated within their networks (i.e., have increased within-network connectivity), more separated from other networks and, due to increased maturation along development, are more functionally connected between the networks. The focus of this study was to characterize the developmental trajectory of the CO and FP networks from early infancy (17 months) to 9 years of age in typically developing children while listening to stories, using functional connectivity analyses...
February 19, 2019: Brain Connectivity
Juan Carlos Baldermann, Corina Melzer, Alexandra Zapf, Sina Kohl, Lars Timmermann, Marc Tittgemeyer, Daniel Huys, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Andrea A Kühn, Andreas Horn, Jens Kuhn
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder is a rapidly developing treatment strategy for treatment-refractory patients. Both the exact target and impact on distributed brain networks remain a matter of debate. Here, we investigated which regions connected to stimulation sites contribute to clinical improvement effects and whether connectivity is able to predict outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed 22 patients (13 female) with treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder undergoing deep brain stimulation targeting the anterior limb of the internal capsule/nucleus accumbens...
January 9, 2019: Biological Psychiatry
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