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brain AND connectivity

Patrícia Klobušiaková, Radek Mareček, Jan Fousek, Eva Výtvarová, Irena Rektorová
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with altered connectivity of the resting state networks (RSNs). Longitudinal studies in well cognitively characterized PD subgroups are missing. OBJECTIVES: To assess changes of the whole-brain connectivity and between-network connectivity (BNC) of large-scale functional networks related to cognition in well characterized PD patients using a longitudinal study design and various analytical methods...
2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
A Demertzi, E Tagliazucchi, S Dehaene, G Deco, P Barttfeld, F Raimondo, C Martial, D Fernández-Espejo, B Rohaut, H U Voss, N D Schiff, A M Owen, S Laureys, L Naccache, J D Sitt
Adopting the framework of brain dynamics as a cornerstone of human consciousness, we determined whether dynamic signal coordination provides specific and generalizable patterns pertaining to conscious and unconscious states after brain damage. A dynamic pattern of coordinated and anticoordinated functional magnetic resonance imaging signals characterized healthy individuals and minimally conscious patients. The brains of unresponsive patients showed primarily a pattern of low interareal phase coherence mainly mediated by structural connectivity, and had smaller chances to transition between patterns...
February 2019: Science Advances
Vatika Harlalka, Raju S Bapi, P K Vinod, Dipanjan Roy
Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) analyses have shown atypical connectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared to typically developing (TD). However, this view emerges from investigating static FC overlooking the whole brain transient connectivity patterns. In our study, we investigated how age and disease influence the dynamic changes in functional connectivity of TD and ASD. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data stratified into three cohorts: children (7-11 years), adolescents (12-17 years), and adults (18+ years) for the analysis...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Akihiro Takamiya, Jinichi Hirano, Bun Yamagata, Shigeki Takei, Taishiro Kishimoto, Masaru Mimura
Introduction : Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has antidepressant effects, but it also has possible cognitive side effects. The effects of ECT on neuronal oscillatory pattern and phase synchronization, and the relationship between clinical response or cognitive change and electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements remain elusive. Methods : Individuals with unipolar depressive disorder receiving bilateral ECT were recruited. Five minutes of resting, eyes-closed, 19-lead EEG recordings were obtained before and after a course of ECT...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Merideth Addicott, Bruce Luber, Duy Nguyen, Hannah Palmer, Sarah Lisanby, Lawrence Appelbaum
The insular cortex supports the conscious awareness of physical and emotional sensations, and the ability to modulate the insula could have important clinical applications in psychiatry. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) uses transient magnetic fields to induce electrical currents in the superficial cortex. Given its deep location in the brain, the insula may not be directly stimulated by rTMS; however, rTMS may modulate the insula via its functional connections with superficial cortical regions...
February 16, 2019: Brain Connectivity
Hai-Feng Li, Guo-Qiang Hu, Wen-Wen Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of acupuncture of Huatuo Jiaji (EX-B2) in the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction in sepsis patients, aiming at providing new clinical approach and evidence for improving septic gastrointestinal activity. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with septic gastrointestinal dysfunction who met our inclusive criteria were randomly divided into control group and treatment group ( n =20 cases in each). Patients in the control group received routine treatment of nasogastric mosapride citrate (5 mg/time, three times a day) and tifidobacterium triple viable capsules (420 mg, twice a day), intravenous infusion of omeprazole (40 mg, twice a day), rational dose of antibiotics, maintenance treatment of functions of the heart, lung, brain, kidney and other important organs and water electrolyte balance, as well as symptomatic treatment...
January 25, 2019: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Raimon H R Pruim, Christian F Beckmann, Marianne Oldehinkel, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk Heslenfeld, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Stephen V Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder, putatively induced by dissociable dysfunctional biobehavioral pathways. Here, we present a proof-of-concept study to parse ADHD-related heterogeneity in its underlying neurobiology by investigating functional connectivity across multiple brain networks to 1) disentangle categorical diagnosis-related effects from dimensional behavior-related effects and 2) functionally map these neural correlates to neurocognitive measures...
December 20, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Stéphanie Trouche, Vadim Koren, Natalie M Doig, Tommas J Ellender, Mohamady El-Gaby, Vítor Lopes-Dos-Santos, Hayley M Reeve, Pavel V Perestenko, Farid N Garas, Peter J Magill, Andrew Sharott, David Dupret
Retrieving and acting on memories of food-predicting environments are fundamental processes for animal survival. Hippocampal pyramidal cells (PYRs) of the mammalian brain provide mnemonic representations of space. Yet the substrates by which these hippocampal representations support memory-guided behavior remain unknown. Here, we uncover a direct connection from dorsal CA1 (dCA1) hippocampus to nucleus accumbens (NAc) that enables the behavioral manifestation of place-reward memories. By monitoring neuronal ensembles in mouse dCA1→NAc pathway, combined with cell-type selective optogenetic manipulations of input-defined postsynaptic neurons, we show that dCA1 PYRs drive NAc medium spiny neurons and orchestrate their spiking activity using feedforward inhibition mediated by dCA1-connected parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons...
February 11, 2019: Cell
Xin Cynthia Ye, Robin van der Lee, Wyeth W Wasserman
Strabismus refers to the misalignment of the eyes and occurs in 2-4% of individuals. The low-resolution label "strabismus" covers a range of heterogeneous defects, which makes it challenging to unravel this condition. Consequently a coherent understanding of the causes is lacking. Here, we attempt to gain a better understanding of the underlying genetics by combining gene curation, diverse bioinformatic analyses (including gene ontology, pathway mapping, expression and network-based methods) and literature review...
February 14, 2019: Gene
Kuikui Zhou, Yingjie Zhu
Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive, out-of-control drug use and the appearance of negative somatic and emotional consequences when drug access is prevented. The limited efficacy of treatment urges researchers toward a deeper understanding of the neural mechanism of drug addiction. Brain circuits that regulate reward and motivation are considered to be the neural substrate of drug addiction. An increasing body of literature indicates that the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) could serve as a key node in the neurocircuits that control goal-directed behaviors...
February 14, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Keith Smith, Mark E Bastin, Simon R Cox, Maria C Valdés Hernández, Stewart Wiseman, Javier Escudero, Catherine Sudlow
The structural network of the human brain has a rich topology which many have sought to characterise using standard network science measures and concepts. However, this characterisation remains incomplete and the non-obvious features of this topology have largely confounded attempts towards comprehensive constructive modelling. This calls for new perspectives. Hierarchical complexity is an emerging paradigm of complex network topology based on the observation that complex systems are composed of hierarchies within which the roles of hierarchically equivalent nodes display highly variable connectivity patterns...
February 14, 2019: NeuroImage
Shota Murayama, Kiyofumi Yamamoto, Satoshi Fujita, Hiroki Takei, Tadashi Inui, Bunnai Ogiso, Masayuki Kobayashi
Leptin is produced in the adipocytes and plays a pivotal role in regulation of energy balance by controlling appetite and metabolism. Leptin receptors are widely distributed in the brain, especially in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and neocortex. The insular cortex (IC) processes gustatory and visceral information, which functionally correlate to feeding behavior. However, it is still an open issue whether and how leptin modulates IC neural activities. Our paired whole-cell patch-clamp recordings using IC slice preparations demonstrated that unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (uIPSCs) but not uEPSCs were potentiated by leptin in the connections between pyramidal (PNs) and fast-spiking neurons (FSNs)...
February 14, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Karthik Sreenivasan, Virendra Mishra, Christopher Bird, Xiaowei Zhuang, Zhengshi Yang, Dietmar Cordes, Ryan R Walsh
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to identify abnormalities of whole-brain network functional organization and their relation to clinical measures in a well-characterized, multi-site cohort of very early-stage, drug-naïve Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients. METHODS: Functional-MRI data for 16 healthy controls and 20 very early-stage, drug-naïve patients with PD were obtained from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative database after controlling for strict inclusion/exclusion imaging criteria...
February 7, 2019: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Sara Tremblay, Nigel C Rogasch, Isabella Premoli, Daniel M Blumberger, Silvia Casarotto, Robert Chen, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Faranak Farzan, Fabio Ferrarelli, Paul B Fitzgerald, Jeanette Hui, Risto J Ilmoniemi, Vasilios K Kimiskidis, Dimitris Kugiumtzis, Pantelis Lioumis, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Tarek Rajji, Gregor Thut, Reza Zomorrodi, Ulf Ziemann, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) has emerged as a powerful tool to non-invasively probe brain circuits in humans, allowing for the assessment of several cortical properties such as excitability and connectivity. Over the past decade, this technique has been applied to various clinical populations, enabling the characterization and development of potential TMS-EEG predictors and markers of treatments and of the pathophysiology of brain disorders. The objective of this article is to present a comprehensive review of studies that have used TMS-EEG in clinical populations and to discuss potential clinical applications...
January 19, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Xiao Wang, Wei Liao, Shaoqiang Han, Jiao Li, Yan Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disease associated with dysfunction of brain regions and networks. Recent, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have determined that the global signal (GS) is an important source of the local neuronal activity. However, the dynamics of this effect in SCZ remains unknown. To address this issue, 39 drug-naive patients with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and 31 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI scans...
February 14, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Dan Laukka, Melissa Rahi, Riitta Parkkola, Tero Vahlberg, Arttu Rintala, Eeva Salo, Jaakko Rinne
OBJECTIVEKawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis that can cause aneurysm formation in coronary arteries and, more rarely, in peripheral arteries. A possible connection between KD and intracranial aneurysms is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if KD is associated with intracranial aneurysms.METHODSIn this prospective cohort study, all patients hospitalized and diagnosed with KD in the authors' hospital district area in the period from 1978 to 1995 were identified. Patients with a current age ≥ 25 years and a history of KD in childhood were included in the study, which was conducted between 2016 and 2017...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Hua Zhu, Yan-Ling Pi, Fang-Hui Qiu, Ke Liu, Zhen Ni, Yin Wu, Jian Zhang
Effective information transmission for open skill performance requires fine-scale coordination of distributed networks of brain regions linked by white matter tracts. However, how patterns of connectivity in these anatomical pathways may improve global efficiency remains unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that the feeder edges in visual and motor systems have the potential to become "expressways" that increase the efficiency of information communication across brain networks of open skill experts...
February 13, 2019: Neuroscience
James C Sears, Woong Jae Choi, Kendal Broadie
Recent work shows Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) drives the translation of very large proteins (>2000 aa) mediating neurodevelopment. Loss of function results in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading heritable cause of intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using the Drosophila FXS disease model, we discover FMRP positively regulates the translation of the very large A-Kinase Anchor Protein (AKAP) Rugose (>3000 aa), homolog of ASD-associated human Neurobeachin (NBEA)...
February 13, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Chayenne Van Meel, Annelies Baeck, Céline R Gillebert, Johan Wagemans, Hans P Op de Beeck
Several computational models explain how symmetry might be detected and represented in the human brain. However, while there is an abundance of psychophysical studies on symmetry detection and several neural studies showing where and when symmetry is detected in the brain, important questions remain about how this detection happens and how symmetric patterns are represented. We studied the representation of (vertical) symmetry in regions of the ventral visual stream, using multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA) and functional connectivity analyses...
February 13, 2019: NeuroImage
Tiyasha Sarkar, Nisha Patro, Ishan K Patro
Early life Stress is a worldwide concern linked with development of later life neurological disorder. Early developmental age is sensitive to many prominent environmental insults like malnourishment, immune inflammation, abuse, maternal separation, alcohol and drugs. Hence, an individual during an early age encounters more than one simultaneous stressor that leads to impairment of cognitive and behavioral abilities, a symptom common to most of the neurological disorders. Stressors like malnourishment and immune inflammation are common and encountered by a huge number of populations, contributing enormously to a damaged CNS and in most of the cases they act synergistically in dependency to each other, giving rise to the concept of multi-hit...
February 13, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
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