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Samuel Gilbert, Anke Langenbach, Denis J Marcellin-Little, Anthony P Pease, Hongyu Ru
Osteoarthritis is a ubiquitous disease in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to characterize the severity and distribution of osteoarthritis (OA) within the joint and to identify differences among dog breeds in the severity of OA in the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient stifle joint. Radiographs of 240 stifles from 51 Boxers, 66 German Shepherds, 100 Labrador Retrievers, and 23 Siberian Huskies with confirmed CCL rupture were included. Radiographs of the stifle joint were evaluated and OA severity was graded at 33 sites within and around the joint, and patella alta was graded as present or absent for a potential total stifle OA score of 100...
February 15, 2019: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Allison B Putterman, Brian Trumpatori, Kyle G Mathews
OBJECTIVE: To report the surgical treatment and outcome of an adult dog with a duodenal perforation treated with a vascularized jejunal patch graft. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. ANIMAL: A 1-year-old castrated male boxer dog. METHODS: Damage to a duodenal segment containing the major and minor papillae was repaired with a vascularized jejunal graft. A segment of healthy jejunum was mobilized maintaining the jejunal vessels, and a donor site anastomosis was performed...
February 8, 2019: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Kevin Duff, Dana McDermott, Dan Luong, Christopher Randolph, Adam L Boxer
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits, as well as motor and psychiatric disturbances. As clinical trials for PSP evolve, briefer screening instruments will be needed to determine cognitive effects of interventions. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) may fill this gap. Three hundred four participants diagnosed with Richardson's syndrome of PSP were evaluated with the RBANS, as well as other scales typically used in PSP...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Qi Liu, Brooke L Sinnen, Emma E Boxer, Martin W Schneider, Michael J Grybko, William C Buchta, Emily S Gibson, Christina L Wysoczynski, Christopher P Ford, Alexander Gottschalk, Jason Aoto, Chandra L Tucker, Matthew J Kennedy
Regulated secretion is critical for diverse biological processes ranging from immune and endocrine signaling to synaptic transmission. Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins, which specifically proteolyze vesicle fusion proteins involved in regulated secretion, have been widely used as experimental tools to block these processes. Genetic expression of these toxins in the nervous system has been a powerful approach for disrupting neurotransmitter release within defined circuitry, but their current utility in the brain and elsewhere remains limited by lack of spatial and temporal control...
January 15, 2019: Neuron
Richard M Tsai, Alexandre Bejanin, Orit Lesman-Segev, Renaud LaJoie, Adrienne Visani, Viktoriya Bourakova, James P O'Neil, Mustafa Janabi, Suzanne Baker, Suzee E Lee, David C Perry, Lynn Bajorek, Anna Karydas, Salvatore Spina, Lea T Grinberg, William W Seeley, Eliana M Ramos, Giovanni Coppola, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen, William Jagust, Adam L Boxer, Gil D Rabinovici
BACKGROUND: The tau positron emission tomography (PET) ligand 18 F-flortaucipir binds to paired helical filaments of tau in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its utility in detecting tau aggregates in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is uncertain. METHODS: We performed 18 F-flortaucipir imaging in patients with the FTD syndromes (n = 45): nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) (n = 11), corticobasal syndrome (CBS) (n = 10), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (n = 10), semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) (n = 2) and FTD associated pathogenic genetic mutations microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) (n = 6), chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) (n = 5), and progranulin (GRN) (n = 1)...
January 31, 2019: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Adam M Staffaroni, Peter A Ljubenkov, John Kornak, Yann Cobigo, Samir Datta, Gabe Marx, Samantha M Walters, Kevin Chiang, Nick Olney, Fanny M Elahi, David S Knopman, Bradford C Dickerson, Bradley F Boeve, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Salvatore Spina, Lea T Grinberg, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer, Adam L Boxer, Howard J Rosen
Frontotemporal dementia refers to a group of progressive neurodegenerative syndromes usually caused by the accumulation of pathological tau or TDP-43 proteins. The effects of these proteins in the brain are complex, and each can present with several different clinical syndromes. Clinical efficacy trials of drugs targeting these proteins must use endpoints that are meaningful to all participants despite the variability in symptoms across patients. There are many candidate clinical measures, including neuropsychological scores and functional measures...
February 1, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Briana E Hallman, Marlene L Hauck, Laurel E Williams, Paul R Hess, Steven E Suter
BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (DOX) can cause cumulative cardiotoxicity in dogs, but the incidence of clinical cardiotoxicity in dogs receiving DOX has not been determined. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine if the duration of DOX infusion influences the incidence of cardiotoxicity, to characterize the incidence of clinical cardiotoxicity in dogs during or after DOX chemotherapy, and to identify any risk factors associated with cardiotoxicity. ANIMALS: Four-hundred ninety-four dogs that received at least 1 dose of DOX for the treatment of cancer...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
D F Nóbrega, V F Sehaber, R Madureira, A P F R L Bracarense
Haemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a malignant tumour of vascular endothelial cells. It is common in dogs, but rare in other species, and may arise in any tissue. A dermal location of canine HSA has been associated with short survival and recurrence after surgical excision. Solar radiation has been proposed as a predisposing factor in shorthaired dogs with light skin pigmentation. There are no studies relating the expression of immunohistochemical markers to survival of dogs with cutaneous haemangiosarcoma (cHSA). Such data could contribute to establishing prognostic factors and new therapies based on the expression of target molecules...
January 2019: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Eric F Dubow, L Rowell Huesmann, Paul Boxer, Cathy Smith, Simha F Landau, Shira Dvir Gvirsman, Khalil Shikaki
We examine whether cumulative-past and concurrent exposure to ethnic-political violence among Israeli and Palestinian youth predict serious violent behavior and antisocial outcomes toward the in-group and the out-group. We collected four waves of data from 162 Israeli Jewish and 400 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents. The first three waves were consecutive annual assessments, and the fourth was conducted 4 years after the third wave, when the three age cohorts were 14, 17, and 20 years old, respectively...
January 28, 2019: Aggressive Behavior
Miguel Saggu, Stephen D Fried, Steven G Boxer
The origin of unidirectional electron transfer in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) has been widely discussed. Despite the high level of structural similarity between the two branches of pigments that participate in the initial electron transfer steps of photosynthesis, electron transfer only occurs along one branch. One possible explanation for this functional asymmetry is differences in the electrostatic environment between the active and the inactive branches arising from the charges and dipoles of the organized protein structure...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Lucas J H Lim, Roger C M Ho, Cyrus S H Ho
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) was first discovered in professional boxers after they exhibited memory impairments, mood and behavioral changes after years of boxing. However, there is now a growing acceptance that CTE can develop in athletes of other sports due to the repetitive head trauma they receive. We present a case of a middle-aged male who presented with worsening memory, poor concentration, and behavioral changes for a year. On further cognitive testing, it was revealed that he had difficulties with short-term memory and processing speed as well as difficulties in organizing and multitasking...
January 17, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kwang-Jun Kim, Hong-Sun Song, Dong Hyun Yoon, David H Fukuda, Soon Hee Kim, Dong-Ho Park
This study was designed to investigate the effects of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on peak power, power drop, and lactate response in elite male amateur boxers. Nineteen male Korean national team boxers were divided into groups with either BA (n=9) or placebo (PL, n=10) supplementation. BA consumed 4.9-5.4 g/day of BA with training for 10 weeks and PL took PL in a similar manner. Physical fitness and lactate changes in sparring were measured before and after the 10-week intervention. Significant interactions ( P <0...
December 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Sara E Kearney, Gergely Zahoránszky-Kőhalmi, Kyle R Brimacombe, Mark J Henderson, Caitlin Lynch, Tongan Zhao, Kanny K Wan, Zina Itkin, Christopher Dillon, Min Shen, Dorian M Cheff, Tobie D Lee, Danielle Bougie, Ken Cheng, Nathan P Coussens, Dorjbal Dorjsuren, Richard T Eastman, Ruili Huang, Michael J Iannotti, Surendra Karavadhi, Carleen Klumpp-Thomas, Jacob S Roth, Srilatha Sakamuru, Wei Sun, Steven A Titus, Adam Yasgar, Ya-Qin Zhang, Jinghua Zhao, Rodrigo B Andrade, M Kevin Brown, Noah Z Burns, Jin K Cha, Emily E Mevers, Jon Clardy, Jason A Clement, Peter A Crooks, Gregory D Cuny, Jake Ganor, Jesus Moreno, Lucas A Morrill, Elias Picazo, Robert B Susick, Neil K Garg, Brian C Goess, Robert B Grossman, Chambers C Hughes, Jeffrey N Johnston, Madeleine M Joullie, A Douglas Kinghorn, David G I Kingston, Michael J Krische, Ohyun Kwon, Thomas J Maimone, Susruta Majumdar, Katherine N Maloney, Enas Mohamed, Brian T Murphy, Pavel Nagorny, David E Olson, Larry E Overman, Lauren E Brown, John K Snyder, John A Porco, Fatima Rivas, Samir A Ross, Richmond Sarpong, Indrajeet Sharma, Jared T Shaw, Zhengren Xu, Ben Shen, Wei Shi, Corey R J Stephenson, Alyssa L Verano, Derek S Tan, Yi Tang, Richard E Taylor, Regan J Thomson, David A Vosburg, Jimmy Wu, William M Wuest, Armen Zakarian, Yufeng Zhang, Tianjing Ren, Zhong Zuo, James Inglese, Sam Michael, Anton Simeonov, Wei Zheng, Paul Shinn, Ajit Jadhav, Matthew B Boxer, Matthew D Hall, Menghang Xia, Rajarshi Guha, Jason M Rohde
Natural products and their derivatives continue to be wellsprings of nascent therapeutic potential. However, many laboratories have limited resources for biological evaluation, leaving their previously isolated or synthesized compounds largely or completely untested. To address this issue, the Canvass library of natural products was assembled, in collaboration with academic and industry researchers, for quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) across a diverse set of cell-based and biochemical assays. Characterization of the library in terms of physicochemical properties, structural diversity, and similarity to compounds in publicly available libraries indicates that the Canvass library contains many structural elements in common with approved drugs...
December 26, 2018: ACS Central Science
Taylor Tribett, Brittany Erskine, Kristi Bailey, Theodore Brown, Rudy J Castellani
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) was initially conceptualized in boxers, but has extended to other athletes in recent years, albeit with limited clinical correlations. It is often asserted that CTE pathology represents the substrate for progressive neurodegenerative disease. We report the case of a shotgun injury to the brain with 42-year survival and no neurological disease progression until shortly before death. The decedent had no other traumatic brain injury (TBI) exposure and did not play football or other high energy collision sport...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Charmaine Childs, Lynne A Barker, Alex Md Gage, Mike Loosemore
Purpose: Changes to retina have been reported after a number of neurodegenerative conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate retinal structures in Olympic boxers exposed to frequent head blows. Methods: Retinal imaging offers potential as a non-invasive biomarker of neuropathology. Macula and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in UK Olympic boxers attending two mandatory eye screening programs, 18 months apart...
2018: Eye and Brain
Michael Farrell, Susan Aherne, Sean O'Riordan, Eoin O'Keeffe, Chris Greene, Matthew Campbell
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by the perivascular deposition of phosphorylated τ (p-τ) protein aggregates resulting from repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rTBI). Advances in the field have revealed the significance of repetitive head trauma in the pathogenesis of CTE in contact sports as well as military veterans. In this study we provide evidence of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in regions of intense perivascular p-τ deposition in a former professional boxer diagnosed with CTE and schizophrenia...
December 21, 2018: Clinical Neuropathology
Ashley L Ware, Elisabeth A Wilde, Mary R Newsome, Paolo Moretti, Tracy Abildskov, Gregory S Vogt, Stephen R McCauley, Gerri Hanten, Jill V Hunter, Zili D Chu, Harvey S Levin
Microstructural neuropathology occurs in the corpus callosum (CC) after repetitive sports concussion in boxers and can be dose-dependent. However, the specificity and relation of CC changes to boxing exposure extent and post-career psychiatric and neuropsychological outcomes are largely unknown. Using deterministic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques, boxers and demographically-matched, noncontact sport athletes were compared to address literature gaps. Ten boxers and 9 comparison athletes between 26 and 59 years old (M = 44...
December 18, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Robert J Rawle, Elizabeth R Webster, Marta Jelen, Peter M Kasson, Steven G Boxer
The recent spread of Zika virus stimulated extensive research on its structure, pathogenesis, and immunology, but mechanistic study of entry has lagged behind, in part due to the lack of a defined reconstituted system. Here, we report Zika membrane fusion measured using a platform that bypasses these barriers, enabling observation of single-virus fusion kinetics without receptor reconstitution. Surprisingly, target membrane binding and low pH are sufficient to trigger viral hemifusion to liposomes containing only neutral lipids...
November 28, 2018: ACS Central Science
Benjamin E Scott, Paul B Laursen, Lewis J James, Benjamin Boxer, Zoe Chandler, Elliot Lam, Tom Gascoyne, Jack Messenger, Stephen A Mears
OBJECTIVES: Ingested ketogenic agents offer the potential to enhance endurance performance via the provision of an alternative exogenous, metabolically efficient, glycogen-sparing fuel (i.e. ketone bodies). This study aimed to assess the impact of combined carbohydrate and 1,3-butanediol (CHO-BD) supplementation on endurance performance, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) concentration and glycolytic activity, in comparison to carbohydrate supplementation alone (CHO). DESIGN: Eleven male runners (age 38±12years, mass 67...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Jillian M Haines
Megaesophagus affects dogs worldwide but limited information is available regarding its characteristics in the general population of dogs. The objectives of this study were to provide information on a large population of dogs diagnosed with megaesophagus in regards to population characteristics, medical and family history, diagnosis, concurrent disease, and predisposing factors. A link to a web-based survey was provided on megaesophagus support websites and 838 eligible surveys were evaluated. Breeds most frequently associated with congenital megaesophagus were German shepherds, mixed breed "goldendoodles", Labrador retrievers, great Danes, and dachshunds...
November 30, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
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