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Onur Atakisi, Kezban Yildiz Dalginli, Canan Gulmez, Ruya Kaya, Ozkan Ozden, Asim Kart, Emine Atakisi
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) on live weight and obesity associated molecules including leptin, L-carnitine, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) in rats fed with high-fat diet. A total of 60 rats were equally allocated as ND (normal diet), HF (high-fat diet), HF+BA, HF+BX, ND+BX, ND+BA. Body weight increases in HF+BA (85 g) and HF+BX (86 g) were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to HF group (126 g). Boron treatment decreased serum L-carnitine level in high-fat diet (HF+BA 11...
February 12, 2019: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Felipe Barros, Ana Carolina Rodrigues Aguilar, Sergio Tufik, Fernando Morgadinho Coelho
Narcolepsy type 1 is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), sleep fragmentation, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and cataplexy. Stimulant medications such as modafinil and amphetamines are the first-line medications for treating sleepiness. However, the management of narcolepsy during special circumstances of life such as pregnancy is complex. MMDM is a 34-year-old female with Narcolepsy type 1 treated with modafinil (400mg/d) and citalopram (20mg/d). Before she become pregnant, modafinil and citalopram were replaced for L-Carnitine 510mg/d with good outcome...
July 2018: Sleep Science
Callum Wilson, Detlef Knoll, Mark de Hora, Campbell Kyle, Emma Glamuzina, Dianne Webster
When screening for carnitine uptake disorder (CUD), the New Zealand (NZ) newborn screening (NBS) service identified infants as screen-positive if they had initial and repeat free carnitine (C0) levels of less than 5.0 μmol/L. Since 2006, the NBS service has identified two infants with biochemical and genetic features consistent with neonatal CUD and nine mothers with features consistent with maternal CUD. A review of the literature suggests that these nine women reflect less than half the true prevalence and that CUD is relatively common...
January 2019: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Ellen E Blaak, Emanuel E Canfora
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
R Karahoda, M Ceckova, F Staud
In spite of remarkable reduction in the number of children born with HIV due to antiretroviral therapy, concerns remain on the short- and long-term effects of antiretroviral drugs at the feto-placental unit. Cardio- and skeletal myopathies have been reported in children exposed to antiretroviral drugs prenatally. These conditions have also been described in perturbed placental transfer of l-carnitine, an essential co-factor in fatty acid oxidation. Due to limited fetal and placental synthesis, carnitine supply is maintained through the placental carnitine uptake from maternal blood by the organic cation/carnitine transporters OCTN1 and OCTN2 (SLC22A4 and SLC22A5, respectively)...
February 5, 2019: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Yiwei Liu, Laura J Janke, Lie Li, Mary V Relling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2019: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Ning-Ping Zhang, Xue-Jing Liu, Li Xie, Xi-Zhong Shen, Jian Wu
Activation of inflammation is an important mechanism in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aims to delineate how mitophagy affects NLRP3 inflammasome activation in hepatic lipotoxicity. Mice were fed a high fat/calorie diet (HFCD) for 24 weeks. Primary rat hepatocytes were treated with palmitic acid (PA) for various periods of time. Mitophagy was measured by protein levels of LC3II and P62. NLRP3, caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-18, and IL-1β at mRNA and protein levels were used as indicators of inflammasome activation...
January 30, 2019: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Pascal Bazire, Nadia Perchat, Ekaterina Darii, Christophe Lechaplais, Marcel Salanoubat, Alain Perret
L-carnitine is a trimethylammonium compound mostly known for its contribution to fatty acid transport into mitochondria. In bacteria, it is synthesized from γ-butyrobetaine (GBB) and can be used as a carbon source. L-carnitine can be formed directly by GBB hydroxylation or synthesized via a biosynthetic route analogous to fatty-acid degradation. However, this multi-step pathway has not been experimentally characterized. In this work, we identified by gene context analysis a cluster of L-carnitine anabolic genes next to those involved in its catabolism, and proceeded to the complete in vitro characterization of L-carnitine biosynthesis and degradation in Sinorhizobium meliloti The five enzymes catalyzing the seven steps that convert GBB to glycine betaine are described...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Bacteriology
Matthias A Fink, Heiko Paland, Susann Herzog, Markus Grube, Silke Vogelgesang, Kerstin Weitmann, Angela Bialke, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Bernhard H Rauch, Henry W S Schroeder, Sandra Bien-Möller
PURPOSE: Apoptotic dysregulation, redox adaptive mechanisms and resilience to hypoxia are major causes of glioblastoma (GBM) resistance to therapy. Commonly known as crucial factors in energy metabolism, OCTN2 (SLC22A5) and its substrate L-carnitine (LC) are increasingly recognized as actors in cytoprotection. This study provides a comprehensive expression and survival analysis of the OCTN2/LC system in GBM and clarifies the system's impact on GBM progression. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: OCTN2 expression and LC content were measured in 121 resected human GBM specimens and 10 healthy brain samples and analyzed for prognostic significance...
January 22, 2019: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Zhenyao Huang, Bo Xu, Xiaomin Huang, Yuqing Zhang, Mingming Yu, Xiumei Han, Ling Song, Yankai Xia, Zhou Zhu, Xinru Wang, Minjian Chen, Chuncheng Lu
Iron oxides nanoparticles (FeOX NPs), including α-Fe2 O3 , γ-Fe2 O3 , and Fe3 O4 , are employed in many technological applications. However, very few studies have investigated the embryonic developmental toxicity of FeOX NPs. In this study, metabolomics analysis were used to uncover the potential mechanisms of FeOX NPs developmental toxicity on embryo-larval zebrafish and mice. Our results indicated that γ-Fe2 O3 NP treatment could cause increased mortality, dropped hatching rate, etc., while α-Fe2 O3 and Fe3 O4 NPs showed no obvious effect...
January 21, 2019: Nanotoxicology
Miao Yu, Mariola Olkowicz, Janusz Pawliszyn
In LC-MS based untargeted analysis, data is collected at the peak or ion level, although the investigated biochemistry processes occur at the compound or reaction level. To this end, the presence of redundancy peaks such as co-eluted peaks, multi-chargers, adducts, neutral loss, isotopologues, and fragments ions often muddle subsequent statistical data analysis. In order to fill this gap, between peaks and compounds/reactions, independent components must first be found at the peak level, then evaluated at the compound or reaction levels...
March 7, 2019: Analytica Chimica Acta
Majid S Koozehchian, Amin Daneshfar, Ebrahim Fallah, Hamid Agha-Alinejad, Mohammad Samadi, Mojtaba Kaviani, Maryam Kaveh B, Y Peter Jung, Mozhgan Hassanzadeh Sablouei, Najmeh Moradi, Conrad P Earnest, T Jeff Chandler, Richard B Kreider
PURPOSE: Studies of L-carnitine in healthy athletic populations have yielded equivocal results. Further scientific-based knowledge is needed to clarify the ability of L-carnitine to improve exercise capacity and expedite the recovery process by reducing oxidative stress. This study aimed to examine the 9-week effects of L-carnitine supplementation on exercise performance, anaerobic capacity, and exercise-induced oxidative stress markers in resistance-trained males. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled treatment, 23 men (age, 25±2y; weight, 81...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Reham Z Hamza, Rasha A Al-Eisa, Amir E Mehana, Nahla S El-Shenawy
Background Aspartame (ASP) is used for treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to illustrate the biochemical responses and histopathological alterations besides the genotoxicity of ASP alone or with l-carnitine (LC) in the liver of rats. Methods Animals were separated into six groups: control, lower dose of ASP (ASP-LD; 75 mg/kg), higher dose of ASP (ASP-HD; 150 mg/kg), l-carnitine (LC; 10 mg/kg), ASP-LD plus LC, and ASP-HD plus LC. Treatment was carried out orally for 30 consecutive days...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Mohamed M Sayed-Ahmed, Badr I Alrufaiq, Ammar Alrikabi, Mashan L Abdullah, Mohamed M Hafez, Othman A Al-Shabanah
This study has been initiated to investigate whether sunitinib (SUN) alters the expression of key genes engaged in mitochondrial transport and oxidation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA), and if so, whether these alterations should be viewed as a mechanism of SUN-induced cardiotoxicity, and to explore the molecular mechanisms whereby carnitine supplementation could attenuate SUN-induced cardiotoxicity. Adult male Wister albino rats were assigned to one of the four treatment groups: Rats in group 1 received no treatment but free access to tap water for 28 days...
January 14, 2019: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Hadier M El-Sheikh, Sahar M El-Haggar, Tamer A Elbedewy
AIM: Insulin resistance (IR) is predominant in type 2 diabetic patients. This study aimed to investigate benefits from adding l-carnitine to ongoing glimepiride compared to glimepiride monotherapy on IR in diabetic patients who failed to achieve their glycemic goals on glimepiride monotherapy. METHODS: 58 patients were recruited from Internal Medicine Department, Tanta University Hospital, Egypt then prospectively randomized to receive their glimepiride dose 2 mg twice daily (group 1) or glimepiride 2 mg twice daily + l-carnitine 1 g m twice daily (group 2) for 6 months...
January 2019: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Xia Zhang, Chun Liu, Congcong Liu, Yan Wang, Wenhua Zhang, Yanqiu Xing
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of trimetazidine and l‑carnitine on heart aging and cardiac metabolism in the natural aging rats and explore the possible mechanism regarding the regulation of cardiac metabolic substrates. METHODS: A total of 28 young (2-month-old) and 28 aged (14-month-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to the following groups: young control (YC, n = 8), young trimetazidine (YT, n = 10), young l‑carnitine (YL, n = 10), aging control (AC, n = 8), aging trimetazidine (AT, n = 10), and aging l‑carnitine (AL, n = 10)...
January 8, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Niki Katsiki, Matteo Pirro, Maciej Banach, Khalid Al Rasadi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Hitherto, niacin has been the drug of choice to reduce elevated Lp(a) levels in hyperlipidemic patients but its efficacy in reducing CVD outcomes has been seriously questioned by recent clinical trials. Additional drugs may reduce to some extent plasma Lp(a) levels but the lack of a specific therapeutic indication for Lp(a)-lowering limits profoundly reduce their use. An attractive therapeutic option is natural products...
January 13, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Heather L Petrick, Graham P Holloway
The decline in fat oxidation at higher power outputs of exercise is a complex interaction between several mechanisms, however the influence of mitochondrial bioenergetics in this process remains elusive. Therefore, using permeabilized muscle fibers from mouse skeletal muscle, we aimed to determine if acute exercise altered mitochondrial sensitivity to 1) adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi), or 2) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) independent (palmitoylcarnitine, PC) and dependent (palmitoyl-CoA (P-CoA), malonyl-CoA (M-CoA), and L-carnitine) substrates, in an intensity-dependent manner...
January 11, 2019: Biochemical Journal
Muhammad Imran Omar, Raj Prasenjit Pal, Brian D Kelly, Harman Maxim Bruins, Yuhong Yuan, Thorsten Diemer, Csilla Krausz, Herman Tournaye, Zsolt Kopa, Andreas Jungwirth, Suks Minhas
CONTEXT: Empiric use of medical and nutritional supplements to improve semen parameters and pregnancy rates in couples with idiopathic infertility has reached global proportions, although the evidence base for their use in this setting is controversial. OBJECTIVE: We systematically reviewed evidence comparing the benefits of nutritional and medical therapy on pregnancy rates and semen parameters in men with idiopathic infertility. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, and the Cochrane Library (searched from January 1, 1990 to September 19, 2017)...
January 7, 2019: European Urology
Caroline Demarquoy, Jean Demarquoy
Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present deficits in social interactions and communication, they also show limited and stereotypical patterns of behaviors and interests. The pathophysiological bases of ASD have not been defined yet. Many factors seem to be involved in the onset of this disorder. These include genetic and environmental factors, but autism is not linked to a single origin, only. Autism onset can be connected with various factors such as metabolic disorders: including carnitine deficiency...
January 7, 2019: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
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