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electrical neuromodulation

Ksenia B Pustovit, Viktoria M Potekhina, Alexandra D Ivanova, Alexey M Petrov, Denis V Abramochkin, Vlad S Kuzmin
Extracellular ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD) demonstrate properties of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in peripheral and central nervous system. It has been shown previously that ATP and β-NAD affect cardiac functioning in adult mammals. Nevertheless, the modulation of cardiac activity by purine compounds in the early postnatal development is still not elucidated. Also, the potential influence of ATP and β-NAD on cholinergic neurotransmission in the heart has not been investigated previously...
February 12, 2019: Purinergic Signalling
Philip L Perez, Sarah S Wang, Susan Heath, Jennifer Henderson-Sabes, Danielle Mizuiri, Leighton B Hinkley, Srikantan S Nagarajan, Paul S Larson, Steven W Cheung
OBJECTIVEThe object of this study was to define caudate nucleus locations responsive to intraoperative direct electrical stimulation for tinnitus loudness modulation and relate those locations to functional connectivity maps between caudate nucleus subdivisions and auditory cortex.METHODSSix awake study participants who underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode placement in the caudate nucleus as part of a phase I clinical trial were analyzed for tinnitus modulation in response to acute stimulation at 20 locations...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
Ali Izadi, Aleksandr Pevzner, Darrin J Lee, Arne D Ekstrom, Kiarash Shahlaie, Gene G Gurkoff
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy is most prevalent among focal epilepsies, and nearly one-third of patients are refractory to pharmacological intervention. Persistent cognitive and neurobehavioral comorbidities also occur due to the recurrent nature of seizures and medication-related side effects. HYPOTHESIS: Electrical neuromodulation is an effective strategy to reduce seizures both in animal models and clinically, but its efficacy to modulate cognition remains unclear...
January 17, 2019: Brain Stimulation
Jian Xu, Hongsun Guo, Anh Tuan Nguyen, Hubert Lim, Zhi Yang
Electrical nerve recording and stimulation technologies are critically needed to monitor and modulate nerve activity to treat a variety of neurological diseases. However, current neuromodulation technologies presented in the literature or commercially available products cannot support simultaneous recording and stimulation on the same nerve. To solve this problem, a new bidirectional neuromodulation system-on-chip (SoC) is proposed in this paper, which includes a frequency-shaping neural recorder and a fully integrated neural stimulator with charge balancing capability...
October 23, 2018: Micromachines
Thapanee Somboon, Madeleine M Grigg-Damberger, Nancy Foldvary-Schaefer
Epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological disorder in the US, affecting over 2.2 million people. Epilepsy is associated with a number of medical and psychiatric comorbidities, higher health care utilization, cost and substantial economic burden. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is 2-fold more common in adults with epilepsy than age-matched controls and the incidence increases with age. Self-reported daytime sleepiness is not helpful in predicting OSA, possibly related to the ceiling effect of general sleepiness among people with epilepsy from diverse causes...
January 31, 2019: Chest
Q Dewandre, A Dubuisson, B Kaschten, G Reuter, D Martin
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is the most frequently used neuromodulation technique even for neurogenic pain from a peripheral nerve injury although peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) has been designed for this purpose. PNS appears less invasive than SCS or deep brain stimulation. It provides greater and specific target coverage and it could be more cost-effective than SCS because low electrical stimulation is exclusively delivered to the precise painful territory. We report a case of excellent result following median nerve stimulation at arm level after SCS failure and a 10-year history of intense pain...
January 30, 2019: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Hanna Lu, Sandra S M Chan, Linda C W Lam
BACKGROUND: Scalp to cortex distance (SCD), as a key technological parameter, has been highlighted in the guidelines of non-invasive brain stimulation. However, in the context of age-related brain changes, the region-specific SCD and its impact on stimulation-induced electric field remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the region-specific SCD and its relationship with morphometric features and cognitive function in age- and disease-specific populations...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Nick Todd, Yongzhi Zhang, Chanikarn Power, Lino Becerra, David Borsook, Margaret Livingstone, Nathan McDannold
The technology of transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) enables a novel approach to neuromodulation, a tool for selective manipulation of brain function to be used in neurobiology research and with potential applications in clinical treatment. The method uses transcranial focused ultrasound to non-invasively open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in a localized region such that a systemically injected neurotransmitter chemical can be delivered to the targeted brain site. The approach modulates the chemical signaling that occurs in and between neurons, making it complimentary to most other neuromodulation techniques that affect the electrical properties of neuronal activity...
January 16, 2019: NeuroImage
Maria da Graca-Tarragó, Mateus Lech, Letícia Dal Moro Angoleri, Daniela Silva Santos, Alícia Deitos, Aline Patrícia Brietzke, Iraci Ls Torres, Felipe Fregni, Wolnei Caumo
Background: Neuroplastic changes in nociceptive pathways contribute to severity of symptoms in knee osteoarthritis (KOA). A new look at neuroplastic changes management includes modulation of the primary motor cortex by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Objectives: We investigated whether tDCS combined with intramuscular electrical stimulation (EIMS) would be more efficacious than a sham (s) intervention (s-tDCS/s-EIMS) or a single active(a)-tDCS/s-EIMS intervention and/or s-tDCS/a-EIMS in the following domains: pain measures (visual analog scale [VAS] score and descending pain modulatory system [DPMS], and outcomes, and analgesic use, disability, and pain pressure threshold (PPT) for secondary outcomes...
2019: Journal of Pain Research
Roberta Iacona, Lisa Ramage, Georgina Malakounides
BACKGROUND:  Neuromodulation is the application of electrical stimulation on nerve fibers to modulate the neuronal activity. Its use for chronic constipation and fecal incontinence has increased in popularity over the past few years. Invasive and noninvasive techniques are currently available. We reviewed the current literature on the application of the neuromodulation techniques in the management of chronic constipation and fecal incontinence in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  A search of Healthcare Database Advanced Search, Embase, Medline, and Cochrane database was performed in accordance with PRISMA guideline...
January 16, 2019: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Stephanie Constantin, Susan Wray
The pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key feature of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) trigger GnRH neuronal activity, but how GnRH neurons return to baseline electrical activity is unknown. Nociceptin/orphanin-FQ (OFQ) is an inhibitory neuromodulator. ARC proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, known to receive inputs from ARC kisspeptin neurons, contact GnRH neurons and coexpress OFQ in the rat. In the present study, the effect of OFQ(1-13) on GnRH neurons was determined in the mouse...
November 2018: ENeuro
Anthony N van den Pol, Claudio Acuna, John N Davis, Hao Huang, Xiaobing Zhang
- Excitatory glutamate neurons are sparse in the rostral hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), the subregion that has received the most attention in the past. In striking contrast, excitatory neurons are far more common (by a factor of 10) in the caudal ARC, an area which has received relatively little attention. - These glutamate cells may play a negative role in energy balance and food intake. They can show an increase in phosphorylated Stat-3 in the presence of leptin, are electrically excited by the anorectic neuromodulator cholecystokinin, and inhibited by orexigenic neuromodulators neuropeptide Y, met-enkephalin, dynorphin, and the catecholamine dopamine...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Long Qian, Yifan Sun, Qian Tong, Jiyu Tian, Zhuang Ren, Hongwei Zhao
Electric fields in the environment can have profound effects on brain function and behavior. In clinical practice, some noninvasive/microinvasive therapies with electrical fields such as transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have emerged as powerful tools for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and neuromodulation. Nonetheless, currently, most studies focus on the mechanisms and effects of therapies and do not to address the mechanical properties of brain tissue under electric fields...
January 4, 2019: Soft Matter
Aaron D Mickle, Sang Min Won, Kyung Nim Noh, Jangyeol Yoon, Kathleen W Meacham, Yeguang Xue, Lisa A McIlvried, Bryan A Copits, Vijay K Samineni, Kaitlyn E Crawford, Do Hoon Kim, Paulome Srivastava, Bong Hoon Kim, Seunghwan Min, Young Shiuan, Yeojeong Yun, Maria A Payne, Jianpeng Zhang, Hokyung Jang, Yuhang Li, H Henry Lai, Yonggang Huang, Sung-Il Park, Robert W Gereau, John A Rogers
The fast-growing field of bioelectronic medicine aims to develop engineered systems that can relieve clinical conditions by stimulating the peripheral nervous system1-5 . This type of technology relies largely on electrical stimulation to provide neuromodulation of organ function or pain. One example is sacral nerve stimulation to treat overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and interstitial cystitis (also known as bladder pain syndrome)4,6,7 . Conventional, continuous stimulation protocols, however, can cause discomfort and pain, particularly when treating symptoms that can be intermittent (for example, sudden urinary urgency)8 ...
January 2, 2019: Nature
Nicholas J Michelson, James R Eles, Alberto L Vazquez, Kip A Ludwig, Takashi D Y Kozai
Electrical stimulation of the brain has become a mainstay of fundamental neuroscience research and an increasingly prevalent clinical therapy. Despite decades of use in basic neuroscience research and the growing prevalence of neuromodulation therapies, gaps in knowledge regarding activation or inactivation of neural elements over time have limited its ability to adequately interpret evoked downstream responses or fine-tune stimulation parameters to focus on desired responses. In this work, in vivo two-photon microscopy was used to image neuronal calcium activity in layer 2/3 neurons of somatosensory cortex (S1) in male C57BL/6J-Tg(Thy1-GCaMP6s)GP4...
December 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Dejan Rozgic, Vahagn Hokhikyan, Wenlong Jiang, Ippei Akita, Sina Basir-Kazeruni, Hariprasad Chandrakumar, Dejan Markovic
Neuromodulation (NM) is the alteration of nervous tissue function through targeted delivery of a stimulus, such as electrical stimulation, into the affected neurological sites in the body. We present a "holy- grail" bi-directional NM interface that features 100mVpp linear input range and ability to sense data concurrent with stimulation (without blanking). The system includes a flexible 8-driver-to-64-contact custom waveform stimulator able to deliver up to 5.1mA per driver and a 64-contact sensing unit with online blind artifact rejection unit...
December 21, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Daniela Floridia, Francesco Cerra, Giuseppe Guzzo, Silvia Marino, Nunzio Muscarà, Francesco Corallo, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Chillura, Antonino Naro
Purpose: Brachial plexopathy can sometimes cause severe chronic pain. There are many possible treatments for such neuropathic pain, including neuromodulation. However, rigorous scientific evidence on the usefulness of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is still scarce. Here, we report the use of high-frequency (10 kHz) SCS (HFSCS) in a patient with brachial plexus injury (root avulsion). Objective: To assess the efficacy of HFSCS in root avulsion and to investigate the putative neurophysiological mechanisms of HFSCS...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Ali Izadi, Katelynn Ondek, Amber Schedlbauer, Inna Keselman, Kiarash Shahlaie, Gene Gurkoff
Focal epilepsies represent approximately half of all diagnoses, and more than one-third of these patients are refractory to pharmacologic treatment. Although resection can result in seizure freedom, many patients do not meet surgical criteria, as seizures may be multifocal in origin or have a focus in an eloquent region of the brain. For these individuals, several U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved electrical stimulation paradigms serve as alternative options, including vagus nerve stimulation, responsive neurostimulation, and stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus...
December 2018: Epilepsia open
Bertram Richter, Jeff Bergman, James Pierre, Nestor D Tomycz
Loin Pain Hematuria Syndrome (LPHS) is a rare condition characterized by cryptogenic debilitating flank pain and microscopic or macroscopic hematuria. The pathophysiology of LPHS remains poorly understood and diagnosis is made largely by exclusion of alternate pathology. Management strategies can vary widely and include chronic opioid medication and a variety of invasive procedures including regional nerve blocks, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, local capsaicin infusion, and surgical renal denervation...
December 16, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Abbey B Holt, Eszter Kormann, Alessandro Gulberti, Monika Pötter-Nerger, Colin G McNamara, Hayriye Cagnan, Magdalena K Baaske, Simon Little, Johannes A Köppen, Carsten Buhmann, Manfred Westphal, Christian Gerloff, Andreas K Engel, Peter Brown, Wolfgang Hamel, Christian K E Moll, Andrew Sharott
Synchronized oscillations within and between brain areas facilitate normal processing, but are often amplified in disease. A prominent example is the abnormally sustained beta-frequency (∼20Hz) oscillations recorded from the cortex and subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Computational modelling suggests that the amplitude of such oscillations could be modulated by applying stimulation at a specific phase. Such a strategy would allow selective targeting of the oscillation, with relatively little effect on other activity parameters...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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