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Soap and infection

Azmeraw Asires, Moges Wubie, Alemayehu Reta
Introduction: One of the top ten major public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia is the intestinal parasitic infection. Most of the time, intestinal parasitic infections do not show clinical signs and symptoms and also have a number of potential carriers, such as food handlers, which makes it too difficult to eradicate and control. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and associated factors of intestinal parasitic infection among food handlers at prison, East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia, 2017...
2019: Advances in Medicine
Y O Adesiji, F B Omolade, I A Aderibigbe, O Ogungbe, O A Adefioye, S A Adedokun, M A Adekanle, R Ojedele
Tinea capitis is a fungi infection of the scalp that disproportionately affects children in rural and underserved communities in Nigeria. A case-control study was conducted to identify the causative agents and factors that predispose school pupils to tinea capitis in two selected government-owned public primary schools in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. A total of 230 participants were included in the study: 115 cases and 115 controls. Head scrapings were collected from pupils with suspected T. capitis lesions, viewed under Potassium Hydroxide smear microscopy and cultured in Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar (SDA) for characteristic fungal elements...
January 27, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Matthew E Verbyla, Ana K Pitol, Tala Navab-Daneshmand, Sara J Marks, Timothy R Julian
Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Indicator 6.2.1 requires household handwashing facilities to have soap and water, but there are no guidelines for handwashing water quality. In contrast, drinking water quality guidelines are defined: water must be "free from contamination" to be defined as "safely-managed" (SDG Indicator 6.1.1). . We modeled the hypothesized mechanism of infection due to contaminated handwashing water to inform risk-based guidelines for microbial quality of handwashing water...
January 28, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Aloko Sinmisola, Oluwasesan M Bello
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ackee plant (Blighia sapida K. D. Koenig) (Sapindaceae) is used in Sub-Saharan African where it has its origin and in different parts of the world (The Caribbean, North and South America, Europe) traditionally to manage numerous ailments like backache, constipation, cancer, fever in young children, gonorrhea, dysentery, psychosis, hernia, stomach ache, malaria, rheumatism, typhoid and several others. It is used for aesthetic purposes, in cosmetics, food, medicine, as a source of wood and its fruit aril is the main constituent of the Jamaican National Dish...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
David P Blake
BACKGROUND: Infection control is a critical aspect in the continuum of surgical care. Much of what is outlined in the literature pertains to hospital-based practice, with only recent attention paid to the more austere environments, particularly those faced during humanitarian or combat operations. OBJECTIVE: This manuscript provides a brief historical review of the development of infection control practices and further identifies and outlines several aspects necessary to successful program applications in austere environments...
January 24, 2019: Surgical Infections
Elkana K Kurgat, Jonathan D Sexton, Fernanda Garavito, Adriana Reynolds, R David Contreras, Charles P Gerba, Rachel A Leslie, Sarah L Edmonds-Wilson, Kelly A Reynolds
Viral illnesses have a significant direct and indirect impact on the workplace that burdens employers with increased healthcare costs, low productivity, and absenteeism. Workers' direct contact with each other and contaminated surfaces contributes to the spread of viruses at work. This study quantifies the impact of an office wellness intervention (OWI) to reduce viral load in the workplace. The OWI includes the use of a spray disinfectant on high-touch surfaces and providing workers with alcohol-based hand sanitizer gel and hand sanitizing wipes along with user instructions...
January 14, 2019: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Marcia Maria Baraldi, Juliana Rizzo Gnatta, Maria Clara Padoveze
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial soaps containing chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) are indicated for hand hygiene (HH) in specific situations. This study aimed to identify whether the continuous use of CHG for HH affects the reduction of healthcare-associated infections (HAI), the selection of microorganisms resistant to CHG, or hands skin damage. METHODS: Systematic review was performed using the protocol of the Joanna Briggs Institute, including clinical trials and observational comparative studies...
January 11, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Tetsuya Kawakita, Sara N Iqbal, Helain J Landy, Jim C Huang, Melissa Fries
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of a resident-driven quality initiative with cesarean delivery surgical site infections. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental, preintervention and postintervention study of women undergoing cesarean delivery at 23 weeks of gestation or greater between January 2015 and June 2018 at a single tertiary care center. We implemented a resident-driven, evidence-based surgical bundle, excluding women who underwent emergency cesarean or had chorioamnionitis...
January 8, 2019: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Susana Vaz Nery, Rebecca J Traub, James S McCarthy, Naomi E Clarke, Salvador Amaral, Stacey Llewellyn, Edmund Weking, Alice Richardson, Suzy J Campbell, Darren J Gray, Andrew J Vallely, Gail M Williams, Ross M Andrews, Archie C A Clements
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions have been proposed as an important complement to deworming programs for sustainable control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. We aimed to determine whether a community-based WASH program had additional benefits in reducing STH infections compared with community deworming alone. We conducted the WASH for WORMS cluster-randomized controlled trial in 18 rural communities in Timor-Leste. Intervention communities received a WASH intervention that provided access to an improved water source, promoted improved household sanitation, and encouraged handwashing with soap...
January 7, 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Nataliya Hilt, Marlies E J L Hulscher, Laura Antonise-Kamp, Alfons OldeLoohuis, Andreas Voss
BACKGROUND: Good infection prevention is an important aspect of quality of medical care. The aim was to evaluate infection prevention and control (IPC) performance among Dutch general practitioners (GPs). METHODS: Based on the current national IPC guidelines for GPs, a self-administered anonymous online questionnaire was developed and sent to GPs in the Nijmegen region of the Netherlands. Thirty-two questions were constructed to survey characteristics of GPs' offices and assess current performance of IPC measures...
January 5, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Muhammad F Tahir, Muhammad A Abbas, Tamkeen Ghafoor, Saima Dil, Muhammad A Shahid, Mir M H Bullo, Qurat Ul Ain, Muazam A Ranjha, Mumtaz A Khan, Muhammad T Naseem
BACKGROUND: Avian influenza H9 is endemic in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and is a serious occupational health hazard to industry workers. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza H9 infection in people working with poultry in Rawalpindi, Pakistan and assess the measures they took to protect themselves from infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016 to May 2017 of 419 people working with poultry in Rawalpindi Division, including farm workers, vaccinators, field veterinarians, butchers and staff working in diagnostic laboratories...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
N M Biermann, J T McClure, J Sanchez, M Saab, A J Doyle
BACKGROUND: Currently, the World Health Organization recommends the use of alcohol-based hand rubs (ABR) for surgical hand preparation in human surgery. When disinfecting soaps are used, a rubbing technique causes less skin irritation than brush scrubbing. Based on a recent survey, most equine surgeons still utilise disinfecting soap. The efficacy of scrubbing versus rubbing and the use of sole ABR compared to chlorhexidine (CHx)- based products has not been evaluated in the equine surgical setting...
December 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
R Mutters, S L Warnes
BACKGROUND: Widespread antibiotic resistance has led to fears that we are entering a post-antibiotic era and the relatively simple premise of hand washing to reduce transfer of bacteria and viruses has never been more important. Much of the emphasis has been on hand-washing technique, type of soap, and maintaining compliance but effective drying of the hands is just as important. AIM: To compare the efficacy of drying washed hands with a jet air dryer or paper towels to remove transient bacterial contamination and to determine the effect on residential flora...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Steven Pong, Pamela Holliday, Geoff Fernie
BACKGROUND: Improving hand hygiene compliance among health care professionals is the most effective way to reduce health care-acquired infections. Electronic systems developed to increase hand hygiene performance show promise but might not maintain staff participation over time. In this study, we investigated an intermittent deployment strategy to overcome potentially declining participation levels. METHODS: An electronic monitoring system was deployed 3 times at 6-month intervals on a musculoskeletal rehabilitation nursing unit in Toronto...
November 27, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Rana Abdrabalnabi, Alla Taher, Shantymole Mathew, Kamal Abdul Rahman
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) caused multiple outbreaks. Such outbreaks increase economic and infection control burdens. We studied the infection control influence of MERS-CoV using a hospital-based analysis. METHODS: Our hospital had 17 positive and 82 negative cases of MERS-CoV between April 1, 2013, and June 3, 2013. The study evaluated the impact of these cases on the use of gloves, surgical masks, N95 respirators, alcohol-based hand sanitizer, and soap, as well as hand hygiene compliance rates...
November 27, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Akila Subramaniam, Ken B Waites, Victoria C Jauk, Joseph R Biggio, Amelia L M Sutton, Jeff M Szychowski, William W Andrews, Alan T N Tita
OBJECTIVE:  To explore whether the effect of azithromycin (AZI) on postcesarean infections varied by the presence/absence of genital mycoplasmataceae placental colonization. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  This was a single-center substudy of multicenter double-blind C/SOAP (Cesarean Section Optimal Antibiotic Prophylaxis) trial of women randomized to AZI or placebo (+cefazolin) antibiotic prophylaxis at cesarean. Chorioamnion/placenta specimens were tested for genital mycoplasmataceae colonization by polymerase chain reaction...
November 30, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Nicole Weber, Andrea L Martinsen, Amidou Sani, Elom Kokou Eric Assigbley, Chedly Azzouz, Arabella Hayter, Komlan Ayite, Amivi Afefa Bibiane Baba, Kokou Mawulé Davi, Rick Gelting
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services in healthcare facilities are essential to ensure quality health care and to facilitate infection, prevention, and control practices. They are critical to responding to outbreaks and preventing healthcare-associated infections and, therefore, critical to global health security. Many healthcare facilities in low- and middle-income settings have limited WASH services. One tool to address this issue is the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Water and Sanitation for Health Facility Improvement Tool, or "WASH FIT...
2018: Health Security
Yetunde Ataiyero, Judith Dyson, Moira Graham
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) is the primary measure in the prevention of health care-associated infections; however, from published studies, compliance of health care workers (HCWs) to HH guidelines is low. There is currently no review on HH compliance rates in developing countries, specifically sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), or the barriers to compliance. We therefore, through a narrative review, sought to identify the compliance with and the barriers to HH in SSA. METHODS: From 3 databases, we performed a search of peer-reviewed studies from SSA, conducted among HCWs, published in the English language between 2005 and 2017...
November 20, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
J Ditai, M Mudoola, M Gladstone, J Abeso, J Dusabe-Richards, M Adengo, P Olupot-Olupot, E D Carrol, J Storr, A Medina-Lara, B Faragher, A D Weeks
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis causes 0.5 million deaths annually, mostly in low resource settings. Babies born in African rural homes without running water or toilet facilities are especially vulnerable. Alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) may be used by mothers and carers as an alternative to hand washing with soap to prevent neonatal infection. However, no definite study has established the preferred formulation of hand rub for the mothers. This study aimed to assess the effects of addition of bitterants and perfume towards the acceptability of the alcohol-based hand rubs by the mothers in their homes after childbirth...
November 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Nicholas Kadar
Ignaz Semmelweis was a Hungarian obstetrician who discovered the cause of puerperal or childbed fever (CBF) in 1847 when he was a 29 year old Chief Resident ('first assistant') in the first clinic of the lying-in division of the Vienna General Hospital. Childbed fever was then the leading cause of maternal mortality, and so ravaged lying-in hospitals that they often had to be closed. The maternal mortality rate (MMR) from CBF at the first clinic where Semmelweis worked, and where only medical students were taught, was three times greater than at the second clinic, where only midwives were taught, and Semmelweis was determined to find out why...
November 13, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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