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Frederic Denis, Gérard Milleret, Thomas Wallenhorst, Maud Carpentier, Nathalie Rude, Benoit Trojak
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status of a sample of patients with schizophrenia (PWS) in Côte d'Or region (France) and to determine the factors associated with dental status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. PWS were selected using a random stratified method. Dental status was investigated using the Decayed, Missing, or Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, based on 32 teeth. The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), the Xerostomia Index (XI) and the Global Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) for Oral Health-related Quality of Life (OHrQoL) were recorded...
March 7, 2019: La Presse Médicale
Arieh Riskin, Peter Bamberger, Amir Erez, Kinneret Riskin-Guez, Yarden Riskin, Rina Sela, Trevor Foulk, Binyamin Cooper, Amitai Ziv, Liat Pessach-Gelblum, Ellen Bamberger
: media-1vid110.1542/5995525002001PEDS-VA_2018-2043 Video Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Exposure to negative social interactions (such as rudeness) has robust adverse implications on medical team performance. However, little is known regarding the effects of positive social interactions. We hypothesized that expressions of gratitude, a prototype of positive social interaction, would enhance medical teams' effectiveness. Our objective was to study the performance of NICU teams after exposure to expressions of gratitude from alternative sources...
March 7, 2019: Pediatrics
Shai Davidai, Sebastian Deri
People's tendency to rate themselves as above average is often taken as evidence of undue self-regard. Yet, everyday experience is occasioned with feelings of inadequacy and insecurity. How can these 2 experiences be reconciled? Across 12 studies (N = 2,474; including 4 preregistered studies) we argue that although people do indeed believe that they are above average they also hold themselves to standards of comparison that are well above average. Across a host of domains, we find that people's typical standards of comparison are significantly above the level of the "average" person (Studies 1A, 1B, 2A, and 3)...
March 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Megan M Griffin, Marisa H Fisher, Laurel A Lane, Lindsay Morin
Despite the high incidence of bullying among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), little research has been conducted with people with IDD as participants reporting their own perceptions and experiences of bullying. To address this shortcoming, we interviewed 18 adults with IDD regarding these issues. Four major themes emerged from our qualitative analysis of the transcribed interviews: (a) bullying is hurtful, (b) why people bully, (c) bullying takes many forms, and (d) bullying can happen anywhere...
February 2019: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Ritabelle Fernandes, Chuan C Chinn, Dongmei Li, Timothy Halliday, Timothy Frankland, Rebecca Rude Ozaki
The Hawai'i Patient Reward And Incentives to Support Empowerment (HI-PRAISE) project, part of the Medicaid Incentives for Prevention of Chronic Diseases program of the Affordable Care Act, examined the impact of financial incentives on Medicaid beneficiaries with diabetes. It included an observational pre-post study which was conducted at nine Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) between 2013 to 2015. The observational study enrolled 2,003 participants. Participants could earn up to $320/year in financial incentives...
January 2019: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Dirk De Clercq, Inam Ul Haq, Muhammad Umer Azeem, Haq Nawaz Ahmad
This article investigates the mediating role of job dissatisfaction in the relationship between employees' perceptions of workplace incivility and their helping behavior, as well as the buffering role of political skill in this process. Three-wave, time-lagged data collected from employees and their supervisors revealed that employees' exposure to workplace incivility diminished their helping behavior through their sense of job dissatisfaction. This mediating role of job dissatisfaction was less salient, however, to the extent that employees were equipped with political skill...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Psychology
Valentina Sommovigo, Ilaria Setti, Piergiorgio Argentero, Deirdre O'Shea
BACKGROUND: Working in direct contact with the public may involve psycho-social hazards for employees who are frequently exposed to rude or verbally aggressive customers. Negative encounters may undermine employees' well-being and job performance, impairing the quality of service provided with tangible costs for organizations. OBJECTIVE: The paper provides a systematic review of research on customer incivility and verbal aggression in service settings using the following framework 1) antecedents of customer misbehavior as reflected in worker perceptions, customer reasons and environmental factors; 2) maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies used by service providers in response to customer incivility and verbal aggression; 3) effects of customer incivility and verbal aggression on service providers' well-being and work-related outcomes; and 4) practical implications for the management...
January 18, 2019: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Miquel Rudé, Carlos Abellán, Albert Capdevila, David Domenech, Morgan W Mitchell, Waldimar Amaya, Valerio Pruneri
We report the interferometric photodetection of a phase-diffusion quantum entropy source in a silicon photonics chip. The device uses efficient and robust single-laser accelerated phase diffusion methods, and implements the unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer with optimized splitting ratio and photodetection, in a 0.5 mm×1 mm footprint. We demonstrate Gbps raw entropy-generation rates in a technology compatible with conventional CMOS fabrication techniques.
November 26, 2018: Optics Express
Donald H Kluemper, Shannon G Taylor, W Matthew Bowler, Mark N Bing, Jonathon R B Halbesleben
Drawing from theories of attribution and perception, we posit that employees who are victims of rudeness are themselves (inappropriately) evaluated by leaders as being interpersonally deviant. We further theorize that employees who are themselves rude to others at work are evaluated negatively, but not when they have high-quality relationships with leaders or are seen as high performers. We tested our predictions across 4 studies. Our first study included 372 leader-follower pairs. Our second study extended to dyadic interactions among employees by using an employee roster method, resulting in paired data from 149 employees (2,184 dyads) across 5 restaurant locations...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Amy E Caruso Brown, Katherine Frega
An eighteen-year-old with sickle cell disease was admitted to the pediatric hematology service at his local children's hospital for management of an acute pain crisis, one of many such admissions. He had a good relationship with his primary hematologist and primary nurse, but with other health care providers, there was evident friction. Sometimes, he was simply rude, rolling over and pretending to sleep in response to questions about his symptoms. When frustrated or convinced that his pain was not being addressed appropriately, he was prone to yelling and cursing at his nurses...
November 2018: Hastings Center Report
Sara Louise Dahl, Joshua S Woodworth, Christian Johann Lerche, Elisabeth Præstekjær Cramer, Pia Rude Nielsen, Claus Moser, Allan Randrup Thomsen, Niels Borregaard, Jack Bernard Cowland
Lipocalin-2 is a constituent of the neutrophil secondary granules and is expressed de novo by macrophages and epithelium in response to inflammation. Lipocalin-2 acts in a bacteriostatic fashion by binding iron-loaded siderophores required for bacterial growth. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) produces siderophores that can be bound by lipocalin-2. The impact of lipocalin-2 in the innate immune response toward extracellular bacteria has been established whereas the effect on intracellular bacteria, such as M...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Phutsa Sanguansermsri, Howard F Jenkinson, Jitkamol Thanasak, Kongthawat Chairatvit, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Suthathip Kittisenachai, Duangchewan Puengsurin, Rudee Surarit
Saliva contains many proteins that have an important role in biological process of the oral cavity and is closely associated with many diseases. Although the dog is a common companion animal, the composition of salivary proteome and its relationship with that of human are unclear. In this study, shotgun proteomics was used to compare the salivary proteomes of 7 Thai village dogs and 7 human subjects. Salivary proteomes revealed 2,532 differentially expressed proteins in dogs and humans, representing various functions including cellular component organization or biogenesis, cellular process, localization, biological regulation, response to stimulus, developmental process, multicellular organismal process, metabolic process, immune system process, apoptosis and biological adhesion...
2018: PloS One
Chanda Mwamba, Anjali Sharma, Njekwa Mukamba, Laura Beres, Elvin Geng, Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe, Stephanie M Topp
Introduction: Despite access to free antiretroviral therapy (ART), many HIV-positive Zambians disengage from HIV care. We sought to understand how Zambian health system 'hardware' (tangible components) and 'software' (work practices and behaviour) influenced decisions to disengage from care among 'lost-to-follow-up' patients traced by a larger study on their current health status. Methods: We purposively selected 12 facilities, from 4 provinces. Indepth interviews were conducted with 69 patients across four categories: engaged in HIV care, disengaged from care, transferred to another facility and next of kin if deceased...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Katie Maras, Imogen Marshall, Chloe Sands
One-hundred-and-sixty jury-eligible participants read a vignette describing a male who was brought to the attention of police for suspicious and aggressive behaviours and displayed atypical behaviours in court. Half of participants were informed that he had autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and were given background information about ASD; the other half received no diagnostic label or information. The provision of a label and information led to higher ratings of the defendant's honesty and likeability, reduced blameworthiness, and resulted in fewer guilty verdicts, and more lenient sentencing...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Annamaria Bagnasco, Giuseppe Aleo, Fiona Timmins, Gianluca Catania, Milko Zanini, Loredana Sasso
In the last three decades, the notion of incivility has been receiving increasing attention in the published literature (Viotti et al 2018). Arising from "subtle forms of mistreatment", incivility can manifest itself in rudeness and maltreatment of co-workers (Viotti et al 2018:597). Civility on the other hand "is characterized by an authentic respect for others when expressing disagreement, disparity, or controversy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 19, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Denis Frederic, Rat Corinne, Reynaud Matthieu, Siu-Paredes Francesca, Tubert-Jeannin Stephanie, Rude Nathalie
Background: The aim of this study was to present the different stages of development of the Schizophrenia Oral Health Profile (SOHP) questionnaire, aimed at assessing oral disorders and their impacts on functioning and psychosocial wellbeing for patients with schizophrenia (PWS) and to give the results of a feasibility study conducted in France. Materials and methods: The first step of this qualitative study was semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 PWS and 6 health professionals (HP)...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Mouna Sdiri, Xiangmin Li, William W Du, Safia El-Bok, Yi-Zhen Xie, Mossadok Ben-Attia, Burton B Yang
The extensive applications of Cynomorium species and their rich bioactive secondary metabolites have inspired many pharmacological investigations. Previous research has been conducted to examine the biological activities and numerous interesting pharmaceutical activities have been reported. However, the antitumor activities of these species are unclear. To understand the potential anticancer activity, we screened Cynomorium coccineum and Cynomorium songaricum using three different extracts of each species. In this study, the selected extracts were evaluated for their ability to decrease survival rates of five different cancer cell lines...
September 26, 2018: Cancers
Chancy S Chimatiro, Precious Hajison, Effie Chipeta, Adamson S Muula
BACKGROUND: Exploring barriers contributing to low utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC) during the first trimester of pregnancy is of national programmatic importance. We conducted an exploratory study in 2013 at Bilira Health Centre in Ntcheu district-Malawi with an aim of understanding barriers that prevent pregnant women from attending antenatal clinics in the first trimester of pregnancy. METHOD: This was cross sectional exploratory study using qualitative approach...
September 21, 2018: Reproductive Health
Nishi Suryavanshi, Vidya Mave, Abhay Kadam, Savita Kanade, Srilatha Sivalenka, V Sampath Kumar, Pauline Harvey, Radhayshyam Gupta, Asha Hegde, Nikhil Gupte, Amita Gupta, Robert C Bollinger, Anita Shankar
BACKGROUND: The Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) program in India is one of the largest in the world. It uses outreach workers (ORWs) to facilitate patient uptake of services, however, the challenges faced by the ORWs, and their views about the effectiveness of this program are unknown. METHODS: The COMmunity-Home Based INDia (COMBIND) Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV study evaluated an integrated mobile health and behavioral intervention to enhance the capacity of ORWs in India...
2018: PloS One
Jermaine Ravalier, Rheanna Morton, Lauren Russell, Antonio Rei Fidalgo
The UK domiciliary care workers play a vital role in maintaining and improving the lives of service users who have a variety of needs. Around 60% of these employees work under zero-hours contracts but, while it is known that conditions such as temporary and shift working can influence employee health and performance, zero-hours have not been widely investigated. This project sought to first investigate the stress associated with working as a domiciliary care worker, as well as comparing the experiences of employees contracted to zero-hours with those contracted to at least 16 hr per week...
September 2, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
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