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Respiratory pause

Jose M González de Cózar, Mike Gerards, Eveliina Teeri, Jack George, Eric Dufour, Howard T Jacobs, Priit Jõers
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication uses a simple core machinery similar to those of bacterial viruses and plasmids, but its components are challenging to unravel. Here we found that, as in mammals, the single Drosophila gene for RNase H1 ( rnh1 ) has alternative translational start sites, resulting in two polypeptides, targeted to either mitochondria or the nucleus. RNAi-mediated rnh1 knockdown did not influence growth or viability of S2 cells, but compromised mtDNA integrity and copy number. rnh1 knockdown in intact flies also produced a phenotype of impaired mitochondrial function, characterized by respiratory chain deficiency, locomotor dysfunction and decreased lifespan...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Attila Frigy, Irma Varga, Zoltán Fogarasi, Boglárka Belényi, Ildikó Kocsis
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of sleep apnea on ECG and blood pressure monitoring parameters in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS: 51 hospitalized patients with AHF (13 women, 38 men, mean age 60.8 years) underwent 24-hour combined monitoring of ECG and blood pressure and sleep apnea testing before discharge. Heart rhythm (mean heart rate, arrhythmias, pauses, QT-interval, heart rate variability) and blood pressure (mean systolic and diastolic values, variability, Circadian variation) parameters were obtained for the whole day and for nighttime (22:00-06:00)...
December 11, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Thomas W Bastian, William C von Hohenberg, Michael K Georgieff, Lorene M Lanier
During development, neurons require highly integrated metabolic machinery to meet the large energy demands of growth, differentiation, and synaptic activity within their complex cellular architecture. Dendrites/axons require anterograde trafficking of mitochondria for local ATP synthesis to support these processes. Acute energy depletion impairs mitochondrial dynamics, but how chronic energy insufficiency affects mitochondrial trafficking and quality control during neuronal development is unknown. Since iron deficiency (ID) impairs mitochondrial respiration/ATP production, we treated mixed-sex embryonic mouse hippocampal neuron cultures with the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) to model chronic energetic insufficiency and its effects on mitochondrial dynamics during neuronal development...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
W Joseph Evans, Brett L Hurst, Christopher J Peterson, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Craig W Day, Donald F Smee, E Bart Tarbet
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a non-polio enterovirus that affects the respiratory system and can cause serious complications, especially in children and older people with weakened immune systems. As an emerging virus, there are no current antiviral therapies or vaccines available. Our goal was to develop a mouse model of human EV-D68 infection that mimicked the disease observed in humans and could be used for evaluation of experimental therapeutics. This is the first report of a respiratory disease model for EV-D68 infection in mice...
December 3, 2018: Antiviral Research
Massimo Ferluga, Umberto Lucangelo, Lluis Blanch
Dead space is the portion of each tidal volume that does not take part in gas exchange and represents a good global index of the efficiency of the lung function. Dead space is not routinely measured in critical care practice, because the difficulties in in interpreting capnograms and the different methods of calculations. Different dead space indices can provide useful information in acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients, where changes in microvasculature are the main determinants for the increase in dead space and consequently a worsening of the outcome...
October 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Jihen Ben Amar, Amani Ben Mansour, Haifa Zaibi, Boutheina Ben Safta, Besma Dhahri, Hichem Aouina
BACKGROUND: Smoking is an established risk factor of several respiratory and extra respiratory diseases. However, the effect of smoking on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is not well characterized. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of smoking on the severity of OSAS. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study, which included patients with an obstructive sleep apnea syndrome diagnosed in the pulmonology department of Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis, during the period from January 2008 to December 2014...
August 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
Christophe J Dubois, Laura Cardoit, Veronika Schwarz, Marika Markkanen, Matti S Airaksinen, Pavel Uvarov, John Simmers, Muriel Thoby-Brisson
In central respiratory circuitry, synaptic excitation is responsible for synchronizing neuronal activity in the different respiratory rhythm phases, whereas chloride-mediated inhibition is important for shaping the respiratory pattern itself. The potassium chloride cotransporter KCC2, which serves to maintain low intraneuronal Cl- concentration and thus render chloride-mediated synaptic signaling inhibitory, exists in two isoforms, KCC2a and KCC2b. KCC2 is essential for functional breathing motor control at birth, but the specific contribution of the KCC2a isoform remains unknown...
September 2018: ENeuro
N Manojkumar, B Srimuruganandam, S M Shiva Nagendra
Particulate matter (PM) is crucial among six criteria air pollutants, and it is frequently associated with human morbidity and mortality. According to the aerodynamic diameter, PM is classified as coarse (PM10 ) and fine (PM2.5 ). PM with these smaller sizes can easily enter and get deposited in the human airways. This deposited PM fraction commences the development of respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and even cancer. Thus, the quantification of PM deposition and its clearance in the human airway are essential for evaluating health risks...
October 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yevgeniy Vinogradskiy, Karyn A Goodman, Tracey Schefter, Moyed Miften, Bernard L Jones
PURPOSE: Motion often hinders the safe delivery of ablative doses of radiation in the treatment of pancreatic tumors. Real-time tumor tracking methods are an emerging technique to increase the accuracy of delivery. In this study we report on a large, retrospective cohort of pancreatic patients treated with real-time, fiducial-based, kV image guidance of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT). The purpose of our study was to determine the impact of real-time tracking on treatment accuracy, tumor dose, and clinical workflow...
August 23, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Chin-Man Wang, Wann-Yun Shieh, Chan-Shien Ho, Yu-Wei Hu, Yih-Ru Wu
Introduction: The coordination of swallowing and respiration is important for safety swallowing without aspiration. This coordination was affected in Parkinson disease (PD). A noninvasive assessment tool was used to investigate the effect of an easy-to-perform and device-free home-based orolingual exercise (OLE) program on swallowing and respiration coordination in patients with early-stage PD. Materials and Methods: This study had a quasi-experimental before-and-after exercise program design. Twenty six patients with early-stage PD who were aged 62...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Caterina Di Bella, Luca Lacitignola, Salvatore Grasso, Paola Centonze, Antonella Greco, Rossella Ostuni, Antonio Crovace, Francesco Staffieri
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) followed by 5 cmH2 O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in dogs undergoing laparoscopy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical study. ANIMALS: A group of 20 dogs undergoing laparoscopic ovariectomy. METHODS: Dogs were sedated with acepromazine and methadone intramuscularly; anesthesia was induced with propofol intravenously and maintained with inhaled isoflurane...
September 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Hideki Minowa, Kumiko Takagi, Ikuyo Arai, Hajime Yasuhara, Reiko Ebisu, Ayako Ohgitani
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the prognosis of infants with neonatal respiratory inhibition syndrome (NRIS). METHODS: Infants with a gestational age of at least 36 weeks and a birth weight of at least 2000 g who were born at Nara Prefecture General Medical Center, in Nara, Japan, between March 2013 and June 2016 were screened for NRIS using our established method. NRIS was defined as severe hypoxemia caused by respiratory inhibition immediately after crying (RIAC) or gastroesophageal reflux (RIGER) or as a respiratory pause during feeding (feeding hypoxemia), accompanied clinically by central cyanosis and a decrease in SpO2 to less than 70%...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Johirul Islam, Kamaruz Zaman, Srijita Chakrabarti, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay
In the recent years, growing concern about the potential toxicity of synthetic repellents has led to the development of environmentally safe non-toxic insect control methods. Present investigation explores the toxicological impacts of ethyl anthranilate-loaded mosquito repellent patch (EAMRP) on respiratory system following acute and sub-chronic inhalation exposure in Wistar rats. Lungs parameters such as enhanced pause, tidal volume, respiration rate, inspiration time, and expiration time were determined using whole body plethysmograph...
August 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Jerónimo Campos, Glenda Ernst, Magali Blanco, Alejandra Cassano, Iván Tello-Santa-Cruz, Cesar Cáceres-Monié, Alexys Muyran, Romina Cansonieri, Alejandro Salvado, Eduardo Borsini
Introduction: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has been associated with an elevated risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the selected treatment for moderate to severe OSA and could improve arrhythmias in the long term. However, the acute effect of CPAP has not been studied in detail. Methods: We conducted a prospective study with 25 patients with moderate to severe OSA diagnosed by home respiratory polygraphy (RP) and arrhythmia and/or pauses in 24-hour Holter ECG...
January 2018: Sleep Science
Steffen Vogelgesang, Marcus Niebert, Anne M Bischoff, Swen Hülsmann, Till Manzke
Mutations in the transcription factor methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) cause the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). Besides many other neurological problems, RTT patients show irregular breathing with recurrent apneas or breath-holdings. MeCP2-deficient mice, which recapitulate this breathing phenotype, show a dysregulated, persistent expression of G-protein-coupled serotonin receptor 5-ht5b ( Htr5b ) in the brainstem. To investigate whether the persistence of 5-ht5b expression is contributing to the respiratory phenotype, we crossbred MeCP2-deficient mice with 5-ht5b -deficient mice to generate double knockout mice ( Mecp2-/y ; Htr5b -/- )...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Christian Murer, Lars Christian Huber, Thomas Kurowski, Astrid Hirt, Cécile A Robinson, Urs Bürgi, Christian Benden
AIMS OF THE STUDY: Cystic fibrosis is the most common genetic disorder in Caucasians. The combination of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) corrector lumacaftor / potentiator ivacaftor (LUM/IVA) has been shown to increase forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) moderately, but predominantly reduce acute exacerbation rate (AER) in Phe508del homozygous cystic fibrosis patients; however, patients with FEV1 <40% predicted were excluded from studies. We used LUM/IVA on a "compassionate use" basis in cystic fibrosis patients with end-stage pulmonary disease...
2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
Gordan Grahovac, Tatiana Pundy, Tadanori Tomita
OBJECTIVES: Chiari I malformation has been a well-recognized clinical entity; however, its occurrence among infants and toddlers is unusual. Their clinical presentations may be different from other age groups due to their lack of effective verbal communication. The authors analyze their personal series of patients focusing on symptomatology and MRI characteristics. Treatment methods, results, and outcome are analyzed in order to identify appropriate surgical management among infants and toddlers with Chiari I malformation...
June 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Kimberly Latham, Tamera Bird, Joyce Burke
Managing patients with undiagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) can be a challenge in the postoperative phase. OSA is a chronic disease defined by pauses in breathing that are repetitive during sleep that can last for one minute or longer. This can occur more than five times in an hour. As many as 80-90% of patients undergoing elective surgery have undiagnosed sleep apnea and an increased risk of respiratory complications postoperatively. Capnography is a monitoring tool that can detect increases in end-tidal carbon dioxide levels, which is a sign of respiratory decline...
February 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Vera Eva Zamoscik, Stephanie Nicole Lyn Schmidt, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Christos Samsouris, Christina Timm, Christine Kuehner, Peter Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Studies with healthy participants and patients with respiratory diseases suggest a relation between respiration and mood. The aim of the present analyses was to investigate whether emotionally challenged remitted depressed participants show higher respiration pattern variability (RPV) and whether this is related to mood, clinical outcome and increased default mode network connectivity. METHODS: To challenge participants, sad mood was induced with keywords of personal negative life events in individuals with remitted depression [recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD), n = 30] and matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 30) during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
October 2018: Psychological Medicine
Ken D O'Halloran, Fiona B McDonald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Experimental Physiology
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